Most roots occur in the upper 18 inches 46 cm of soil [ ]. Tree-of-heaven typically occurs in clumps, although it may form rows along streams, roads, and fences, and occasionally it grows as widely spaced, single stems. Clumping can result from an even-aged seedling establishment or from clonal expansion through root sprouting [ ]. Open-grown colonies may eventually become dense by sprouting. Davis [ 61 ] observed a half-acre 0. Stands subject to infrequent control measures may develop into even-aged thickets [ 77 , ].
Untreated stands self-thin, so the stand tends to become even-aged over time. After 3 years many of the sprouts had died, so dead stems were more common than live stems [ ]. Sprouts volunteering in closed-canopy understories remain suppressed and few in number. For example, Hunter [ ] reported scattered, single-stemmed trees-of-heaven—rather than thickets—in the understory of a mixed-evergreen forest in northern California. On the Jefferson National Forest, Virginia, tree-of-heaven had a clumped distribution on low-leave shelterwood sites and a random distribution on clearcuts and high-leave shelterwood sites [ 47 ].
There are few clues as to tree-of-heaven's original growth habit in China, where it is native. As valued ornamentals, mature trees-of-heaven in China are often pruned to aesthetically pleasing, single-stemmed forms, with sprouts harvested for firewood and medicinal uses [ , ]. Tree-of-heaven is typically short-lived, with life spans ranging from 30 to 70 years [ 85 , , ].
Cloning from root sprouts can extend ramet life hundreds of years [ ]. Sprouts from the first tree-of-heaven in North America, planted in Philadelphia's Bartram Botanical Garden , still existed at the turn of the 21st century [ 45 ]. Tree-of-heaven has several physiological adaptations that probably aid in its establishment and spread.
It appears to be allelopathic [ 64 , , , , , ]. Chemical extracts from the leaves, bark, roots, and seeds have inhibited germination and growth of other plant species in the laboratory [ , , , ]. Allelopathic chemicals ailanthone and other compounds identified in these sources: Open-grown trees-of-heaven are highly efficient at photosynthesis [ 30 , 33 , 34 , , , ] and store large quantities of photosynthate in stems and roots [ 30 , 33 , 34 , , ]. Foliar nectaries excrete photosynthates during growth and flower initiation [ 31 ]. A study in a Mediterranean region of Spain found that even after 5 years of once- or twice-yearly cuttings, leaves from new tree-of-heaven sprouts showed higher rates of stomatal conductance in spring than leaves of uncut trees-of-heaven.
The authors conjectured that regulating stomatal conductance helps sprouting trees-of-heaven grow quickly [ 54 ]. Tree-of-heaven is drought tolerant [ 87 ]. In Nava-Constan and others' [ 54 ] experiment in Spain, trees-of-heaven showed more positive leaf water potentials than native flowering ashes Fraxinus ornu s. Conflicting information states tree-of-heaven is intolerant [ ] or tolerant [ 18 , 87 ] of flooding.
Further observations and field studies are needed to resolve this conflict. Tree-of-heaven is highly tolerant of most industrial pollutants [ , ], although it is sensitive to ozone pollution [ ]. In a highly polluted area of Armenia, tree-of-heaven showed the least damage and best growth of 8 urban tree species Derojan cited in [ 93 ]. Seasonally, tree-of-heaven's allelopathic toxins are greatest in spring and decline as the growing season progresses [ ].
See Impacts and Control for more information on allelopathy. Tree-of-heaven sprouts from the roots, root crown, and bole [ 93 , , , , , ]. Although reproduction from seed is not rare, sprouting is its most common method of regeneration [ ]. Young trees that are cut to the root crown before bark becomes thick and corky often sprout from both the root crown and roots [ , ]. Bole damage promotes root, root crown, and bole sprouting [ , ]. Death or injury of the main stem usually results in prolific root sprouting [ ]. Top-growth damage is not necessary for root sprouting to occur, however. Even as seedlings, trees-of-heaven produce horizontal roots capable of sprouting [ 45 ].
Except in the rose Rosacea [ 96 , ] and willow Salicaceae review by [ ] families, root sprouting without top damage is uncommon in woody species reviews by [ 65 , ] , but it is a powerful regeneration strategy for species employing it. Roots have more nutrient- and photosynthate-storing capacity than rhizomes, conferring better protection from aboveground disturbances such as fire [ , ] and show a stronger sprouting response after top-kill [ 65 , ]. Tree-of-heaven sprouts are more likely to persist in low-light conditions, such as within a subcanopy, than are seedlings [ 85 ].
With tree-of-heaven's spreading root system, root sprouts may appear as far as 50 to 90 feet m from the parent stem [ , , ]. During drought, tree-of-heaven translocates stem water into roots and begins stem die-back. Die-back may be extensive during extended droughts, but tree-of-heaven typically survives drought by sprouting from the roots when there is sufficient water to support new growth.
Sprouting after frost die-back is common in tree-of-heaven's northern limits [ 93 ]. On the Himalayan foothills of India, trees-of-heaven with root crown girths between 12 and 16 inches 30 and 40 cm showed greatest root sprout production following road construction. Trees in the largest-diameter class did not produce sprouts [ ]. Tree-of-heaven is mostly dioecious. Rarely, either bisexual trees or trees with both bisexual and unisexual flowers are found [ 71 , , , , ].
As with most species with wind-dispersed seed, tree-of-heaven appears to have a relatively uniform genetic system, with most diversity occurring among rather than within populations [ 94 , ]. Because most North American tree-of-heaven populations originated from 3 introductions [ 71 , , , ] see General Distribution , they may be less genetically diverse than native Asian populations.
Populations from the United States were taller, allocated relatively less biomass to roots than stems, and had greater leaf areas than Chinese populations [ 94 ]. Feret [ 93 ] found some tree-of-heaven seed and seedling growth characteristics of provenances from the eastern United States and California appeared random, and they were not correlated nor appeared best adapted to site or geographic location.
He reported significant differences between North American and Chinese tree-of-heaven provenances for seed and seedling characteristics. Contrary to expectations, there was no evidence of inbreeding depression in North American provenances compared to native Chinese provenances [ 93 ]. A variety of nectar- and pollen-feeding insects pollinate tree-of-heaven [ 5 , ].
Although disagreeable to humans, the strong odor of the flowers attracts honey bees, flies, beetles, and other insects [ 5 , ]. A study in suburban Chicago found large bee species were the primary pollinators; the bees visited both male and female trees. Flies, especially those attracted to fetid-smelling flowers, visited female trees-of-heaven often but were probably less efficient pollinators than the bees [ 5 ].
Tree-of-heaven produces many small, light seeds [ 77 , 92 ]. In a mixed-hardwood forest in Connecticut, tree-of-heaven averaged 4. It had greatest average seed production of 10 overstory trees across 2 years; its seed production was 40 times that of the next highest-producing species. For parent trees of 12 inches 30 cm DBH, tree-of-heaven produced means of , seeds in and 2 million seeds in Tree-of-heaven and white ash had the longest seed dispersal distances of the 10 trees, but most tree-of-heaven seeds fell within 20 feet 5 m of the parent trunk.
The authors concluded that tree-of-heaven is "exceptionally fecund even in competitive, closed-canopy forest stands" [ ]. Flower, fruit, and seed production begins early in development. Six-week-old seedlings have flowered in the greenhouse [ 92 ], and 1-year-old seedlings and 2-year-old root sprouts have been observed in the field with fruit [ , , ]. Trees in California produce viable seed by 10 years of age [ ]. Heaviest seed production is from 12 to 20 years of age [ ].
In France, which has a climate similar to California, 1. Mature female trees may produce several hundred flower clusters in a year. Illick and Brouse [ ] estimated that a small, inch-diameter 30 cm tree in Pennsylvania produced over a million seeds in 1 year. Most seeds are viable, even those that overwinter on the tree and disperse in spring [ , ]. Repeated top-kill reduces seed production [ ]. The winged schizocarps are easily and widely dispersed by wind [ 53 , 82 , , , , , ].
Entire schizocarp clusters may break off and disperse as a unit. In Ithaca, New York, tree-of-heaven schizocarp clusters often fell and dispersed in clumps in fall, resulting in patches of closely related seedlings. Over the winter, seeds dispersed individually as the fruit clusters disintegrated [ ].
A New Jersey study found large, heavy tree-of-heaven seeds traveled as far as light tree-of-heaven seeds [ ]. In Seoul, South Korea, tree-of-heaven seed traveled a maximum of 7. On Staten Island, New York, tree-of-heaven seedlings volunteered on a restored landfill site planted to native woody species. Distance to the nearest seed-bearing tree-of-heaven was feet 70 m [ ]. In West Virginia, seeds from trees on steep slopes dispersed farther downhill than seeds on gentle or flat sites P ]. Matlack [ ] reported the following dispersal patterns for tree-of-heaven schizocarps collected in Delaware:.
Water [ , , ] and machinery [ ] also disperse tree-of-heaven schizocarp clusters and seeds. A study in Germany found that for cities with rivers, the rivers were a secondary dispersal agent that moved wind-dispersed tree-of-heaven seed that landed in rivers from urban to distant rural areas [ ]. Seeds from trees growing near water were most likely to land in and be transported directly by water; water-borne seeds stayed buoyant about 1. In a pine-oak community in West Virginia, Marsh [ ] observed that tree-of-heaven established near roads and on tree harvest sites; machinery may have helped disperse seeds onto these sites.
Seeds retain dormancy for less than a year, so tree-of-heaven does not build up a persistent seed bank [ 87 , , ]. Tree-of-heaven establishes transient soil seed banks from on- and off-site parent sources [ ]. Dobberpuhl [ 75 ] found viable tree-of-heaven seed in a soil seed bank in Tennessee, although there were no trees-of-heaven in the mixed-oak overstory [ 75 ]. A West Virginia field study showed tree-of-heaven's seed bank averaged In soils from a New York City park, tree-of-heaven establishment in the greenhouse averaged Germination and seedling establishment: Tree-of-heaven does not have exacting germination requirements, although germination may proceed slowly.
Tree-of-heaven embryos are dormant, and stratification improves germination rates [ 19 , , , ]. Seeds dispersed in the field likely overwinter before germinating. A study in Spain found tree-of-heaven schizocarp size was not correlated with rates of either germination or seedling establishment [ 66 ]. Substrate is seemingly not important for successful tree-of-heaven germination. Seed can germinate and establish in highly compacted soil [ ] and in pavement cracks [ ].
The seed is salt tolerant. Studies of several eastern hardwood species found roadside salt did not appreciably affect tree-of-heaven germination; native oak and birch seeds were far more adversely affected by road salt [ 27 ]. Immersion, light intensity, and presence of litter affect tree-of-heaven germination rates. Short immersion in water may enhance tree-of-heaven germination. Tree-of-heaven may germinate in low light, but resulting emergents are unlikely to establish [ 85 ].
Litter has both negative and positive effects on germination. In eastern deciduous forests, oak Quercus spp. Litter may have positive effects on tree-of-heaven germination and establishment by reducing interference from herbaceous species [ 90 ]. Although seed production is prolific, tree-of-heaven seedling establishment is infrequent on many sites [ , , ]. Despite tree-of-heaven's large seed output in a Connecticut site see Seed production [ ], seedling establishment was low.
The authors concluded that tree-of-heaven required canopy gaps to establish in otherwise closed-canopy forests [ ]. Dry climate may limit tree-of-heaven recruitment in the Great Plains and the western United States [ 93 , ]. Even so, tree-of-heaven has successfully expanded its range through seed spread and seedling establishment [ , , , ], and establishment from seed appears more common than generally indicated in the literature [ , ].
In a root excavation study in New York, Knapp and Canham [ ] found initial tree-of-heaven recruitment in gaps in an eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis forest was from off-site seed, not root sprouts. In the Black Rock Forest of New York, tree-of-heaven likely established from seed after a blowdown and subsequent logging and herbicide spraying in the s.
By the early s, an oak-hickory forest had redeveloped; tree-of-heaven was present but not reproducing under the canopy [ 17 ]. Tree-of-heaven also established from seed on harvested oak forests on the Jefferson National Forest, Virginia [ 47 ]. Kostel-Hughes and others [ ] surmised that tree-of-heaven is best adapted to establishment in early succession, when litter layers are lacking or shallow. In the greenhouse, tree-of-heaven seeds showed no significant differences in germination rate when placed on top of the litter, buried shallowly 0.
The authors noted that some oak seedlings lifted up and hence reduced litter as they emerged, and some tree-of-heaven seedlings emerged from those reduced-litter microsites. Based on studies by Facelli and Pickett [ 90 ], they conjectured that a portion of tree-of-heaven's invasive success may be due to its ability to allocate more biomass to shoots than roots when emerging in deep litter. Although less root biomass means less ability to absorb water and nutrients, tree-of-heaven may compensate by allocating more resources to roots later in the growing season [ ].
Two studies show tree-of-heaven germinated more slowly but had greater total emergence than native tree species. In the greenhouse, tree-of-heaven germinated later than native sweetgum, American sycamore, and nonnative princesstree [ , ]. Tree-of-heaven showed no preference for north- vs. In Seoul, South Korea, tree-of-heaven seedlings established south of parent plants due to seed dispersal by prevailing northwest winds. The tree is nonnative there and is considered an urban weed because of its prolific seedling establishment and spread [ 53 ].
The tree-of-heaven embryo is well equipped for rapid growth. Although it lacks an endosperm, it has 2 large cotyledons with stored oils that provide energy for emergence and early growth [ , , , , ]. Whether initial regeneration is accomplished from seed or by cloning, tree-of-heaven usually grows quickly on favorable sites.
It is among the fastest-growing trees in North America [ , , ]. Both the common name tree-of-heaven and the scientific name Ailanthus , sky-tree refer to the species' ability to attain height quickly [ 71 , ]. In the eastern United States, tree-of-heaven's annual growth rate averaged 6 feet 1. Root sprouts in California may exceed 3. Tree-of-heaven sprouts generally grow faster than seedlings, although seedlings often grow 3.
A fact sheet states that tree-of-heaven may reach 80 feet 20 m tall and 6 feet 2 m in diameter in 10 years [ 87 ]. Two years after planting in a New York City common garden, height growth of tree-of-heaven seedlings was at least 3 times that of native sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua and nonnative Norway maple seedlings [ ]. A greenhouse study showed tree-of-heaven seedlings had higher root: Tree-of-heaven saplings may average 3 feet 1 m of height growth per year for at least 4 years [ 1 ]. Relatively rapid growth continued into the pole size class in New York: In a New England survey, trees-of-heaven reached 33 to 49 feet m in height and 3.
In North America, growth is usually fastest for trees-of-heaven in California's mediterranean climate. Trees in the Central Valley have an 8-month growing season, so those trees may be 35 to 63 feet m tall by 12 to 20 years of age [ ]. In Pennsylvania, growth slowed greatly after age 20 to 25, with height increases of 3 inches 7. Once established, tree-of-heaven density increases by root sprouting. One ramet may occupy over 1 acre 0. Sprout growth slows to several centimeters per year if sprouts become shaded [ ]. In West Virginia, Kowarik [ ] reported an average growth rate of 0.
Cattle, deer, and small rodent browsing may slow tree-of-heaven establishment and growth [ ]. Browsing effects may vary with animal density and by site. In a New York oak-hickory woodland, Forgione [ 99 ] found no significant differences in tree-of-heaven seedling establishment on open plots and plots with white-tailed deer exclosures. Tree-of-heaven has been characterized as "the most adaptable and pollution tolerant tree available" for urban plantings [ 74 ]. Highly tolerant of industrial gases, dust, and smoke, it is common on disturbed urban sites, especially alleyways, roadsides, and fence rows [ 71 , , , , ].
It is generally more common in urban, suburban, and rural than wild environments [ 57 , ]. In wildlands, tree-of-heaven occurs on floodplains and other disturbed sites, riparian areas, open woodlands and forests, and rock outcrops [ 41 , , , , , ]. After Hurricane Camille, tree-of-heaven was positively associated with debris avalanche chutes in Virginia [ ]. It was most frequent on roadsides in an oak-hickory forest in West Virginia [ ]:. Tree-of-heaven has invaded rare sugar maple-sweet birch Betula lenta rock outcrop communities in High Mountain Park Preserve, New Jersey [ 76 ]. In the Southwest, it invades canyons, arroyos, and riparian zones, including the banks of the Rio Grande [ 6 , ].
Tree-of-heaven tolerates a wide range of soil moisture conditions [ 82 , ]. In oak-hickory woodland of Sussex County, New Jersey, it grows in permanently swampy, ridgebottom soils of an abandoned Boy Scout camp [ 18 ]. At the other extreme, tree-of-heaven tolerates dry, rocky soils and extended drought, aided by its large, water-storing roots. Even seedlings show drought tolerance, often volunteering in pavement cracks and other dry sites [ , ]. Tree-of-heaven also tolerates a wide range of soil nutrient levels and other soil conditions.
Best growth occurs on nutrient-rich, loamy soils, but tree-of-heaven establishes in nutrient-poor soils [ 93 , , , ]. Tree-of-heaven tolerates all soil textures [ ]. It often establishes on disturbed sites lacking topsoil [ ]. In the Appalachians and the Northeast, the tree-of-heaven alliance occurs on limestone clifftops and on calcareous soils [ , ].
On reclamation sites, trees-of-heaven tolerated acid mine spoils better than calcareous spoils and grew on low-phosphorus soils [ ]. Tree-of-heaven can grow on soils as low as 4. It tolerates compacted soils [ ]. Topography on tree-of-heaven sites may be flat, rolling, or very steep, with tree-of-heaven potentially occurring on all aspects. Tree-of-heaven's spreading root system permits establishment and growth on steep inclines and cliff faces [ 7 ]. In Massachusetts, tree-of-heaven is reported on upland, interior wetland, and coastal areas [ ].
In a slippery elm-white ash woodlot in Ohio, tree-of-heaven presence on forest-roadside edges was similar on north- and south-facing exposures [ 85 ]. In Inwood Hill Park, a mixed-hardwood wildland site in Manhattan, tree-of-heaven was most common on west-facing ridges [ 98 ]:. Tree-of-heaven is most common in temperate climates, in both North America and its native China.
Mean annual precipitation ranges from 0. Tree-of-heaven tolerates drought of several month's duration [ 3 ]. Climate within tree-of-heaven's North American distribution ranges from subtropical and wet in Florida; arid in the Great Plains and western United States; to cold and wet in the Northeast.
It occurs in USDA hardiness zones 4 to 8 [ ]. It tolerates as much as 90 inches 2, mm of mean annual precipitation in the Appalachian Mountains as little as 14 inches mm of annual precipitation and 8 months of drought in the western United States.
Large, water-storing roots confer drought tolerance [ ], although tree-of-heaven may not reach maximum growth on dry sites. On an "extremely dry" site on the George Washington National Forest, Pomp [ ] observed that trees-of-heaven in an oak-pine forest only reached the canopy in riparian areas and on logged sites. Because seedlings are not cold resistant, extreme cold and prolonged snow cover restrict its occurrence to lower slopes in mountainous regions.
Tree-of-heaven may be able to colonize in cold regions that experience several successive years of mild climate [ ]. It is the only species in its genus that tolerates cold climates [ ]. Tree-of-heaven is reported from the following elevations in the western United States:. It grows from 4, to 5, feet 1,, m elevation in China [ ]. Tree-of-heaven often establishes after logging [ ]. It was most common on logged sites in oak-hickory forests on the Jefferson National Forest, especially on skid trails [ 47 ]. In another study in oak-hickory on the Jefferson National Forest, tree-of-heaven was most common on clearcut plots; less common on low-leave shelterwood plots; and least common on high-leave shelterwood plots, respectively [ 46 ].
Tree-of-heaven density was much greater in recently logged mixed-hardwood stands than mature forest stands in south-central Virginia; only yellow-poplar was more abundant on logged sites [ 49 ]. Tree-of-heaven may also establish in early-seral shrubfields [ ] and old fields. In Rock Creek, Washington, DC, tree-of-heaven is a common component in an Allegheny blackberry-multiflora rose Rubus allegheniensis-Rose multiflora shrubland [ ].
In Maryland, it grew with black locust and princesstree on a farm abandoned 14 years previously [ 21 ]. A review of studies conducted in the Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center, New Jersey—which has the largest set of old-field permanent plots established for the longest time in the United States—determined that tree-of-heaven typically established 2 to 4 years after field abandonment [ ].
Tree-of-heaven may also occur in middle old-field succession. It was not reported in initial old-field succession in Pennsylvania, but was found in old fields that were abandoned approximately 20 years before. In year 20, hardwoods were forming a to foot m canopy over the herbs. Tree-of-heaven was common in these young hardwood stands [ ].
Capacity for rapid growth , mycorrhizal associations [ ], and—in eastern hardwood forests with dense white-tailed deer populations—relative unpalatability compared to associated hardwood species [ 99 , ] may confer advantages to tree-of-heaven during early succession.
The authors suggested that tree-of-heaven established more successfully on open sites due to this trend [ ]. Tree-of-heaven is moderately shade tolerant [ 16 , 47 , , ] and may persist into late forest succession, typically at low levels in the subcanopy until a canopy gap allows further invasion or expansion [ 47 , , , ]. In urban oak-hickory woodlots of central Massachusetts, tree-of-heaven was present only on disturbed sites and did not invade intact woodlands [ 25 ].
Gaps created by storms [ , ], hemlock woolly adelgid [ ] or gypsy moth defoliation, windstorms [ ], or possibly fire [ 20 ] may facilitate tree-of-heaven invasion. In Nelson County, Virginia, tree-of-heaven occurred in 2 of 4 avalanche debris chutes surveyed 10 years after Hurricane Camille, but it did not occur in adjacent, undisturbed hardwood forest [ ]. Xi and others [ ] found tree-of-heaven was invasive following hurricanes in mixed oak-sweetgum piedmont forests of Duke Forest, North Carolina.
Once established in a gap, tree-of-heaven may grow into the forest canopy [ ]. It occurs in mature upland hardwood forests of northern New Jersey review by [ 60 ]. However, it is most common on disturbed sites, especially near reservoirs [ 17 ]. On the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, tree-of-heaven was a minor species in gaps within a sugar maple-red maple-yellow-poplar forest. Tree-of-heaven density averaged 4. In Ohio, tree-of-heaven apparently invaded canopy gaps in an old-growth slippery elm-white ash woodlot from adjacent secondary stands.
Its density was similar in secondary and old-growth stands, although density decreased with distance from roads. In a survey, tree-of-heaven had increased in all size classes compared to a survey. Density of trees-of-heaven in the canopy had increased threefold, but subcanopy and smaller trees had the largest increases. Tree-of-heaven does not regenerate from seed under its own canopy [ 17 , 85 , ]. The seedlings are intolerant of deep shade [ 34 , 99 , , , ], and tree-of-heaven does not photosynthesize efficiently in shade [ 33 , 34 ] at any age.
Tree-of-heaven is generally uncommon in closed-canopy, late-successional hardwood forests lacking gaps [ 25 , 34 , ]. However, trees-of-heaven on forest edges may spread into the surrounding understory by root sprouts, which may grow slowly but persist with shade [ , , ]. Without canopy-opening disturbance, under-canopy sprouts remain suppressed and grow slowly [ , , ].
Tree-of-heaven was scarce in a midsuccessional, mixed oak-hickory forest in southern Illinois, with 2. Immediate fire effect on plant: Fire top-kills tree-of-heaven [ , , ]. Because tree-of-heaven has thin bark [ 71 , , , ], live tissues beneath the bark probably scorch easily. Postfire regeneration strategy [ ]: Tree with root suckers , a sprouting root crown , and adventitious buds Geophyte , growing points deep in soil Initial off-site colonizer off site, initial community Secondary colonizer on- or off-site seed sources.
Fire adaptations and plant response to fire: Tree-of-heaven sprouts after top-kill by fire [ , , ]. Anecdotal accounts suggest that tree-of-heaven is "able to sprout vigorously when The fire studies below provide other evidence of tree-of-heaven's ability to survive fire. It is likely—given its large, extended root system [ , , , ] and its ability to root sprout and show increased growth rates under fertilization [ ]—that tree-of-heaven can flourish in postfire environments.
As one of the fastest-growing trees in North America [ , , ], tree-of-heaven may outcompete native woody species for the open spaces and flush of nutrients that often occur after fire. Further studies on the fire ecology of tree-of-heaven are needed. Tree-of-heaven can also establish from seed after fire. Although this was documented in only 1 study as of [ ], the potential for postfire tree-of-heaven seedling establishment seems high. Its seed disperses easily by wind [ 82 , , ], and tree-of-heaven is known to establish from seed in early-successional, disturbed environments other than burns [ 34 , , , ] see Successional Status.
It also sprouted after top-kill following 2 separate automobile-ignited fires at the same location in San Diego County, California. It was the only green vegetation in the burned area in postfire year 1 [ ]. In mixed oak-pine forests of the Cooper State Forest and Wildlife Management Area, Tennessee, tree-of-heaven grew on sites burned under prescription [ 20 ]. Studies on the George Washington National Forest, West Virginia [ , ], and Tar Hollow State Forest, Ohio [ 11 , 39 , ] show that prescribed burning or thinning and burning may increase tree-of-heaven abundance over prefire or pretreatment levels.
One year after late March prescribed fires on the George Washington National Forest, tree-of-heaven increased on 2 of 3 study sites compared to prefire abundance; these increases were not considered significant except on the upper portion of 1 site, where tree-of-heaven increased exponentially. All postfire tree-of-heaven regeneration was from seedling establishment. Elevation ranged from 1, to 2, feet m [ ]. Plots on the 3 study sites Heavener Mountain, Dunkle Knob, and Brushy Knob were distinguished by aspect and elevation above or below 2, feet m [ ]. Fire management objectives were to reduce fuel loads, reduce understory shrubs and trees, and increase wildlife forage in groundlayer vegetation.
Fire conditions were [ ]:. Tree-of-heaven was not present on Brushy Knob sites either before fire or in postfire year 1. In postfire year 1, tree-of-heaven seedlings also established on unburned portions of Heavener Mountain and on burned, southwest aspects of Heavener Mountain and on Dunkle Knob. Seedling establishment in the upper-northeast section of Dunkle Knob was about 4. Since tree-of-heaven seedlings occurred on both burned and unburned areas of Heavener Mountain, Marsh [ ] suggested that tree-of-heaven increases on burned sites were not due to fire alone.
Increases were not correlated with aspect or elevation, so those factors apparently did not affect tree-of-heaven establishment. Tree-of-heaven was the only nonnative tree species on the site. Overall, the prescribed fires did not significantly increase abundance of nonnative invasive shrubs or herbs. Forbs and ferns were more abundant after than before fire on sites where fire behavior was "most severe" [ ]. In a follow-up study on Dunkle Knob, Pomp [ ] found that on most sites, tree-of heaven had returned to prefire levels by postfire year 3.
Tree-of-heaven seedlings were producing root sprouts, suggesting that tree-of-heaven density would soon increase beyond prefire levels. Dunkle Knob is an "extremely dry" site. Tree-of-heaven abundance was positively correlated with either moist areas where fire severity was low, areas with a history of logging, or with an open canopy. Outside of riparian zones, tree-of-heaven abundance in postfire year 3 was not significantly associated with fire severity.
In a mixed-oak forest in Tar Hollow State Forest, thin-and-burn treatments apparently promoted tree-of-heaven compared to thin-only and burn-only treatments, although the results could be due to pretreatment vegetation composition. Plots were thinned in fall and winter to a density of All plots were in white-tailed deer exclosures [ 11 , 39 ]. The following summer, tree-of-heaven was the 4th most common species among 26 woody plants in thin-and-burn treatments [ 11 ]. It did not occur on thin-only or burn-only plots [ 39 ].
By postfire year 3, tree-of-heaven was "widely distributed" on thin-and-burn plots, with mean density of Seedling establishment was the assumed method of postfire establishment due to the scarcity of trees-of-heaven before fire [ ]. Few quantitative measurements of tree-of-heaven litter, aboveground biomass, or leaf area indices were available as of , so the ability of tree-of-heaven to alter fuel loads of native ecosystems is unclear.
Fuel studies are needed on tree-of-heaven. Although tree-of-heaven has large, finely divided leaves [ 71 , , , , ], its leaves may not contribute more to total leaf litter load than the leaves of many associated tree species in deciduous forests. In Connecticut, mean depth of tree-of-heaven litter alone was similar to litter depth averages under most associated tree species in the mixed-deciduous forest about 0.
Oaks contributed most biomass to the litter layer, which was sampled in July and August [ ]. Tree-of-heaven litter may decay more rapidly than litter of many associated deciduous trees. Tree-of-heaven may contribute important amounts of woody debris to fuel loads in invaded areas. It frequently sheds broken branches in all size classes. The brittle branches break easily even when green, and branch die-back from drought or frost is common [ , ].
In riparian areas by the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, tree-of-heaven and other nonnative, invasive woody species were implicated as the main source of heavy fuel loads, with altered hydrologic regimes likely partially responsible for nonnative invasions. The author states "excess woody materials consisting of exotic species and dead and downed fuels of all species are the primary fuels of catastrophic fires" in riparian bosques on the Middle Rio Grande. The community was a Rio Grande cottonwood bosque before nonnative invasions. Contributions to total fuel load were not broken down by species, but saltcedar and Russian-olive Elaeagnus angustifolia apparently contributed more woody fuels than tree-of-heaven [ ].
Flammability of tree-of-heaven was not reported in the literature as of Its growth habit and stand structure suggest that once ignited, tree-of-heaven stands probably burn easily. The large, finely divided leaves provide a surface-to-volume ratio favorable for ignition and burning. Dibble and others [ 69 ] conducted laboratory tests comparing fuel characteristics of nonnative invasive species with those of cooccurring native species. They found no significant difference between tree-of-heaven and quaking aspen in either total heat release or effective heat of combustion of leaves and twigs [ 69 ].
The fire ecology of tree-of-heaven in its native China was not available in English-language literature as of this writing Tree-of-heaven is common in long-settled, densely populated regions of China. Although its pharmacological use is mentioned in early Chinese writings, Hu [ ] reported that Chinese-language references to its historical ecology were lacking as of Tree-of-heaven's ability to sprout from photosynthate-storing roots and establish from off-site, wind-dispersed seed; its extraordinarily rapid growth rate; early age of seed production; and its appearance in early successional plant communities in North America see Botanical and Ecological Characteristics all suggest that tree-of-heaven has been subject to evolutionary pressures of frequent, stand-replacement disturbances.
Whatever fire regimes tree-of-heaven's native ecosystems were subject to in the past, tree-of-heaven's ability to establish on disturbed sites and persist into late succession suggests that it is well-adapted to survive under a wide range of fire regimes. See the Fire Regime Table for information on fire regimes of North American plant communities in which tree-of-heaven may occur.
Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". In North America, tree-of-heaven has invaded ecosystems where, for the most part, historic fire regimes are no longer functional for example, see [ 12 , , , ]. Dodge [ 76 ] speculates that fire exclusion in rare sugar maple-sweet birch communities of High Mountain Park Preserve, New Jersey, may have fostered establishment of tree-of-heaven.
Ronstadt later remarked that not too many people were in control at the time and everyone was too involved with their own careers. Though the efforts to complete the album were abandoned, a number of the recordings were included on the singers' respective solo recordings over the next few years.
This concept album was put on the back burner for almost ten years. In January , the three eventually did make their way into the recording studio, where they spent the next several months working. The result, Trio , which they had conceived ten years earlier, was released in March It was a considerable hit, holding the number 1 position on Billboard's Country Albums chart for five weeks running and hitting the Top 10 on the pop side also.
Selling over three million copies in the U. In , the three performers recorded a follow-up to Trio. As was the case with their aborted effort, conflicting schedules and competing priorities delayed the album's release indefinitely. However, in , Ronstadt, Parton, and Harris agreed to release the Trio II album, as was originally recorded in The effort was certified Gold over , copies sold and won them a Grammy Award for Best Country Collaboration with Vocals for the track. Ronstadt co-produced the album with George Massenburg and the three ladies also received a nomination for the Grammy Award for Best Country Album.
At the end of , Ronstadt released Canciones de Mi Padre , an album of traditional Mexican folk songs, or what she has described as "world class songs". Keeping with the Ronstadt history theme, her cover art was dramatic, bold, and colorful; it shows Ronstadt in full Mexican regalia. These canciones were a big part of Ronstadt's family tradition and musical roots. For example, the history of this album goes back half a century. Espinel's father was Fred Ronstadt, Linda Ronstadt's grandfather, and the songs she had learned, transcribed, and published were some of the ones he had brought with him from Sonora.
Ronstadt researched and extracted from the favorites she had learned from her father Gilbert and she called her album by the same name as her aunt's booklet and as a tribute to her father and his family. Though not fully bilingual, she has a fairly good command of the Spanish language, allowing her to sing Latin American songs with little discernible U. The real achievement, however, is the disc's RIAA double-platinum  over two million copies sold in the U. Another achievement is that the album and later theatrical stage show served as a benchmark of Latin cultural renaissance in North America.
Ronstadt produced and performed a theatrical stage show in concert halls across the U. She called the stage show by the same name Canciones de mi Padre. These performances were released on DVD. Ronstadt later recorded two additional discs of Latin music in the early s; their promotion, like most of her albums in the s, was a quieter affair, where she appeared to do the "bare minimum" to promote them.
They were not nearly as successful as Canciones De Mi Padre , but were critically acclaimed in some circles. In , she released Mas Canciones , a follow-up to the first Canciones. The following year, she stepped outside of the mariachi genre and decided to record well known "afro-Cuban" songs. It was written and directed by Luis Valdez. By the late s, while enjoying the success of her big band jazz collaborations with Riddle and her surprise hit mariachi recordings, Ronstadt elected to return to recording mainstream pop music once again.
In , she made a return to the top of the Billboard Hot singles chart with " Somewhere Out There ", which peaked at number 2 in March. The song also received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Original Song and achieved high sales, earning a million-selling gold single in the U. It was also accompanied by a popular music video. On the heels of this success, Steven Spielberg asked Ronstadt to record the theme song for the animated sequel titled An American Tail: Fievel Goes West , which was titled " Dreams to Dream ".
In , Ronstadt released a mainstream pop album and several popular singles. It became Ronstadt's tenth Top 10 album on the Billboard chart, reaching number 7 and being certified triple-platinum  over three million copies sold in the U. The album also received Grammy Award nominations.
The duets earned several Grammy Award nominations. Ronstadt's last known live Grammy Award appearance was in when she and Neville performed "Don't Know Much" together on the telecast. In December , she participated in a concert held at the Tokyo Dome to commemorate John Lennon's 50th birthday, and to raise awareness of environmental issues. An album resulted, titled Happy Birthday, John.
Ronstadt released the highly acclaimed Winter Light album at the end of It included New Age arrangements such as the lead single " Heartbeats Accelerating " as well as the self-penned title track and featured the glass harmonica.
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It was her first commercial failure since , and peaked at number 92 in Billboard, whereas 's Feels Like Home was Ronstadt's much heralded return to country-rock and included her version of Tom Petty's classic hit " The Waiting ". The single's rollicking, fiddle-infused flip side, "Walk On", returned Ronstadt to the Country Singles chart for the first time since This album fared slightly better than its predecessor, reaching number Ronstadt was nominated for three Lo Nuestro Awards in In , Ronstadt produced Dedicated to the One I Love , an album of classic rock and roll songs reinvented as lullabies.
In , Ronstadt released We Ran , her first album in over two years. The album harkened back to Ronstadt's country-rock and folk-rock heyday. The recording was produced by Glyn Johns. A commercial failure, the album stood at 57, copies sold at the time of its deletion in We Ran did not chart any singles but it was well received by critics.
Despite the lack of success of We Ran , Ronstadt kept moving towards this adult rock exploration. In the summer of , she released the album Western Wall: Still in print as of December , it has sold , copies per Nielsen SoundScan. Also in , Ronstadt went back to her concert roots, when she performed with the Eagles and Jackson Browne at Staples Center's New Year's Eve celebration kicking off the December 31 end-of-the-millennium festivities. Their performances will constitute a singular and historic night of entertainment for New Year's Eve in Los Angeles. The fulfillment of this contract commenced with the release of A Merry Little Christmas , her first holiday collection, which includes rare choral works, the somber Joni Mitchell song " River ", and a rare recorded duet with the late Rosemary Clooney on Clooney's signature song, " White Christmas ".
It was an album of roots music incorporating pop, Cajun, and earlyth-century music and released on the Vanguard Records label. But Adieu False Heart was a commercial failure, peaking at number in the U. It was the last time Linda Ronstadt would record an album, having begun to lose her singing ability as the result of Parkinson's disease, diagnosed in December The recording earned two Grammy Award nominations: In August , Ronstadt headlined the Newport Folk Festival , making her debut at this event, where she incorporated jazz, rock, and folk music into her repertoire.
It was one of her final concerts. This remains her most recent commercially available recording as lead vocalist. In , Ronstadt was interviewed by the Arizona Daily Star and announced her retirement. As of , Ronstadt has earned three number 1 pop albums, 10 top-ten pop albums and 38 charting pop albums on the Billboard Pop Album Charts.
She has 15 albums on the Billboard Top Country Albums chart, including four that hit number 1. Ronstadt's singles have earned her a number 1 hit and three number 2 hits on the Billboard Hot chart, with 10 top-ten pop singles and 21 reaching the Top She has also scored two number 1 hits on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, and two number 1 hits and on the Billboard Adult Contemporary chart.
Rolling Stone wrote, a whole generation "but for her, might never have heard the work of Buddy Holly , Chuck Berry , or Elvis Costello. She has recorded and released over 30 studio albums and has made guest appearances on an estimated albums by other artists. Her guest appearances included the classical minimalist Philip Glass's album Songs from Liquid Days , a hit classical record with other major pop stars either singing or writing lyrics.
She also appeared on Glass's follow-up recording Airplanes on the Roof. She voiced herself in The Simpsons episode " Mr. As a singer-songwriter, Ronstadt has written songs covered by several artists, such as "Try Me Again", covered by Trisha Yearwood ; and "Winter Light", which was co-written and composed with Zbigniew Preisner and Eric Kaz, and covered by Sarah Brightman.
E ach one has been certified by the Recording Industry Association of America for over three million copies sold. Her highest-selling album to date is the compilation Greatest Hits , certified for over seven million units sold in In the s, Cashbox magazine, a competitor of Billboard during that time period, named Ronstadt the " 1 Female Artist of the Decade". Ronstadt's album sales have not been certified since At that time, Ronstadt's U. Ronstadt has served as producer on albums from various musicians that include her cousin, David Lindley, Aaron Neville and singer-songwriter Jimmy Webb.
She was the first female solo artist to have two Top 40 singles simultaneously on Billboard magazine's Hot Beginning in the mids, Ronstadt's private life became increasingly public. It was fueled by a relationship with then-Governor of California Jerry Brown , a Democratic presidential candidate. They shared a Newsweek magazine cover in April ,  as well as the covers of Us Weekly and People magazine. In , Linda Ronstadt dated comedian Jim Carrey for 8 months.
In the early s, Ronstadt was criticized by music critics for playing concerts in South Africa under apartheid. At the time, she stated, "The last place for a boycott is in the arts", and, "I don't like being told I can't go somewhere. In December , she adopted an infant daughter, Mary Clementine. And then after that it's the problem of finding someone that can stand you! After living in Los Angeles for 30 years, Ronstadt moved to San Francisco because she said she never felt at home in Southern California.
I also didn't want to embrace the values that have been so completely embraced by that city. Do you have clout? It's just not me, and it never was me. Ronstadt appointed the Land Institute as recipient of all proceeds from her signature guitar. In August , Ronstadt revealed she has Parkinson's disease , leaving her unable to sing due to loss of muscular control, which is common to Parkinson's patients. She was diagnosed eight months prior to the announcement and had initially attributed the symptoms she had been experiencing to the aftereffects of shoulder surgery and a tick bite.
Ronstadt describes herself as a "spiritual atheist ". Ronstadt's politics received criticism and praise during and after her July 17, , performance at the Aladdin Theatre for the Performing Arts in Las Vegas. Following the concert, news accounts reported that Ronstadt was "evicted" from the hotel premises. Aladdin casino president Bill Timmins and Michael Moore each made public statements on the controversy. The incident prompted international headlines and debate on an entertainer's right to express a political opinion from the stage and made the editorial section of The New York Times.
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Amid reports of mixed public response, Ronstadt continued in her praise of Moore and his film throughout her and summer concerts across North America. He's enormously incompetent on both the domestic and international scenes. In an August 14, , interview, she commented on all her well-publicized, outspoken views, in particular the Aladdin incident, by noting, "If I had it to do over I would be much more gracious to everyone Period, end of story.
On January 16, , Ronstadt converged with thousands of other activists in a "National Day of Action". On April 29, , Ronstadt began a campaign, including joining a lawsuit,  against Arizona's new illegal-immigration law SB calling it a "devastating blow to law enforcement Ronstadt has also been outspoken on environmental and community issues.
She is a major supporter and admirer of sustainable agriculture pioneer Wes Jackson , saying in , "the work he's doing right now is the most important work there is in the United States ",  and dedicating the rock anthem "Desperado" to him at an August concert in Kansas City, Kansas. In , Ronstadt resided in San Francisco while also maintaining her home in Tucson.
Ronstadt has also been honored for her contribution to the American arts. In May , Ronstadt received an honorary doctorate of music degree from the Berklee College of Music for her achievements and influence in music and her contributions to American and international culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 15 December Rock pop folk country rock country soft rock mariachi Latin. Everybody has their own level of doing their music. Mine just happened to resonate over the years, in one way and another, with a significant enough number of people so that I could do it professionally.
I don't record any type of genre of music that I didn't hear in my family's living room by the time I was It just is my rule that I don't break because I can't do it authentically I really think that you're just hard-wiring synapses in your brain up until the age of maybe 12 or 10, and there are certain things you can't learn in an authentic way after that. If I didn't hear it on the radio, or if my dad wasn't playing it on the piano, or if my brother wasn't playing it on the guitar or singing it in his boys' choir, or my mother and sister weren't practicing a Broadway tune or a Gilbert and Sullivan song, then I can't do it today.
It's as simple as that. All of my influences and my authenticity are a direct result of the music played in that Tucson living room. Judy Henske , who was the then reigning queen of folk music, said to me at The Troubadour , 'Honey, in this town there are four sexes. Men, women, homosexuals, and girl singers. In general when you fall in love with an artist and their music, the plan is a fairly simple one.
I grew up singing Mexican music, and that's based on indigenous Mexican rhythms. And that's how I attack vocals. Music is meant to lighten your load. You exorcise that emotion Rock is the thumping heart of Linda's music, and the rock world is dominated by males. The biggest stars are male, and so are the back-up musicians Janis Joplin , the first great white woman rocker, rattled the bars Rampant eclecticism is my middle name. I now realize I was taking a tremendous risk, and that Joe Smith the head of Elektra Records, and strongly opposed was looking out for himself, and for me.
When it became apparent I wouldn't change my mind, he said: Can I please come to the sessions. When we sang, it was a beautiful and different sound I've never heard before. We recorded the vocals as individual parts, because we didn't have the luxury of spending a lot of time together on a tour bus I obtained enough clout and Your musical soul is like facets of a jewel, and you stick out one facet at a time I tend to bury myself in one thing for years at a time. In the United States we spend millions of dollars on sports because it promotes teamwork, discipline, and the experience of learning to make great progress in small increments.
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