However, mobile interaction design is not only facilitated and driven by advances in computer science and engineering. It is also increasingly advanced by our ability to develop new use practices for mobile computing and to include and appropriate available and emerging mobile computer and network technologies into new and innovative interactive products and solutions. The challenges of mobile interaction design have changed and evolved over time as new technologies were developed and new use practices emerged. Early mobile interaction design dealt with the physical design of portable computers.
This evolved into a focus on input devices and interaction styles suitable for handheld operation and mobile use. For mobile phones, the interaction design challenge has primarily been a matter of reducing physical size while optimizing the use of limited display real estate and the standard key numeric keypad for more and more possible applications. With the emergence of functionally hybrid and more complex devices, the interaction design challenge became about developing new forms and shapes of devices as well as developing new types of applications available on them, without making the devices even harder to use.
Today, the challenge of designing mobile interactions is very much about the development of software applications. The physical device form factor appears to have stabilized, for some time at least, on the basic size, shape, and interaction capability introduced by the Apple iPhone in , which has remained unchanged for more than four years and been replicated by all major handset producers.
By late , more than In less than three years, more than 10 billion Apps were downloaded for the iPhone and iPod Touch.
There is a lot of excitement and interest, the development tools are easily accessible, and there is a huge audience of potential users. Exceeding the potentials of the web in the mid- s, there are even well established digital supply chains and mechanisms for micro-payments. Johnson , Rodden et al. Mobile use contexts have been described as being particularly challenging compared to, for example, the use contexts of traditional stationary office systems due to their highly dynamic, complex, and indeed mobile, nature.
Mobile Computing in context Kjeldskov and Paay There are many different definitions of context, and the debate on what constitutes context for mobile computing, and what role it plays, is ongoing. Early works within mobile computing referred to context as primarily the location of people and objects Schilit and Theimer In more recent works, context has been extended to include a broader collection of factors such as physical and social aspects of an environment McCullough , Dourish , Bradley and Dunlop , Agre , Dey , Abowd and Mynatt , Schmidt et al.
An entity is a person, place or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and the application themselves. In contrast to this, Schmidt et al. Human factors consist of the three categories: Physical environment consists of the three categories: This model provides a good catalogue of specific contextual factors to complement broader definitions like the one by Dey Other works are not as comprehensive in their coverage of different contextual factors, but go into detail about one or a few.
In the works of Agre and McCullough , particular importance is given to physical context consisting of architectural structures and elements of the built environment, for example, landmarks and pathways. In the works of Dourish Dourish , Dourish , particular importance is given to social context including interaction with, and the behaviour of, people in an environment. Dourish also states that context cannot be defined as a stable description of a setting, but instead arises from, and is sustained by, the activities of people.
Mobile computing - Wikipedia
Hence, it is continually being renegotiated and redefined in the course of action. These works provide us with additional contextual factors of particular relevance to mobile computing in context, and with the knowledge that what defines context is in itself contextually dependent. These different disciplines have each approached the challenge of contexts differently, and have yielded different types of responses. In domain studies of mobile computing, where context plays an obvious central role as essentially the phenomenon under scrutiny, the challenge has been partly to understand theoretically what use contexts are and how they can be described, and partly to study empirically what characterises specific use contexts of interest, and how the phenomenon of context can be studied and analysed in ways that generate such understanding.
This has led to a body of theoretical and socio-technical research building largely on methods and theories from sociology, anthropology, and phenomenology e. In systems development and design for mobile computing, the challenge of context has primarily been about creating an appropriate fit between systems and context and how this can be supported structurally through new, or modified, systems development and design methods. While relatively very little has been published on this topic, there is an emerging body of methodological research building largely on methods and theories from information systems, software engineering and human-computer interaction e.
In usability evaluation for mobile computing, the challenge of context has primarily been to understand its role in relation to the scope, richness, and validity of empirical findings and how usability tests can be carried out in contextually realistic settings through use of new or modified methods and techniques. This has led to a growing body of empirical research building largely on methods and theories from usability engineering. These include, for example Brewster , Betiol and Cybis , Hagen et al.
Evaluating mobile computing in context. In implementation of mobile computing, the challenge of context has largely been about capturing, formalizing, and modelling this attribute in computational data models, how to make sense from such models, and how to use them in the construction of context-aware mobile systems that are responsive to their surroundings. This has led to an extensive body of technical research building largely on methods and theories from computer science e. Schilit and Theimer , Crabtree and Rhodes , Schmidt et al. This has led to a body of theoretical, conceptual, and design-oriented research building on methods and theories from a wide range of disciplines from sociology and psychology to cognitive science, computer science, human-computer interaction, and computer-supported cooperative work.
These include, for example Abowd and Mynatt , Cheverst et al. Explaining mobile user experience in context using five principles of perceptual organisation from Gestalt Theory Paay and Kjeldskov b. This is not to say that context is a new phenomenon appearing on the research agenda with the emergence of mobile computing.
The first wave of HCI was a mixture of engineering and human factors focussing on optimizing human-machine fit. The second wave was largely based on cognitive science focussing on the simultaneous processing of information in machines and in the human mind, but this also involved a strong focus on the use of interactive computing systems in the context of the workplace. Mobile interaction design is positioned within the second and third waves of HCI. It grew out of the second wave, but the tremendous uptake of mobile computing by the general population subsequently was a contributing factor to the creation, force, and velocity of the third wave by enabling some of the completely new potentials and patterns of computing technology use that we are witnessing globally today.
Unfortunately, however, the current research-based literature on mobile interaction design neither provide as much foundation as we probably could for these developers and designers to base their innovations and interaction design on, nor much methodological guidance on how to approach the process. Whereas there are a lot of research-based books about user interface and interaction design for desktop applications and web sites, there is not yet a lot of equivalent literature available about mobile interaction design.
This is potentially an opportunity missed for large-scale real-world impact on mobile interaction design practice in respect to the massive amount of good interaction design research that has been done within the field over the last decade and a half. Several of the textbooks that do exist on aspects of interaction design for mobile devices, systems, and services, such as Helal et al.
While unarguably useful when designing for these exact platforms, the weakness of such types of works is that they are almost too practical. They are highly vulnerable to technological advances and therefore quickly rendered irrelevant as new devices and platforms emerge. As a consequence, they usually end up as short-lived and overly specific user interface guidelines tied to a specific point in time, and not as generally applicable and timeless principles for interaction design.
Distilling the essence of these works — the higher-level challenges and solutions that apply beyond specific devices and platforms — would be useful for moving the field of mobile interaction design forward. But such work has not yet been done systematically and in depth.
These writings aim to capture universally important lessons learned from the experience of actual mobile interaction designers.
They provide interaction design as well as methodological insight about influential solutions and how they came about. To support such transfer and transcendence of knowledge, we must provide not only the case study accounts, but also analysis across these case studies that elevates our learning from the concrete and specific level to the abstract and general.
So where do we go from here? As I have discussed earlier, the currently emerging trend within mobile computing is the creation of digital ecosystems where interactive mobile systems and devices are viewed less in isolation and more as parts of larger use contexts or artefact ecologies see, for example, Jung et al.
From my perspective, this is an avenue for further research and design that is particularly interesting, and one that I personally look forward to engaging myself in more deeply. Contemporary interactive mobile systems, services, and devices have become integral parts of ubiquitous computing environments that we care deeply about. However, although their look, feel, and features impact our everyday lives as we orchestrate them in concert with a plethora of other computing technologies, these artefacts and ecosystems are not well understood or created through traditional methods of user-centred design and usability engineering.
Contrary to more traditional IT artefacts, they constitute holistic user experiences of value and pleasure that require careful attention to the variety, complexity and dynamics of their usage. Hence, we need further development of theoretical and conceptual lenses through which we can view, address, and describe this emerging phenomenon in a way that informs and inspires design and further thinking. As a way of encapsulating and labeling this work, I suggest to use and develop the term digital ecology.
Ecology is the study of elements making up an ecosystem, and is very generally about understanding the interactions between organisms and their environment. Nor is ecological thinking limited to the discipline of biology. By digital ecology is thereby meant the study of interrelated digital systems e. It is about understanding the functioning, use and experience of digital ecosystems and artefact ecologies around us, and the design processes that create and advance them. There are several online sources for more information. The Mobile HCI conference series is a central place to go for more information.
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
Proceedings from the conference series are available electronically through Springer and ACM. Mark Dunlop, one of the initiators of the conference series, keeps a general page on the conference at and there is also a page on Wikipedia http: In addition, proceedings from the ACM CHI conference series contain numerous articles on human-computer interaction with mobile computer systems.
These proceedings can be accessed on http: Many journals in HCI have published articles on mobile computing. Among the ones dedicated to the topic are:. Abowd , Gregory D. Agre , Philip E. Contexts of Awareness in Computing. In Human-Computer Interaction , 16 2 pp. Aoki , Paul M. A vehicle for research: Man in a briefcase: In Journal of Design History , 18 2 pp. Bagnara , Sebastiano and Smith , Gillian Crampton Balakrishnan , Ravin, Fitzmaurice , George W. Exploring interactive curve and surface manipulation using a bend and twist sensitive input strip. Ballard , Barbara Designing the Mobile User Experience.
From interaction to trajectories: Bergman , Eric Information Appliances and Beyond: Bergman , Eric and Haitani , Rob Bergman , Eric ed. Usability Testing of Mobile Devices: A Comparison of Three Approaches. Bradley , Nicholas A. Paterno , Fabio ed. Brewster , Stephen A. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing , 6 3 pp. Brown , Barry Building a Context Sensitive Telephone: In Computer Supported Cooperative Work , 13 3 pp. Buxton , Bill Less is More More or Less: Uncommon Sense and the Design of Computers. Denning , Peter J. When second wave HCI meets third wave challenges.
In Human—Computer Interaction , 26 4 pp. Chalmers , Matthew A Historical View of Context. Chen , Brian X. What the iPad means for the future of computing. Retrieved 8 November from wired.
Mobile Computing - Brief Overview
Chen , Guanling and Kotz , David A survey of context-aware mobile computing research. Dartmouth College Hanover http: Some Issues and Experiences. Using Context as a Crystal Ball: In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing , 5 1 pp.
Crabtree , Isac B. Wearable Computing and the Remembrance Agent. In BT Technology Journal , 16 3 pp. A mobile tool for in-situ prototyping.
Proceedings of 11th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services Dey , Anind K. Understanding and Using Context. Dix , Alan J. Human-Computer Interaction 3rd Edition. Dourish , Paul What we talk about when we talk about context. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing , 8 1 pp. Seeking a Foundation for Context-Aware Computing. Putting computing in context: An infrastructure to support extensible context-enhanced collaborative applications.
Feiner , Steven K. Annotating the real world with knowledge--based graphics on a see--through head--mounted display. Fling , Brian Mobile Design and Development: Practical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps Animal Guide. Fortunati , Leopoldina An Identity on the Move.
In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing , 5 2 pp. Frederick , Gail and Lal , Rajesh Beginning Smartphone Web Development: What is the difference between cloud computing and web hosting? How can cloud computing save money? More of your questions answered by our Experts. Mobile Device Management vs.
The Big Fight Continues. Awesome Angles on IoT. Top Twitter Influencers to Follow. A Brief History of AI. The specific problem is: Mobile device and Portable computer. Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 16 July Distractions, not phones, cause car crashes". Closing the Gap" , SearchMobileComputing. Ultra-mobile PC 2-in-1 Phablet Tabletop. Digital wristwatch Calculator watch Smartwatch Smartglasses Smart ring.
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