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He moved along with his relatives after emancipation to paintings within the salt furnaces and coal mines of West Virginia. After a secondary schooling at Hampton Institute, Washington taught and experimented in short with the research of legislations and the ministry, yet a educating place at Hampton made up our minds his destiny occupation.

To blacks dwelling in the restricted horizons of the publish- Reconstruction South, Washington held out business schooling because the technique of break out from the net of sharecropping and debt and the fulfillment of possible, petit-bourgeois pursuits of self-employment, landownership, and small enterprise.

Washington died in , elderly fifty nine. Washington by Jeff 4. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Bob Cat rated it really liked it Sep 05, Glenn Crabtree rated it really liked it Dec 22, Andrew rated it it was amazing May 22, Miss rated it it was amazing Aug 31, Kendall Hill rated it liked it Jan 05, Linda Callahan rated it really liked it Mar 31, Val rated it really liked it Jan 15, Natalie Knight rated it it was amazing Nov 25, Jackinator marked it as to-read Nov 15, Brianna marked it as to-read May 28, Susana Andreia marked it as to-read Jul 30, Michael marked it as to-read Nov 29, Marina Cooper marked it as to-read Oct 02, Liz Oliver marked it as to-read Nov 28, Aileen Polanski marked it as to-read Jul 16, MissFabularian marked it as to-read Aug 18, Ashwini Kumar is currently reading it Nov 14, Megan marked it as to-read Jan 19, Hoss marked it as to-read Jan 23, PJ marked it as to-read Feb 12, One school is better than another in proportion as its system touches the more pressing needs of the people it aims to serve, and provides the more speedily and satisfactorily the elements that bring to them honorable and enduring success in the struggle of life.

Education of some kind is the first essential of the young man, or young woman, who would lay the foundation of a career. In the past twenty-four years thousands of the youth of this and other lands have elected to come to the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute to secure what they deem the training that would offer them the widest range of usefulness in the activities open to the masses of the Negro people. Their hopes,, fears, strength, weaknesses, struggles, and triumphs can not fail to be of absorbing interest to the great body of American people, more particularly to the student of educational theories and their attendant results.

When an institution has, like Tuskegee Insti- tute, reached that stage in its development that its system of instruction has aroused very general discussion, and has given to the world of varied industry an army of workers, numbering not less than 6,, there is a natural curiosity on the part of the public to learn all that is possible of such an institution, and of the personality and methods of those administering its affairs.

In several volumes already published, bearing upon Tuskegee Institute and what it stands for, an endeavor has been made to present a truthful account of the Principal's early strivings and life- work; an honest attempt has been made to analyze and impress the basic principles upon which Tuske- gee Institute was founded. It has been the aim to write a history of individual yearnings for the light of knowledge that would stir the inner con- sciousness of the humblest of the race and arouse him to the vast possibilities that lie in the wake of solid character, intelligent industry, and ma- terial acquisition.

He has tried, with all earnest- ness, to hold up the future of the American Negro in its most attractive aspect, and to emphasize the virile philosophy that there is a positive dignity in working with the hands, when that labor is forti- fied by a developed brain and a consecrated heart. Though much has been said of the spirit and purpose of this center of social and economic up- lift in the famed Black Belt of the South, there is still a wide-spread demand for a more specific 2 3 TUSKEGEE AND ITS PEOPLE recital of what is being done here, by whom, under what conditions, and the concrete evidences of the benefits that are growing out of the thrift, indus- try, right thinking, and right living taught by our faculty.

In response to this insistent call, Mr. Their Ideals and Achievements, with authentic accompanying au- tobiographies of a number of typical students of the school. To this work Mr.

Catalog Record: Tuskegee & its people : their ideals and | Hathi Trust Digital Library

Scott brings a peculiar fit- ness, unequaled by any other person who might have been chosen to perform it. He is closely knit to the Southland and her great masses by the common sympathy of nativity and the mutu- ality of hopes. The South has always been his home, but he has traveled so extensively and mingled so freely that he has acquired most ample breadth of vision as regards men and things.

For many years now Mr. As I stated in one of my books published several years ago, as far as one individual can fill the place of another, Mr. Scott has acted in the Principal's stead, seeing with the Principal's eyes and hearing with the Principal's ears, counting no sacrifice too great to be made for Tuskegee's well-being.

He is in perfect accord with the fundamental principles and practical policies through the per- sistent adherence to which Tuskegee Institute has won its conspicuous place in the educational world. The volume here presented has been edited by Mr. Scott with the utmost care, he preferring to have the contributors understate rather than over- state the results that have come from the labors of Tuskegee and its people.

It has been the Prin- cipal's pleasure and privilege to examine and crit- ically review the manuscript after its comple- tion, and the volume is so praiseworthy that it is given his cordial approval. The book is an accurate por- trait of the Tuskegee of to-day, and reasonably forecasts the hopes for the institution of to-mor- row.

It tells with forceful directness and graphic precision the formative work that is being done for this generation, and supplies a fulcrum upon which there may justly rest a prophecy of greater things for the generations that are to follow. A Tuskegee book, whatever its primary motive, is invariably expected to deal broadly with the entire problem of the Negro and his relationships of every kind. It must be more than a mere flesh- and-blood narrative, descriptive of the material progress of the men and women the Institute has produced and is producing.

It must be a book free from ostentatious pretension, breathing the atmosphere of the life of the earnest people it describes. It must, of course, exhibit not only the achievements, but also the ideals, the possibilities of the Tuskegee trained man and woman. This, I feel, is adequately done in this volume. Tuskegee and Its People possesses ideals in thought, morals, and action — and they are lofty. This instinct for the ideal, how- ever, lies not in idly sighing for it, but is born of an abiding belief that worth is intrinsic, and that applied common sense, practical knowledge, constancy of effort, and mechanical skill will make a place for the patient striver far more secure than the artificial niche into which some one may thrust him.

The masses who are most helpfully reached by the Tuskegee Institute are coming to realize that education in its truest sense is no longer to be regarded as an emotional impulse, a fetish made up of loosely joined information, to be worshiped for its mere possession, but as a practical means to a definite end.

They are being taught that mind-training is the logical helpmeet of hand-training, and that both, supplemented and sweetened by heart-training, make the high-souled, useful, productive, patriotic, law-loving, public- spirited citizen, of whom any nation might well be proud. The outcome of such education will be that, instead of the downtrodden child of igno- rance, shiftlessness, and moral weakness, we shall generate the thoroughly rounded man of prudence, foresight, responsibility, and financial independ- ence.

It is of the highest im- portance to the Negro, who must make his way amid disadvantages and embarrassments of the se- verest character, that he be made aware of the vast diif erence between working and being worked. In carrying this inspiring message and impress- ing these fundamental truths, the new Tuske- gee book renders a splendid service. Industrial training will be more potent for good to the race when its relation to the other phases of essential education is more clearly under- stood. There is afloat no end of discussion as to what is the " proper kind of education for the Negro," and much of it is hurtful to the cause it is designed to promote.

It should be understood rather that at such institutions as Hampton Institute and Tuskegee Institute, industrial education is not emphasized because colored people are to receive it, but because the ripest educational thought of the world ap- proves it; because the undeveloped material re- sources of the South make it peculiarly important for both races; and because it should be given in a large measure to any race, regardless of color, which is in the same stage of development as the Negro. On the other hand, no one understanding the real needs of the race would advocate that indus- trial education should be given to every Negro to the exclusion of the professions and other branches of learning.

It is evident that a race so largely segregated as the Negro is, must have an increas- ing number of its own professional men and women. There is, then, a place and an increasing need for the Negro college as well as for the in- dustrial institute, and the two classes of schools should, and as a matter of fact do, cooperate in the common purpose of elevating the masses.

There is nothing in hand-training to suggest that it is a class-training. The best educational au- thorities in the world are indorsing it as an es- 9 TUSKEGEE AND ITS PEOPLE sential feature in the education of both races, and especially so when a very large proportion of the people in question are compelled by dint of cir- cumstances to earn their living in manufactures and agricultural and mechanical pursuits in gen- eral.

It so happens that the bulk of our people are permanently to remain in the South, and con- ditions beyond their control have attached them to the soil; for a long time the status of the majority of them is likely to be that of laborers. To make hard conditions easier, to raise common labor from drudgery to dignity, and to adopt systems of train- ing that will meet the needs of the greatest num- ber and prepare them for the better things that intelligent effort will surely bring, form a task to which the wisest of the race are addressing them- selves with an eager enthusiasm which refuses to be chilled by adverse criticism.

The Tuskegee Idea is that correct education begins at the bottom, and expands naturally as the necessities of the people expand. As the race grows in knowledge, experience, culture, taste, and wealth, its wants are bound to become more and more diverse; and to satisfy these wants there will be gradually developed within our own ranks — as has already been true of the whites — a constantly increasing variety of professional and business men and women.

Their places in the economic world will be assured and their prosperity guaranteed in proportion to the merit displayed by them in their several callings, for about them will have been es- tablished the solid bulwark of an industrial mass to which they may safely look for support. The esthetic demands will be met as the capacity of the race to procure them is enlarged through the processes of sane intellectual advancement.

In this cumulative way there will be erected by the Negro, and for the Negro, a complete and inde- structible civilization that will be respected by all whose respect is worth the having. Care should be taken that racial education be not one-sided for lack of adaptation to personal fitness, nor un- wieldy through sheer top-heaviness. Education, to fulfil its mission for any people anywhere, should be symmetrical and sensible. A mastery of the industries taught at Tuske- gee presupposes and requires no small degree of academic study, for competency in agriculture calls for considerable knowledge of chemistry, and no mechanical pursuit can be followed satisfactorily without some acquaintance with the "three R's.

After all, the final test of the value of any system of education is found in the record of its actual achievements. In Tuskegee and Its People heads of the several departments have not only given a succinct account of the history, resources, and current labors of the school, but deal most hap- pily with the governing ideals behind the institu- tion, and vindicate its claim to the approval of the world's thinkers and moving forces.

Tuskegee's germ principle is to be found in its unboasted ideals, in the things that of necessity can not be listed in catalogue or report, rather than in its buildings, shops, farms, and what not. The school dwells upon the saving power of land, and learning, and skill, and a bank-account — not as finalities in themselves, but as tangible witnesses to the Negro's capacity to compete with others.

Perhaps the newest and most refreshing fea- ture of the book is its vivid pen-portraits of the young men and women who have gone out of Tus- kegee carrying into diversified lives the principles and precepts imbibed from their parent school. They tell their story at first-hand, modestly and sincerely, and the foundations of inspiring lives, laid in the Christian virtues and conscientious service of their fellow men, foster a firm belief that the school is doing a work that will live.

These types of Tuskegee's graduates, picked out at random from hundreds of equal scholarship and ability, represent distinctive channels of activ- ity, including the president of a leading college, principals and teachers of thriving schools, a law- yer, a tinner, a school treasurer, farmers, cot- ton-growers, master builders and contractors, a dairyman, and a blacksmith.

No element contribu- ting to the racial uplift is overlooked. The scenes of their labors are scattered over a vast area, show- ing convincingly the diffusive character as well as the rich harvest garnered through the Tuske- gee Idea.

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These rough-hewn sketches of a sturdy pioneer band in staking out a larger life and a wider horizon for later generations are worthy of the most careful perusal. Under this new dispensation of mind, morals, and muscle, with the best whites and best blacks in sympathetic cooperation, and justice meaning the same to the weak as to the strong, the South will no longer be vexed by a " race problem.

Civic righteousness is the South's speediest thoroughfare to economic greatness. A book that opens the inner chambers of a people's heart, and sheds a light that may guide the footsteps of both races along the upward way, should meet with a hearty welcome at the hands of all lovers of mankind. Scott So much has been said about Tuskegee Insti- tute as a training-school in which to prepare young colored men and women for earning a living in the world of trade and business, that the ideals and spirit behind all this training are to a very large extent lost sight of.

Tuskegee, with its hundreds of acres of farm- land under intelligent cultivation, with its ever- increasing number of well-appointed buildings and its equipment, and the many things on the grounds included in the name of handicrafts, is always in the public eye, and continually appeals to the interest of those who are deeply concerned in the well-being and progress of the Negro people. Yet behind all of these more tangible manifes- tations of work, skill, and achievement, there is an unseen, persistent groping after the higher ideals of life and living.

Washington and the men and women who have helped him to build Tuskegee Institute are constantly looking beyond the present to a future filled with the evidences of a better liv- ing for all those who have felt the transforming spirit of the hidden forces at work. How the perspective widens and deepens! Far, far beyond the confines of the Tuskegee Institute community the light of this new life is seen and felt and has its salutary effect.

The stagnant life of centuries has awakened, and is casting off its bonds. A new term, " intelligent thrift," has come into its possession. Wherever this term has gone and taken root, there has gone with it the thought that unless the idea make for character, as well as for more cotton or corn, it is not of much value. The Tuskegee Idea always asks one question, and that is, "What are you? From the moment the new student comes on the grounds until he leaves, he is appealed to in ways innu- merable to regard life as more than bread or meat, as more than mere mental equipment.

Cleanli- ness, decorum, promptness, truthfulness — these are old-fashioned virtues, and are more properly taught in the home, but in Tuskegee they mean everything. Tuskegee not only acts as a teacher, but assumes the role of parent, and lays emphasis on the im- portance of these virtues every moment of the time from the entrance of the student until Commence- ment Day. The " cleanliness that is next to godli- ness " is one of the Tuskegee ideals, and a student can scarcely commit a more serious misdemeanor than to appear slovenly, either in dress or manners.

The facilities and requirements for bathing are quite as complete and exacting as the equipments in the laboratories and recitation-rooms. The result is that Tuskegee has the reputation of being one of the most cleanly and sanitary institutions in the South. As for good manners. Lord Chesterfield him- self would scarcely ask more than is insisted upon by Tuskegee precision. Tuskegee Institute, then, insists upon these things because they make for character, and are a part of the ideals toward which all training tends.

But how are all these things taught and en- forced? The first requisite, of course, is the char- acter of the teachers and instructors themselves, the men and women who are the embodiment of the ideals that Tuskegee Institute stands for. While it can not be claimed that the best teachers in the South are all at Tuskegee, it can be said that no other school has so large a number of colored men and women who have had the advantage of the highest industrial and intellectual, moral and re- ligious training.

The teaching force is made up largely of graduates from nearly every first-class educational institution in America. These teachers have been carefully sought out and brought to Tus- kegee, not only for their teaching ability, but that the students may have the benefit of the best exam- ples before them of what the highest culture can do for men and women of their own race.

That was their only world ; their ideals of life were shaped by their mean and narrow environments. They have learned to believe, and act accordingly, that the best people are all of one complexion, and the worst and poorest people are all of another complexion.

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There is no such thing as creating a sentiment of race pride in such people unless they have set be- fore them living examples of their own race in whom they can feel a sense of pride. It is scarcely too much to say that one of the best things about the Tuskegee Institute is that it wins our young men and women from mean and sordid environment and brings them in contact with teachers whose minds, hearts, and lives have been enlarged and graced by the highest learning in the best educational institutions of the country.

The school teaches no more important lesson than that of cultivating a sense of pride and respect for colored men and women who deserve it because of their character, education, and achievements. Pride of race, though not so written in the courses of study, is as much a part of Tuskegee's work as agriculture, brick-making, millinery, or any other trade, and quite as important. To borrow a line from George Eliot: Stirring the air they breathe with impulses Of generous pride, exalting fellowship Until it soars to magnanimity. Washington has succeeded, to a remarkable degree, in developing the Tuskegee Institute by insisting that this institution must have nothing less than the best within and without it, everywhere.

What is not best is only temporary.


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Those who have done most for the school have been made to feel that the character of the work done here and the ideals striven for are deserving of the best. For example, when Mr. Carnegie donated the money for a library for Tuskegee, a building was erected of classic outline — a noble structure of ar- tistic symmetry and beauty that must appeal to every one who has any appreciation of architec- tural beauty.

Huntington Memorial Building, just completed, a gift of Mrs. Huntington, used for the academic classes of the school, would be a credit and delight to any munici- pality. There is everything about the exterior and interior that must awaken a sense of pride in every pupil who enters its portals. Its facilities are sen- sible and unostentatious, yet they meet every re- quirement of the department. What is true of the new Academic Building is likewise true of the vari- ous dormitories for girls and boys.

The cleanliness and the sanitation to be found at Tuskegee are in delightful contrast to the poor environment to which many of the students have been accustomed ; especially is this contrast heightened when these same students have, under competent direction, installed the plants which yield these comforts. The student at Tuskegee is constantly being trained to look up and forward. He learns how the idea of beauty can be actualized in home and social life ; how faithful performance of every duty means nobility of character; how the value of achievement is determined by the motive behind it.

But besides these, the one aim, thought, or anxi- ety around which all others revolve is the high honorableness of all kinds of work intelligently done. In a section where those who work with their hands are marked otf by the inexorable line of caste from those who work with their brains or not at all, this idea of making intelligent work more honorable than intelligent idleness is of construc- tive value in race development. The problem that the Tuskegee Institute is helping to solve is not only that the colored people shall do their pro- portionate share of the work, but that they shall do it in such a way that the benefits will remain with those who do the work.

Cer- tainly, if such a time ever comes, there will be no such painful thing as a race problem, as Negroes now see it and feel it. This is one of Tuskegee's largest ideals; not that Tuskegee alone can bring about a " consum- mation so devoutly to be wished," but it is am- bitious to be a potent factor in all the tendencies that make for such a condition of life in the heart of the South. So important is this aim and idea of Tuskegee, that it allows no criticism to affect, interfere, or obscure its vision. The school enthusiastically seeks to live up to the ideal of its Principal, that education in the broadest and truest sense is designed to influence individuals to help others; is designed, first, last, and all the time, to transform and energize indi- viduals into life-giving agencies for the uplift of their fellows.

And you will find that the person who is most truly educated is the one who is going to be kindest, and is going to act in the gentlest man- ner toward persons who are unfortunate, toward the race or the individual that is most despised. The highly educated person is the one who is most considerate of those individuals who are less fortunate. I hope when you go out from here and meet persons who are afflicted by poverty, whether of mind or body, or persons who are un- fortunate in any way, that you will show your edu- cation by being just as kind and considerate toward those persons as it is possible for you to be.

That is the way to test a person with education. You may see ignorant persons, who perhaps think themselves educated, going about the street, and when they meet an individual who is unfortunate — lame, or with a defect of body, mind, or speech — are inclined to laugh at and make sport of that in- dividual. Education is meant to make us abso- lutely honest in dealing with our fellows. I do not care how much arithmetic we have, or how many cities we can locate ; it is all useless unless we have an education that makes us absolutely honest.

Education is meant to make us give satisfaction, and to get satisfaction out of giving it. It is meant to make us get happiness out of service for our fellows. And until we get to the point where we can get happiness and supreme satisfaction out of helping our fellows, we are not truly edu- cated.

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Education is meant to make us appreciate the things that are beautiful in nature. A person is never educated until he is able to go into the swamps and woods and see something that is beautiful in the trees and shrubs there — is able to see something beautiful in the grass and flowers that surround him — is, in short, able to see some- thing beautiful, elevating, and inspiring in every- thing that God has created.

Not only should edu- cation enable us to see beauty in these objects which God has put about us, but it is meant to influence us to bring beautiful objects about us. I hope that each one of you, after you graduate, will surround himself at home with what is beautiful, inspiring, and elevating. I do not believe that any person is edu- cated until he has learned to want to live in a clean room made attractive with pictures and books, and with such surroundings as are elevating. In a word, I wish to say again that education is meant to give us that culture, that refinement, that taste, which will make us deal truthfully and sympathetically with our fellow men, and will make us see what is beautiful, elevating, and inspiring in what God has created.

I want you to bear in mind that your text-books, with all their contents, are not an end, but a means to an end — a means to help us get the highest, the best, the purest, and the most beautiful things out of life. Books, valuable as they are, and nowhere more thoroughly reckoned as such than here, are only a means to an end: What can not be accomplished to-day will certainly be accomplished to-morrow.

So, in its larger outlook and household anxi- eties, Tuskegee Institute teachers are confident that the things taught and enforced by example and precept will justify their efforts in helping to make a dependent people independent, a dis- tracted people confident, and an humble people to thrill with pride in itself and in its best men and women. Thus it is that Tuskegee Institute has never been satisfied with being merely a school, concerned wholly with its recitations and training in shop and field.

Every student who carries a diploma from these grounds is urged not to hang that diploma on the wall as an ornament, as an evi- dence of individual superiority, but to make it mean something constructive and life-giving to every one in the community where he must live and work. It is not necessary to state here what has already been ac- complished in many parts of the South by Tuske- gee graduates. The selected examples set forth in this book are evidence enough.

It is sufficient to say that the Tuskegee Institute is determined to become more and more a distinctive influence among the regenerative agencies that are gradually bringing order out of chaos, and justice, peace, and happiness out of the wretched disorders of a painful past. It is easy to trace the influence of such well-established institutions as Harvard and Yale in the progressive life of the American people. The sons of Harvard and Yale almost dominate civilization in America. In another sense, it is possible for Tuskegee to have a like influence in the many things that must be ac- complished in the South, before love and justice shall supplant race prejudice and race antago- nism.

This race-loving spirit gives it a largeness of view and purpose that saves both its teachers and pupils from being narrow and self- centered. Take from Tuskegee all this " vision splendid," and it will at once shrink into common- place insignificance. Unless the young man who goes away from Tuskegee as blacksmith, carpenter, printer, or as any other mechanic, is something more than these, he has been incapable of perceiving and taking in the ideals that go with these accomplishments.

He has been taught over and over again to " hitch his wagon to the stars," and if he fail to do so, the fault is in himself, and not in Tuskegee. As between a poor doctor and a poor carpenter, there is but scant choice. They are both failures and to be avoided. Honor in one is as precious as in the other. What a terrible task it has been and still is to teach the lessons of the upward spirit: Ev- erything that is false and unjust and wrong is transitory. Those who are brave enough to solve problems shall be more honored of mankind than those who create problems which they make no effort to solve.

There can be no liberty without intelligence, no independence without industry, and no power for man, and no charm for woman, without char- acter. These are some of the ideals toward which all our teaching leads; without these there would be no Tuskegee; with them, as its very life and spirit and inspiration, Tuskegee shall lead into more ways of peace, happiness, and power than we of this generation have yet dreamed of, or realized.

Here was almost a case of being required to make bricks without straw. But as matters have turned out, this neglect was the best thing that could have happened to the school. First it gave opportunity for the employment of those splendid qualities of pluck, self-help, and perseverance which have dis- tinguished Mr.

Washington so preeminently in the building of Tuskegee. Moreover, the State has contributed nothing to the school in the way of land or buildings; it has not sought to control the property of the institution, leaving it free to be managed by the Board of Trustees. Later in the same year the growth of the school made it necessary to obtain additional room, which was found in a dilapidated shanty standing near the church and which had been used as the village schoolhouse since the war.

These buildings were in such bad condition that when it rained it was necessary for the teacher and students to use umbrellas in order to protect them- selves from the elements while recitations were being conducted. Students who came from a distance boarded in families in the town, where the conditions of liv- ing were very much like those in their own homes, and these were far below proper standards. Washington, understanding the great need for colored people to be trained in correct ways of living as well as to be educated in books, deter- mined to secure a permanent location for the school, with buildings in which the students might live under the care and influence of teachers day and night, during the whole period of their connection with the school.

Treasurer of the School. But where was the money to be found to pay for it? Washington himself had no money, and the people of the town, much interested as they were in the enterprise, were wholly unable to give direct financial assistance. This he gladly made, and the farm was secured.

The land thus secured, preparations were at once begun to put up a school building, toward the cost of which Mr. Porter, of Brooklyn, N. In this building, which has three stories and a basement, all the operations of the school were for a time conducted. The first story was devoted to academic and industrial class-rooms ; in the second was an assem- bly-room, where devotions and public exercises for the whole school were held, while the third was given up to dormitories. From this small beginning has grown the pres- ent extensive plant at Tuskegee, comprising 2, acres of land, on which are located buildings of all kinds devoted to the uses of the institution.

Some idea of the impression which the size of the school makes upon one who sees it for the first time may be gathered from the remark of a Northern visitor, who, upon returning to his home from a trip through the South, was asked by a friend if he had seen " Booker Washington's school. Running through the grounds proper and extending the en- tire distance of the farms for two or three miles is a driveway, on either side of which, and on roads leading from it, are located the buildings of the Institute.

The plans for these buildings have been drawn in the architectural- drawing division of the Institute. While not as ornate as the buildings of some other institutions, they are substantial and well adapted to the uses for which they are intended. The newer build- ings, constructed in the last ten years, are more artistic and imposing, showing great improvement in matters of architectural design and finish. Not only have the students performed the building operations that entered into the construction of these buildings, but they have also manufactured the brick, and have prepared much of the wooden and other materials that were used.

We some- times speak of a man as self-made, but I have never known another great educational institution that could be so described. Tuskegee, itself, is distinctively self-made. Porter Hall was completed and occupied in the spring of The following year a brick build- ing for girls was undertaken, and two years later completed. This building, named Alabama Hall, is rectangular in shape and four stories high. There was no special gift made for this building, the money required for its erection being taken from the general funds of the Institute as they could be spared.

A wing added later gave more space for dining-rooms and provided a number of sleeping- rooms.

Tuskegee & its people; their ideals and achievements

The money used in putting up the buildings at Tuskegee is made to do double duty. In the first place, it provides the buildings for which it was primarily given, and, in the second place, furnishes opportunities for young men to learn the trades which are employed in their construction. Follow- ing closely upon the completion of Alabama Hall, there was begun another brick structure to be used as a dormitory for young men.

Olivia Davidson Hall bears the honored name of the school's first and only Assistant Principal. Miss Davidson performed a conspicuous part in establishing the school and placing its claim for support before the public. This building is a four-story structure, and the first of the school's buildings for which the plans were made by the teacher of architectural drawing. The plans for all the buildings put up by the Institute are now made in the division of architectural drawing in charge of Mr.

The need for a building to house the mechanical industries which, until , had been conducted in temporary frame buildings on different parts of the grounds, led to the erection of Cassedy Hall, a three-story brick building standing at the east entrance to the grounds. Cassedy Hall, together with a smaller building devoted to a blacksmith shop and foundry, was used for the purpose men- tioned, until three years ago, when all the indus- tries for men were moved into the Slater-Arm- strong Memorial Trades Building, at the opposite end of the grounds.

Through the generosity of Mr. Peabody, of New York, Cassedy Hall has since been converted into a dormitory for young men, and serves admirably for this purpose. Phelps Hall, which is the Bible Training School Building, is the gift of two New York ladies who desired to do something to improve the Negro ministry. The building is of wood and has three stories, containing a lecture-hall, recitation-rooms, library, and sleeping-rooms for young men. A broad veranda extends entirely around the building.

Phelps Hall was dedicated in , Dr. Lyman Abbott preaching the dedica- tory sermon and General Samuel C. Armstrong delivering an address, which was among his last public utterances. This is a handsome three- story building, with recitation-rooms and labora- tories in the first two stories, and sleeping-rooms for teachers and boys in the third story. About this time a frame cottage with two stories and attic was built by the school as a residence for Mr. This he occupied until the gift of two Brooklyn friends enabled him to erect on his own lot, just opposite the school-grounds, his pres- ent handsome brick residence, where he dispenses a generous hospitality to the school's guests and to the teachers of the Institute.

The cottage which he vacated was afterward utilized for a time as a library, but now is the home of Director Bruce of the Academic Department. A long one-story frame building, hav- ing the shape of a letter T, was then erected just in the rear of Alabama Hall.

It has been used for girls' sleeping-rooms until this year, when it was taken down to make room for a park and play- ground for young women. There were also suc- cessively built for the growing demands of this department, and in the vicinity of the original girls' building. Huntington Hall is the gift of Mrs. In design, finish, and appointments it is one of the best buildings owned by the school. Douglass Hall was erected with this money and named in honor of that great leader of the race, Frederick Douglass.

In this room the Dean of the Woman's Department holds meetings with the girls on questions of health, morals, and man- ners. The building is heated with steam and lighted by electricity. All in all, Douglass Hall is the best of the buildings so far built by the Insti- tute, and is a fitting monument to the man whose name it bears.