This kind of display is not expected to be most frequent in the highest status individuals. However, another perspective, based on cooperative signaling, could explain these data. The individuals with high social status could be signaling their high potential for, or willingness to reciprocate Brown and Moore, One problem with this explanation is the possibility of nonreciprocators using repeated low-cost conventional signals, such as smiles, in a deceptive manner.
Then somehow these repeated signals must be costly, or at least so costly as to negate the benefit for a cheater that uses them correctly, but deceptively Zahavi and Zahavi, Or the signals, if cheaply produced, could represent coordinating activity among individuals whose interests are sometimes in conflict, but who benefit by coordinating activities nonetheless Silk et al. A similar response occurs to the nonverbal vocal components of speech. The corrugator muscle activated in the case of anger, and the orbicularis oculi muscle activated when hearing contented voices Hietanen et al.
Contrary to Fridlund , these reflexive displays of emotion may be quite adaptive, especially in contexts where automatic, quick response is critical. Emotional readout can be a powerful social tool, especially if it brings about positive fitness consequences for senders and receivers.
For example, facial expressions play a role in creating and supporting empathy, an emotional, yet also adaptive phenomenon Brothers, ; Buck and Ginsburg, ; Keltner and Bonanno, Other positive fitness consequences could include the likelihood of receivers sharing food and other resources with the signaler, benefits that arise from the reciprocally altruistic relationship in general.
The predicted characteristics of spontaneous smiles in the context of long-term cooperators, therefore, include honest signals such as the Duchenne sign orbicularis oculi activity and characteristic timing see Fig. We know that spontaneous smiles differ in quality, with more simultaneous muscle actions that are more coordinated, as compared to deliberate, posed smiles Gosselin et al.
The contrast between Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles is often interpreted as the difference between truly felt and less than sincere expressions of emotion. Whether or not the signal can be faked, it is still consistent with an adaptive signal hypothesis of smiling. More honest signals tend to be more costly signals, and the Duchenne smile, to the extent that it is more sincere, is certainly more costly involves at least two muscles instead of just one; see Fig.
In addition, Bugental found that longer, and therefore more costly smiles, were interpreted as more sincere. For laughter, Niemitz et al. The range of contexts under which spontaneous smiles occur, and the resulting degrees of honesty expected, have not been considered. More research into the quality of nonverbal signals may be the key to distinguishing expressions along a continuum from more honest facial signals to those that are less than sincere Grammer et al. For example, observer response toward spontaneous Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles from the same individual would be predicted to differ, with the longest spontaneous Duchenne smiles generating the most positive responses.
If social smiles are performed according to a regular pattern, then signaling of positive intention could consist of a regular pattern or script for signaling, and deviations from the expected expression pattern would signal negative intentions. Social smiles, and other expressions, are coordinated and timed with attention to the listener. We propose a new perspective on the costs associated with these social signals. In addition to the energetic costs of repeated signaling that add up during a social encounter, there are significant costs to the signaler if he is to maintain the signaling pattern properly.
These costs are attentional. Only by paying attention to the receiver and the course of the social interaction, can the sender continue to signal correctly. The smile, for example, is not a randomly performed signal. The small amount of evidence available shows that smiling is highly coordinated with the meaning as well as the nonverbal aspects of speech.
Smiling when the topic of speech prohibits smiling is a significant social faux pas. For non-Duchenne smiling then, the cost of the signal is the cost of the attention paid to the interactant, rather than the added physiological costs associated with a spontaneous Duchenne smile. This prediction could be tested by observing the rate and timing of social smiles and other facial expressions during conditions in which attention is disrupted.
Alternatively, one could measure the loss of attention to outside events during a typical interaction, as an approximation of the risk in focusing on one individual while other potentially important events or interactions are taking place. The level of involvement in an interaction as measured by number or intensity of social signals or gaze, among other measures, is predicted to correlate with decreased attention to other stimuli in the vicinity.
If regular signaling that one focuses on the speaker is accomplished by smiling, then a violation could be detrimental to individual fitness. Self-presentation is arguably more important among potential reciprocators, i. Regular smiling, then, could be a sign of altruistic intentions and would be expected to be more frequent around friends Jakobs et al. The social smile, with its high frequency, could be the redundant signal that Johnstone proposes is the best for getting across a message to conspecifics.
Krebs and Dawkins predicted that cooperative signals should be small and relatively inexpensive. An analysis of EMG or other measure of facial exertion would be predicted to show that this type of smile is much cheaper than other expressions, like anger, fear, or disgust, which corresponds with the fact that it is used frequently in cooperative interactions. In proposing that smiling, or any other facial expression, is an adaptive social signal, it is important to establish the positive fitness consequences of such a behavioral phenotype.
There is evidence to suggest that facial expressions function to increase cooperation and affiliation during interaction. The positive fitness consequences of facial expression include the promotion of social acceptance and affiliation, and the moderation of the effects of socially negative actions. While the effects of facial expressions, and smiling in particular, have not typically been operationalized as fitness consequences in the past, a review of recent studies indicates that these consequences are significant, at least with regard to social variables such as status. Although not typically associated with grief, smile displays during conversation, especially those that include orbicularis oculi activity around the lateral edge of the eye, increase perceiver sympathy for bereaved persons Keltner and Bonanno, People associate smiling with happiness and with positive intentions directed toward them liking Floyd and Burgoon, Smiling, in both the United States and Japan, is associated with increased sociability Matsumoto and Kudoh, These responses are mostly determined by self-report in psychological studies, but there is also direct physiological evidence that facial displays can bring about positive responses, even in the absence of overt emotional response.
There may be some individuals who fail to signal regularly, however. In this case, the failure to signal socially is in itself a signal Bergstrom and Lachmann, Signaling altruism also implies the presence of remedial social signals. For individuals who fail to act in an altruistic manner, and get caught, there are also embarrassment and shame displays.
Interestingly, in embarrassment displays, there is also a smile, although here it is interpreted as an appeasement signal Keltner and Buswell, Shame displays are slightly different, and do not typically include a smile Keltner, Although there is no consensus on whether or not the smile is an honest signal or not, the blushing response seems much closer to the definition of an honest costly signal. Also a component of the shame display, blushing actually works, with significant differences in the perceptions of interactants depending on whether or not an individual blushed.
Blushing, which can be part of a voluntary shame display including glancing around and lowering the head, actually reduces negative evaluations of actor behavior deJong, As a remedial gesture, blushing may be particularly potent, because it is a gesture that is generally believed to be impossible to fake. It is not surprising then that it produces a better response in observers than does the glancing around display, another remedial gesture deJong, Facial expression during social interaction is possibly an honest signal of affiliation, or willingness to reciprocate.
Among humans, however, social interaction almost invariably involves speech, and there are unique considerations in the adaptiveness of the relationship between facial expression and speech. Facial expression is coordinated with speech at several levels: Laughter occurs along with speech in a coordinated pattern Provine, Ekman detailed the multiple patterns of association of brow movements with speech: Facial expressions might also be related to the social functions of speech.
Although humans practice some social grooming Schievenhovel, , Dunbar suggests that the role of grooming in human society has largely been taken over by conversation. If nonverbal signals, including facial expressions, are coordinated with speech, they might also assist in the grooming function of speech. Andrew notes that lip smacking and other lip movements are intention signals for grooming in nonhuman primates. Fridlund refers to lip biting as a sign of agitation, but it may also be a sign of desire to groom which is often is associated with agitation.
Facial expressions are only a small proportion of the large number of human courtship signals. They are typically embedded in coordinated displays, including both whole body and whole head movements, as well as other signals. As such, they have a role in signaling both interest and mate quality. Signaling mate quality is accomplished by a number of physical trait-based characteristics such as symmetry, glossiness of hair and skin, and healthiness of eyes Gangestad and Thornhill, Because of the numerous available indicators of potential mate quality, one might argue that facial expression was unnecessary.
However, it could also be expected that facial expression would act in such a way to enhance positive traits, while disguising or concealing less positive traits enhancing self-presentation as a potential mate. Eibl-Eibesfeldt describes how clothing and makeup in many cases, accomplish these goals, but facial expression could provide an intermediate behavioral level between cultural modification and physical, biological constraints.
The description of the courtship displays of young German and Japanese women, for example, shows the importance of both facial expression and other nonverbal movements in signaling attraction willingness to mate or to consider mating. This could be the case for facial expression as well. In the case of opposite sex interactants, repeated signaling with honest signals could also be interpreted as a sign of willingness to invest in a mate, and therefore increase the likelihood of reproductive opportunities for the signaler.
While there is little positive evidence to support this idea, there is some negative evidence in that the lack of coordination of facial movements in people with schizophrenia can cause significant social problems for people with schizophrenia Dworkin, With regard to symmetry and mate selection, it is possible that symmetric facial expressions typically spontaneous and difficult to produce voluntarily evoke attractiveness in the same way that structural facial symmetry also very difficult to fake does Gangestad and Thornhill, ; Grammer and Thornhill, Finally, facial and other nonverbal signals during courtship can be expected to be relevant to other signals of mate quality and to coordinate with them.
The flirtatious hair flip Grammer et al. A variety of individual ecological contexts are included here, mainly because of the general lack of empirical information on facial expressions in these different contexts. In contrast to previously described situations, however, interactions with strangers and other interactions where potential conflicts of interest are likely to share some basic signaling properties. Krebs and Dawkins suggest signals to those whose interests potentially conflict with the signaler should be stereotyped and clear, rather than hidden.
Facial expressions are expected to revert to conventional forms that reveal as little extra information as possible Wagner and Lee, In a classic study of Japanese and American students responding to films, facial expressions differ least in the presence of an interviewer, demonstrating the increased regularity of facial signals in a socially risky situation with interviewer, rather than alone; Ekman and Friesen, ; Wagner and Lee, Signalers have some conscious perception of their signaling patterns: Stereotyped nonverbal bodily displays are also characteristic of interactions in which strangers meet Grammer et al.
The sender may modify normally beneficial honest expressions in these contexts, depending on potential costs or benefits of revealing information. When meeting strangers, humans sometimes attempt to hide or suppress expression. For example, children and young adults from a variety of cultures responded to a friendly stranger with a similar pattern of direct gaze with expression, followed by hiding the face, and then another glance Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Concealment also occurs in competitive interactions with known individuals.
In a study of individual differences of the tendency to self-monitor facial expressions, some individuals were found to conceal expressions of joy after winning. These smiles were concealed either by covering with a hand, or by twisting other muscles in the face into positions that minimized the appearance of the smile Friedman and Miller-Herringer, Yawns and laughs are also sometime concealed by covering Provine, This is misleading, though, in that the desirability of concealment necessarily varies with the particular socioecological context.
Only those facial signals that depend on privacy between signaler and receiver for positive consequences are expected to be concealed from the rest of the group. Although there are likely to be contexts in which people seek to hide their expressions from others, facial expressions toward strange conspecifics in many cases are expected to be clear and easily readable, whether they signal internal state or not Endler, Meetings between strangers represent an obvious opportunity for deception, in that the altruistic tendencies of the signaler are unknown to the recipient.
However, actively deceptive signals are expected to disappear eventually, because they do not supply the receiver with useful information Zahavi and Zahavi, Actively deceptive signals of this type can be contrasted with concealment of basically honest signals, as in the effective suppression of facial expression in contexts where food resource, personal reputation, or other positive outcome is at stake Ekman et al. A third strategy, the modification of internal states associated with expressions emotional states , may be the most adaptive form of deception. Expressions generated under these conditions of self-deception would then appear spontaneous and automatic Alexander, Emotional readout is not necessarily an honest signal: Various facial behaviors associated with deceit have been described and tested empirically Ekman, ; Ekman et al.
These studies provide interesting information on social intelligence and Machiavellian intelligence in particular. However, the same researchers also found that there is substantial variation in the ability of human observers to detect these nonverbal signs of deceit. Although some individuals have this capability, many, even those with extensive experience or training e. In fact, at least for facial expression, human cheater detection mechanisms seem to be remarkably bad at detecting cheating, at least among strangers DePaulo, ; Ekman, ; Gosselin et al.
Either these mechanisms do not provide a clear fitness benefit, and have therefore not been subject to selection pressure Bradbury and Vehrencamp, ; Zahavi, , or else the relevant context of cheater detection is found not among strangers, but among social group members. Cheater detection ability may depend on an almost statistical knowledge of the normal facial expression pattern for a given interaction partner, rather than a stranger. Cheater detection mechanisms are undoubtedly an important feature in the evolution of human social intelligence, but in the case of facial expression may not be very fine-tuned DePaulo, The answer to these puzzling findings probably lies in the structure of human social interaction, especially in the distant past.
Cheater detection would be expected for individuals with whom we have the most contact strangers would likely not have been trusted in any case. We hypothesize that detection of deception by observation of nonverbal behavior may be limited to those individuals that have regular contact with the deceiver, and might not be expected anyway in those who have no prior knowledge of this person such as observers described in Ekman, and Ekman et al.
We are not aware of any studies of the relative difference in cheater detection performance based on the facial expression of known and unknown subjects, but predict that cheater detection would be significantly better for known individuals. If facial expressions are generally used as honest signals, as part of an ordered sequence of actions appropriate to a particular social context, relatively infrequent use of these signals for deceitful purposes is a possibility.
Mitchell describes these regular sequences of events as social scripts, where deception is dependent upon successful maintenance of behavior patterns including facial expressions , that signal cooperation while individuals act deceitfully in their own self-interest. For example, the maintenance of friendly facial expression, followed by negative actions toward others, constitutes the deceptive use of a social script, facial expressions associated with affiliative interaction.
More attention, however, needs to be drawn to the differential properties of facial signals, such as their clarity across relatively large distances as far as 45 m; Hager and Ekman, and from angles other than directly face-to-face. Although facial expressions are typically observed at close range, their signal properties may allow for accurate reading by individuals in the periphery eavesdroppers.
The detectability of signals is an important factor in their ability to provide positive fitness consequences for signalers Endler, A comparison between the distance of facial expression recognition and average social distance in other species would be interesting in this regard. By using these adaptive frameworks, and clarifying phenotype, ecological context, and fitness consequences of facial signaling, it becomes possible to investigate facial expression from an evolutionary perspective Fridlund, Both social and emotional expressive functions of facial expression can be investigated from an evolutionary perspective and represent different levels of analysis Hauser, , p.
Fitness consequences are particularly hard to detect, especially given the cross-sectional nature of many psychological studies of facial expression. A single facial expression, with few exceptions, cannot be expected to provide a dramatic fitness benefit or cost. Rather, repeated signaling of intention or emotion is probably the biggest contributor to fitness accruing from facial expression. In addition, the critical factor in the fitness of a particular expression such as a smile may be the difference between it and the average smile of the actor.
Psychological studies generally take a cross-sectional approach, measuring only a few minutes of expression in a large number of individuals. Longitudinal studies of facial expression are few and far between but see Messinger et al. Still, we can begin to get a picture of the importance of facial expression to fitness by considering some of the results of facial expression research. Game theoretic models of facial signaling assume the actors have the alternative of not signaling at all, and may refer to a past generation where signaling did not yet exist Bradbury and Vehrencamp, Although these issues are theoretically important, the phylogeny of humans and the long prehistory of sociality in the Primate order make it somewhat unlikely that signaling with human facial expression would disappear completely in humans.
This is immediately apparent when considering the drastic and deeply damaging social consequences of facial paralysis VanSwearingen et al. These and other forms of complete facial paralysis have such negative social consequences that it is difficult to imagine the lack of facial signaling as an alternative. In some cases, the amount of depression associated with facial paralysis is directly related to the degree of disability in producing a prototypical smile VanSwearingen et al.
Clearly, though, there are differences in the frequency and intensity of facial expression across normal individuals. Facial expressions are not always produced when they would be advantageous, and this may lead to negative fitness consequences that are less dramatic than those discussed above, but still potentially costly in social interaction, depending on cultural and social context.
Negative fitness consequences here are conceptualized as reduced access to cooperative relationships that tend to enhance survival and reproductive potential. Given the long history of sociality in our lineage and the ubiquity of facial expression in observations of naturalistic social interaction, we hypothesize that a certain level of facial expression must be obtained, or the individual risks losing the fitness benefits acquired during earlier interactions.
The homology of human and nonhuman primate facial expression may illustrate continuity among facial expression phenotypes, especially between apes and humans. Preuschoft and van Hooff note the remarkable stereotypy of facial expression across an order that is usually known for its behavioral flexibility. Production of basic facial expressions, such as the fear grimace in rhesus macaques, also appears to be highly canalized Geen, It would be surprising if the level of stereotypy and homology in nonhuman primate expression did not extend to at least some patterns of human expression.
Given the similar structure of the facial muscles and adaptations for focusing on the face, homology between nonhuman primate and human facial expressions has been suggested van Hooff, The smile has been proposed as a homologue to the silent bared teeth display SBT , and the laugh as homologue to relaxed open mouth displays of monkeys and apes van Hooff, ; Preuschoft, ; Preschoft and van Hooff, Preuschoft suggests that the apparent contrast between the smile of humans upward lip corners and the SBT of nonhuman primates may simply be the result of similar muscles stretched over a very different-shaped muzzle Preuschoft, ; see Fig.
Homologous displays in human and nonhuman primates. Rhesus macaque submissive display. Photograph by Frans DeWaal, Silent bared teeth display. From Kanade et al. Relaxed open mouth display. Human play face, from Forbes et al. In addition, there are common neurobiological bases among humans and other primates in the control of facial expression. A recent study of projections from the cortex to the facial nerve nucleus in rhesus macaques found a pattern similar to that described by Rinn Bilateral cortical projections to facial nuclei control frontalis and orbicularis oculi muscles, and contralateral projections to the opposite facial nucleus, control the muscles around the mouth, allowing hemispheric differences in expressiveness to influence the lower face in particular Morecraft et al.
Researchers have begun to demonstrate asymmetry in facial expressions of monkeys, indicating that these underlying mechanisms of control also produce similar effects in non-human primates. Hook-Costigan and Rogers found that positive social calls and expressions of marmosets were lateralized to the right, while negative social expressions fear were lateralized to the left. Hauser and Akre also found that expressions were seen earlier on the left side of the face in rhesus macaques, although they found no different between expressions interpreted as socially positive or negative, expanding on the original finding by Hauser that rhesus expressions were left-sided.
Although at least some degree of neurobiological and physical homology of expression seems likely, there is also the problem of differential function. Can human smiles really be homologous to the SBT display when human smiles signal joy and nonhuman primate smiles signal appeasement or fear? From the perspective of human facial expression, the roles of the smile continue to expand with new research, and the equation of human smiles with happiness has been called into question Ekman, ; Fridlund, Nonhuman primate bared teeth displays as in Fig.
Embarrassment has been proposed as a homologue of primate appeasement displays, because it shares characteristics such as withdrawal, minimizing appearance, and smile with downward glance Keltner and Buswell, Homology has also been proposed for the yawn, which shows evidence of being a social signal of transition between activity states both in humans and in non-human primates Deputte, ; Provine, Homology may also apply to aspects of hiding or minimizing expression. There are several examples of apes preventing conspecifics from seeing their expression by covering the face with a hand Tomasello and Call, , and one report of a chimp that was able to control a grimacing mouth by pressing down on his lips with his hand Mitchell, Humans also move their hands to the face to hide expressions, possibly because such expressions would be detrimental to their interests if openly recognized Keltner and Buswell, for embarrassment; see Provine for yawning.
Humans have the additional ability of hiding their expressions with the actions of other facial muscles, especially around the mouth where the downward pull of the depressor anguli oris muscle can somewhat conceal the rise of the lip corners due to the action of zygomaticus major Ekman, In the same study, the authors noted that hand contact increased with increased smiling.
It could be that the action of other facial muscles in some cases was inadequate to the task of concealing the increasingly obvious smile signal. Consideration of nonhuman primate facial expression, of course, is necessarily be specific to each individual species.
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Divergent facial signaling systems, as well as some homology, are to be expected. For the relationship between overall amount of expression and the structure of the facial nerve nucleus, Peburn et al. Aotus , the only nocturnal anthropoid, has virtually no facial expression, and its facial musculature is also relatively less differentiated Chevalier-Skolnikoff, ; Huber, Likewise, many features of human facial expression, although universal, are specific to our species.
The relative hairlessness of the human face, compared to the majority of nonhuman primates, suggests that the combination of exposed skin and retained hair may have some signaling value. Brows are an important component of human greeting and surprise displays, as well as some smiles.
Upturned inner brows also signal sadness or grief Eibl-Eibesfeldt, ; Ekman, Results of an intriguing study in which cross-species perception of facial expression was tested, the brows, a highly visible signal on the hairless human face, are not used by macaques seeking to identify sad human facial expressions. They rely instead on other, more phylogenetically conserved traits, such as cheek movement Kanazawa, Retention of facial hair in adult male humans may also play a role in accentuating or concealing expression.
Unfortunately, there has been no research on male facial hair as it relates to facial expression. Like humans, many nonhuman primate species pay close attention to the faces of other group members. The complexity of face perception and facial expression among the great apes, for example, is just beginning to be demonstrated. Chimpanzees can use facial features to recognize both kin and unfamiliar conspecifics, and to categorize facial expressions of other chimpanzees Parr et al.
Chimpanzees can follow the gaze of another individual by paying attention to its face Povinelli and Eddy, Clearly, facial expressions are important signals in the social lives of most nonhuman primates, just as they are for humans. By monitoring facial expressions, the intentions of others can be inferred.
Because of their relatively stable existence, social groups provide an environment in which low-cost, redundant signals can help primates to keep track of the other individual, possibly similar to that which Chadwick-Jones described for baboons. Cheater males may fail to give continuous signals, and so must be monitored. The failure to adhere to social scripts, including facial expression patterns, draws attention to uncooperative individuals Mitchell, Haslam provided a list of social grammars for primate interaction, including communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing.
These are behavioral contexts of the type that could correspond to functional variation in primate facial expression. As in humans, considering facial expressions as adaptations would require specification of relevant phenotypes, ecological contexts, and positive and negative fitness consequences. Current functional approaches to facial expression are largely framed in terms of the proximate functions of emotions associated with that expression Keltner and Gross, ; Keltner and Haidt, ; Yik and Russell, Fridlund has argued from a critical psychological perspective for the consideration of all facial behavior in a behavioral ecological or evolutionary framework.
Evolutionary approaches, however, are necessarily based on the study of facial expressions as biological adaptations, and much of the recent work on facial expression has been conducted outside this perspective. Nevertheless, results from this type of functional study of facial expression provide a basis on which to base evolutionary hypotheses of facial behavior.
By detailing the phenotypic variation in facial expression, clearly defining the ecological contexts of facial expression, and describing some of the positive fitness consequences of these behaviors, we have outlined an evolutionary approach to the study of human facial expressions as adaptations. By proposing testable hypotheses about the nature of facial expression, we can also provide a firm biological basis to other anthropological studies of communication.
The unfortunate, and probably unintended, view of nonverbal expression as representing an ancestral-primate primitive ability, while language is uniquely specialized in humans, can also be challenged from this perspective Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Instead of just assuming that non-verbal expression has much in common with primate relatives, but is also culturally patterned, we may be in a position to specify more clearly the adaptive role of facial expression in human social interaction.
Human social intelligence is obviously a major contributor to human brain evolution and intellectual abilities. Our most specialized and adaptive system of social signaling is human language Pinker, Remarkable in its complexity and also because of its seeming discontinuity with non-human primate vocalization and communication, human language has clear adaptive consequences for human evolution Burling, ; Pinker, There is no doubt that language has been a driving force in the evolution of human behavior, and the social context is dominated by language Dunbar, Yet there is more to social intelligence than language.
Deficits in other social skills, including nonverbal skills, make it very clear that language alone is not sufficient for successful social interaction, and the positive consequences of these skills are only now being described. This argues for increased attention to the evolution of nonverbal signaling systems, including facial expression, from the perspective of physical anthropology.
We thank John S. Allen and Melissa Panger for careful reading and helpful criticism of this article. No emotional input is necessarily implied by the use of the word expression. Expressing emotion is an important part of signaling hypotheses of expression. The exploration of relationships between internally experienced emotion and facial expression is an important part of adaptive hypotheses of emotions, but the link between expressions of emotion and fitness consequences does not necessarily require that other adaptive consequences of that emotion be explained.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Am J Phys Anthropol. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Open in a separate window. Variation in neural control of facial muscles Neurobiologically, facial expressions are dually controlled by extrapyramidal and pyramidal tracts, providing for automatic and voluntary control of facial expression.
Variation within facial expression phenotype sets Universal facial expressions, though distinct, are not uniformly produced or perceived. Individual differences in observable facial expression behavior In addition to underlying physical variation in the face and in movement, empirically measured facial behavior varies according to factors such as sex Briton and Hall, ; Chapell, , age Chapell, , and cultural background Ekman, ; Kupperbusch et al. Methods in facial expression research Hauser stresses the importance of methods that allow rigorous comparison among studies of communication.
Phenotypic variation in facial perception Along with the study of the neurobiological and anatomical and behavioral aspects of facial action, the perceptual aspects of face recognition and facial expression recognition have also received a great deal of attention in the past several decades. Diversity among facial expression phenotypes Although the concept of basic universal expressions has allowed us to consider human facial expressions as evolved behavioral phenotypes, an emphasis on universality obscures the abundance of variation within and between facial expressions.
Socioecological contexts of human facial expression Human ecological contexts are undeniably socio-ecological contexts. Positive fitness consequences In proposing that smiling, or any other facial expression, is an adaptive social signal, it is important to establish the positive fitness consequences of such a behavioral phenotype. Facial expressions during speech Facial expression during social interaction is possibly an honest signal of affiliation, or willingness to reciprocate. Courtship and facial expression Facial expressions are only a small proportion of the large number of human courtship signals.
Strangers, competitors, and conflicts of interest A variety of individual ecological contexts are included here, mainly because of the general lack of empirical information on facial expressions in these different contexts. The functions of facial expression By using these adaptive frameworks, and clarifying phenotype, ecological context, and fitness consequences of facial signaling, it becomes possible to investigate facial expression from an evolutionary perspective Fridlund, Functions of facial expressions in nonhuman primates Like humans, many nonhuman primate species pay close attention to the faces of other group members.
Acknowledgments We thank John S. Social cognition and the human brain. The biology of moral systems. The origin and evolution of the calls and facial expressions of the primates. Bavelas JB, Chovil N. The psychology of facial expression. Cambridge University Press; Belsky J, Nezworski T.
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Growing points in ethology. Perspectives on emotional development: The editorial team signs off. Ethical and linguistic content of hospital mission statements. A meta-analysis of psychological and pharmacological treatments for body dysmorphic disorder. A study of thematic content in hospital mission statements: A question of values. Fear of pain and fear of falling among younger and older adults with musculoskeletal pain conditions. Pain Research and Management, 10, Assessing pain in older persons with severe limitations in ability to communicate.
Pain in older persons pp. A qualitative investigation of seniors' and caregivers' views on pain assessment and management. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37, Task Force on Professional Education J. Age-related differences among adults coping with pain: Evaluation of a developmental life-context model. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 37, The effects of age and fear of pain on attentional and memory biases relating to pain and falls. The problem of pain management among persons with dementia and the ontology of relationships.
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Nursing Philosophy , 5, Attentional bias toward illness threat in individuals with elevated health anxiety. Social influences and the communication of pain. Psychological perspectives on pain: Comparing two observational systems in the assessment of knee pain. A forum for integration in geropsychology.
The ethical ideologies of psychologists and physicians: The relevance of health anxiety to chronic pain: Research findings and recommendations for assessment and treatment. Canadian Psychology is basic, applied and impacts the world: An editorial about the next four years. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 34 , Ethical orientation and functional grammar analysis. Canadian Psychology, 43 , The relative importance of the ethical principles adopted by the American Psychological Association.
Using facial expressions to assess musculoskeletal pain in older persons. European Journal of Pain, 6 , A theoretical framework for understanding self-report and observational measures of pain: Cognitive behavioural and pharmacological interventions for mood and anxiety-related problems: An examination from an existential ethical perspective. The Humana Press Inc. Hypochondriasis and health anxiety among pain patients.
Pain and aging Special Issue. Pain assessment in persons with limited ability to communicate. The effect of disability claimants' coping styles on judgments of pain, disability and compensation. Rehabilitation Psychology , 46 , Elements of risk in qualitative research. Anxiety in elders waiting for cataract surgery: Investigating the contributing factors. File review consultation in the adjudication of chronic pain and mental health claims. Profiles and perspectives of leading contributors in the field of pain.
Addressing the need for appropriate norms when measuring anxiety in seniors. Ethics, free speech and the peer review process. A comprehensive decision-making model for Canadian Psychologists. Health anxiety moderates the effects of distraction versus attention to pain. Longitudinal examination of the health status of older adults: Predictors of successful aging. Predicting caregiver burden and depression in Alzheimer's Disease. Measuring movement exacerbated pain in cognitively impaired frail elders. A comparison of alternative approaches to the scoring of Clock Drawing.
Age- and appearance-based stereotypes about patients undergoing a painful medical procedure. Pain measurement in persons with intellectual disabilities. Ethical principles of the American Psychological Association: An argument for philosophical and practical ranking. Chronic pain on trial: The influence of compensation and litigation on chronic pain syndromes.
Handbook of Psychological Injuries. Cognitive functioning and pain reactions in hospitalized elders. The ethics of teaching: Practices and concerns Special Issue. Ethics and Behavior, 8 , A philosophical value analysis of the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists. Cognitive and behavioral responses to illness information: The role of health anxiety.
An Assessment Guide to Geriatric Neuropsychology. Emotional components of pain. Toward a research outcome measure of pain in frail elderly in chronic care. The relative efficacy of psychotherapy in the treatment of geriatric depression. Pain specific emotional distress and self-reported sleep difficulties in patients with chronic musculosceletal pain.
The systematic application of ethical codes in the counseling of persons who are considering euthanasia. Subjective judgments of deception in pain expression: Beautiful faces in pain: Biases and accuracy in the perception of pain. Appearance-based information about coping with pain: Happiness has traitlike and statelike properties: A reply to Veenhoven.
Administration and scoring manual. The underestimation of the role of physical attractiveness in dating preferences: Neuropsychological deficits, caregivers' perception of deficits and caregiver burden. A sensitive measure to differentiate normal elderly from those with Alzheimer Disease. The role of physical attractiveness in the assessment of elderly patients. Reconsideration of the psychological effects of contact lenses.
Cases in Ethical Elder Care]. The unconscious in a scientific age]. Different behavioural observation methods serve different purposes. The relation of callosal atrophy and interhemispheric transfer of information: A comment on Janowski et al. Moving research into non-traditional areas in order to achieve effective, widespread and irreversible change in pain care.
Canadian Journal of Pain, 2 , A4. The necessity of mid-career expertise diversification for achieving widespread clinical change: An example from the study of pain in dementia. Canadian Journal of Pain, 2, A4. Do you understand what I am experiencing? The role of partner empathy on pain expression in couples during experimental pain.
Canadian Journal of Pain, 2, A Is facial coding reliability dependent on observer point of view? Comparing pain expressions from various angles of observation. Canadian Journal of Pain, 1, A Beyond TENS machines and heating pads: Development and application of advanced technologies in pain prevention, assessment and management. A comparison of a fine grained assessment approach to an observational checklist designed for clinical settings. Development of clinically useful, inexpensive and practical technologies to monitor pain behaviour in advanced dementia.
Canadian Journal of Pain, 1 , A Pain control, perception and expression in older individuals. Pain communication in older adults: Self-report, nonverbal expressions and clinical challenges. Attitudes toward the possibility of an online pain assessment training program in rural long-term care facilities. The psychology of pain: Canadian cutting edge research with clinical implications.
Pain assessment in populations with severe cognitive impairments: Focus on persons with dementia. Psychological risk factors for injury among older adults and the role of psychologists in pain and injury care teams. Empirically examining ethically sensitive questions: What do participants really think of experimental pain induction?
The effects of emotion regulations strategies on the pain experience: Relationship of frontal lobe dysfunction to gait performance in older long-term care residents. From Possibility to Practice in Aging: The relationship of activities of daily living questionnaire scores with objective indices of functional ability. The facial expression of pain: Does hardiness predict the rate of return to work following low back injury?
The theoretical foundations of the biopsychosocial formulation of pain: Moving pain assessment for long-term care residents with dementia into the 21st century: Impact of responsibility attributions and patient gender on nurses' and nursing students' emotional responses and willingness to help patients with chronic low back pain.
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- Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research.
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A systematic review of knowledge translation in pediatric pain. Knowledge translation and chronic pain in older adults: Developing national priorities in education and research related to pain management in older adults. How nurse practitioners facilitated the implementation of an onsite pain management team in long-term care. The impact of fall risk assessment on functional ability, restraint use, and fall rates among seniors with dementia. Limitations in the empirical support for the fear avoidance model of pain abstract 24B.
The relationship of pain anxiety and long-term care staff pain behaviours abstract P Cognitive behavioural pain management for older adults: Development and evaluation of a training video for therapists abstract P Development and mixed methods evaluation of a pain assessment video training program for long-term care staff abstract P Does the implementation of a nurse practitioner-led pain management team improve resident outcomes in long-term care? Improving pain management practices in long-term care facilities abstract P The order listed here is the correct order].
Health care providers to improve pain management in long-term care. The role of readiness to change and self-efficacy on outcome scores associated with a pain self-management program.
Psychologie Faciale: LA Vue de face (Psychologie faciale Le Guide t. 2) (French Edition)
Canadian Psychology, 53 2a , Implementation and evaluation of a pain management continuing education program on long-term care staff knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about pain: Implementation and controlled evaluation of a pain education program for long-term care staff: Health professionals' perceptions of patients with chronic pain.
Optimizing knowledge exchange activities among researchers, policy makers and health care providers to improve pain management in long-term care. A qualitative study of ranking ethical principles in professional decision-making.
Evaluating an interdisciplinary pain protocol in long-term care. Pain Research and Management. Impact of patient coping style and physical evidence of injury on nurses' perceptions of rehabilitation patients with low back pain. Pain self-efficacy, socially prescribed perfectionism and coping strategies among older adults with chronic pain.
Evaluation of a self-management program for older adults with chronic pain. Strategies employed by health professionals to manage conflict in day-to-day dementia care. Conference Program and Abstracts Manual: Canadian Association on Gerontology, p. Cancer-related pain in older adults: Patient and family caregiver perspectives on the experience and management of pain. Engaging long-term care homes to promote successful research implementation.
Perceptions of barriers and facilitators to improving quality of life for long-term care residents. Self-management approaches to pain in older adults. Enhancing quality of life through person-centered care: Perspectives of long-term care professionals. Considering telehealth and internet-based psychotherapy within the context of the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists.
Pain Research and Management, 15 , Transforming pain management in long-term care: Bringing applied and basic psychology closer together: The role of CPA. Examining the contributions of coping style, pain appraisals and emotional reactions to pain expressiveness. The implications of basic science for applied psychology and of applied psychology for basic science A symposium with Steven Pinker and Peter Graff. Canadian Psychology, 49 2a , The development and initial evaluation of a measure designed to assess caregiver fears about care-recipient falls, pain, and associated activity restriction.
A study of fear of falling and functional ability in long-term care. Pain, depression and fear of falling: A community-based study of older adults. The effects of a multidimensional psychological intervention on the behaviour of patients with dementia. An examination of the factor structure of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale in a sample of older adults.
An examination of a cognitive behavioural model of pain-related fear and adjustment to chronic back pain. Psychosocial approaches to pain management for older adults with and without dementia. The role of catastrophising, pain-related anxiety, coping and anger in adjustment to chronic low back pain.
Canadian Psychology, 48 2a , Fear of pain and fear of falling: Distinct but related constructs that can affect the functioning and rehabilitation of both younger and older adults. Pain Research and Management, 11 2 , Coping strategies as mediators between cognitive appraisals and adjustment to chronic pain: A study of older adults.
A psychophysical investigation of the Facial Action Coding System as an index of pain variability among seniors with and without Alzheimer's Disease. Do personality characteristics predict satisfaction with cognitive behavior therapy? Canadian Psychology, 47 2a , Mood and pain levels among terminally ill seniors receiving palliative home care services. A meta-analysis of psychotherapeutic approaches used in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. The utility of systematic pain assessments in the care of seniors with complex medical problems.
Aging navigating the winds of change. Challenges and innovation in pain assessment among seniors with dementia. Age-related differences in coping with pain. Relationships among pain appraisals, coping, and adjustment to chronic arthritis and fibromyalgia pain. Validation of a pain assessment tool in elderly citizens with severe autonomy limitations living in long term care facilities. A six month longitudinal investigation of pain, fear of pain and fear of falling among seniors. The relation of seniors' weekly pain ratings to scores on baseline and post-treatment pain assessment questionnaires.
A long look at later life: Ottawa, Canadian Association on Gerontology. Dissociation, coping and adjustment among persons with chronic pain. Fear of pain and fear of falling among seniors and younger adults. Innovative approaches to pain assessment and psychosocial pain management methods for seniors with and without dementia.
Are fear of pain and fear of falling distinct constructs and age-specific concerns? Bringing the pieces together: Research, education, policy and practice. Development and evaluation of a developmental life context model of age-related changes in coping with pain. The effect of professional training and ranking ethical principles on the resolution of ethical dilemmas. Assessing pain in older persons: Innovations, applications and challenges.
Psychometric development of a pain assessment scale for older adults with severe dementia: A report on the first two studies. What have we learned? A scientist-practitioner considers the ramifications of the Latimer case for the perspective of applied ethics. Validation of a pain assessment scale for seniors with severe dementia. The utility of facial actions in assessing post-operative pain in seniors. Measuring movement exacerbated pain in elders with cognitive impairment.
Graduate ethics training in Canadian Psychology Programmes. Assessing pain in elders with cognitive impairments. Using behavioural and self-report measures to assess pain in seniors. Are chronic pain patients at increased risk for pathological gambling? Age- and appearance-related stereotypes about patients undergoing a painful medical procedure. Anxiety among elders waiting for cataract surgery. Caregiver perceptions in persons with intellectual disabilities. Amant Centre Conference , Measuring pain in children, adolescents and young adults with severe intellectual disabilities: Progress within the last year.
Cross validation of the factor structure of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire in a sample of young adults. Facial expressions of emotion in relation to expected pain in children undergoing ear piercing. Pain measurement in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Pain, depression and subjective well being in a hospitalized geriatric sample.
The role of health anxiety in low back pain. Pain and emotional expression accompanying acute phasic pain in adults. The relation of self-reported acute phasic pain and cognitive impairment in a hospitalized sample of elders. Facets of hopelesness among dementia caregivers. Understanding the pain experience in adolescents and the elderly with significant neurologic impairment.
Self-reported sleep difficulties in patients with chronic pain: Evaluating the influence of pain specific emotional distress. Toward the development of a comprehensive daycare program for seniors with dementia. Canadian Association on Gerontology: Societal trends and choices official program , abstract Facial action determinants of judgments of genuine and posed displays of pain. Comparison of methods for scoring clock drawing. Canadian Association on Gerontology, Official Program , What is being measured in the elderly?
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Neuropsychological deficits, caregivers' perception of deficits, and caregiver burden. Normal aging and the corpus callosum. Construct validity for a multidimensional assessment method. A quantitative and qualitative scoring system. The effect of eyeglasses on physical attractiveness and person perception.
A longitudinal examination of parental attitudinal changes toward child rearing as a result of an early intervention program. Pain assessment in older adults with dementia. Using technology to detect pain in older adults with dementia. Pain in older adults. Continuing pain education in long-term care. Presented as part of a continuing pain education international webinar organized by the International Association for the Study of Pain. Utilization of health care resources by long-term care residents as a function of pain status. Improved pain assessments following implementation of an online training program and standardized protocol in rural long-term care facilities.
Two feasibility open trials of a self-guided internet-based CBT for anxiety and depression among French-speaking young adults. Translation of an evidence-based internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression: A ramdomised controlled trial among French Canadians. Unravelling pain in dementia: From the laboratory to the smallest rural nursing home in Northern Saskatchewan. Evaluating the potential accuracy limits of an automated pain detection system when focusing on profile as opposed to frontal view of the face.
Facial landmark detection for pain expression recognition in older adults. What have we learned about the clinical assessment of pain in dementia while working toward technology development? Neuropsychological and psychosocial correlates in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder.
Improving access to treatment for anxiety and depression among French-speaking Canadians: Feasibility and acceptability of an internet-based transdiagnostic therapy. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with medical populations. Pain assessment in people with dementia. Technology adoption readiness in long-term care facilities Computer vision-based facial expression analysis for recognizing pain in older adults. Invited presentation at the Pain Management: Experiencing pain alone vs. Predicting expression of emotion during pain: The influence of personality characteristics and catastrophizing.