There is some preliminary data that adding EF training to treatment as usual TAU leads to better outcomes in depressed individuals Siegle et al. Specifically, Siegle and colleagues added Cognitive Control Training CCT to enhance working memory and attention to TAU, which included group psychotherapy, case management, and psychotropic medication.
Not much research has been conducted examining the outcomes of specific EF training procedures utilizing EF tasks in individuals with anxiety and depression beyond the preliminary study described above. However, outcomes related to mindfulness are an area of increasing interest because it is considered an intervention that trains control of attention and other EFs. A large body of evidence has demonstrated that mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR is an effective intervention for a range of psychological disorders, including anxiety and depression Hofmann et al.
It has been hypothesized that the improvement in emotional symptoms associated with mindfulness is due to the fact that it utilizes cognitive strategies that involve strengthening EFs, including sustaining attention, flexibly switching the focus of attention, and inhibiting elaborative processing Bishop et al.
Mindfulness interventions have been associated with significant improvements in performance on working memory and sustained attention tasks, as well as concomitant decreases in rumination, depressive symptoms, and negative affect relative to a control group Chambers et al. Mindfulness also appears to decrease rates of relapse in individuals who have experienced several depressive episodes Teasdale et al. Similar to CBM, the mindfulness literature has not directly assessed alterations in motivation-related processes and behaviors, though it is likely that the improvements in cognitive and emotional function enhance motivational processing.
The cognitive improvements and symptom reductions gained through mindfulness training are accompanied by mindfulness-induced neuroplasticity for a review, see Holzel et al. Healthy adults who completed an 8-week MBSR training course and expert meditators exhibited reduced activation in brain areas associated with a visceral sense of self, including anterior insula, ventral ACC, and mPFC during the act of meditation Ives-Deliperi et al. These effects suggest that experience with MBSR and other types of meditation results in reduced reactivity to both physical and emotional stimuli.
In addition, there is evidence of increases in activity in brain regions associated with attention and executive control. A study utilizing ERPs during a Stroop task found that individuals with MBSR experience displayed increased early-latency responses recorded over right posterior cortex to all stimuli, suggesting increased deployment of early attentional resources, and reduced later centro-parietal potentials to all stimuli but especially incongruent stimuli, indicating more efficient processing and control of these conflict stimuli Moore et al.
Other noteworthy neuroimaging effects observed in individuals with MBSR experience comes from research employing techniques that examine structural changes in the brain. These increases in gray matter density were found to positively correlate with meditation experience Lazar et al. Individuals with MBSR experience have been shown to exhibit increased connectivity among major fiber tracts in the brain, including whole brain fiber tracts, major tracts in both hemispheres, and the two largest interhemispheric fiber tracts than did healthy controls Luders et al.
Finally, increased gyrification, or an increase in cortical gray matter and synaptogenesis, has been observed in precentral gyrus, fusiform gyrus, cuneus, and dorsal insula in individuals with MBSR experience Luders et al. Among these areas showing increased gyrification, only dorsal anterior insula was correlated with meditation experience. This area is involved in integrating aspects of autonomic, affective, and cognitive processes and may contribute to decreased mind wandering, daydreaming, and ruminating, which are all key aspects of successful meditation.
Although the study by Goldin and Gross appears to be the only one to directly examine the neural effects of MSBR in individuals diagnosed with an anxiety or depressive disorder thus far, the growing body of research on brain changes associated with MBSR in healthy populations has implications for how it may mitigate or prevent anxiety or depression. Some of the neuroplastic effects observed in healthy individuals with MBSR experience occur in areas exhibiting dysfunction in anxiety and depression, as reviewed above.
Thus, it is likely that MBSR practice in individuals with anxiety and depression normalizes activity in these regions, in addition to reducing symptoms and increasing control over rumination and worry. In terms of neuroplasticity, many of the structural changes have been examined in relation to medication. Much less work has been done to understand the structural changes associated with psychological interventions. In fact, a pervasive premise, and not only among the general public, is that biological abnormalities should be treated with biological interventions.
Yet there is now abundant evidence that psychological treatments alter biology, just as biological treatments alter psychology Miller, , Further, despite a large body of research examining the functional changes associated with various types of psychological and biological interventions, there is much we do not yet know because of the limited contexts in which these changes have been assessed. These functional changes have been assessed almost entirely using tasks tapping basic emotional processing e. Understanding of the neural changes associated with such interventions would be greatly enhanced by examining changes across a variety of tasks and contexts recruiting a range of cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes.
This would permit testing whether interventions lead to greater flexibility and dynamic range of neural activity, such that the degree of activation depends on the context and task demands rather than being habitually high or low, or whether interventions lead to consistently moderate responses. In addition to research that examines a broader range of contexts, interventions would greatly benefit from future work that is informed by the psychological and biological research reviewed in the present paper.
Although these strategies may not be sufficient alone, they could potentially address specific deficits that in turn allow individuals to more fully engage in challenging treatment techniques. Further, research on shared brain mechanisms that contribute to various forms of psychopathology e.
Several other methodological and theoretical limitations that are pervasive in the field also need to be addressed. The vast majority of the treatment studies reviewed reported results at the level of individual areas. However, the field is moving towards a network approach in order to better understand interactions among cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes, which involve a complex array of operations that engage distributed networks of brain regions.
There is some, albeit minimal evidence starting to accrue that treatment normalizes functional communication between regions in individuals with anxiety and depression. Further, measures of pre-treatment connectivity, rather than just the activity of a single region, may also be useful for predicting who will respond to treatment. Thus, the field would greatly benefit from future studies that utilize a network perspective in order to better understand the mechanisms through which various treatments exert their effects. As reviewed above, various antidepressant and psychological treatments appear to target processes that rely heavily on top-down EF e.
This is reflected in treatment-related enhancements of activity in regions involved more in top-down processing and decrements in activity in regions involved more in bottom-up, stimulus-driven processing. Future work explicitly examining functional connectivity should directly test this hypothesis. In addition, very few studies take into account the frequency at which anxiety and depression co-occur Sanderson et al.
Comorbidity is present in at least one-half of those diagnosed with an anxiety or depressive disorder for reviews, see Gersh and Fowles, ; Breier et al. Comorbidity is associated with greater impairments in psychosocial function, greater severity of disorder, elevated rates of suicidality and morbidity, increased health service use, increased treatment resistance, and poorer short- and long-term outcomes Judd et al. Without taking comormidity into account, it is unclear whether patterns of brain activity are specific to depression or anxiety or if instead they reflect their co-occurrence.
Some evidence indicates that co-occurring anxiety and depression have additive and interactive effects on brain function e. Much work needs to be done to better understand how co-occurring levels of anxiety and depression alter brain network function during tasks involving a range of cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes as well as how treatment alters these patterns.
Another issue that warrants consideration in the hemodynamic neuroimaging treatment literature is the reliability of the blood-oxygen-dependant-level BOLD signal across time, given that various factors that can affect it e. Carrig and colleagues reviewed research investigating the test-retest reliability of fMRI and determined that studies examining intraclass correlation coefficients ICC have found good to excellent reliabilities.
However, Plichta and colleagues found that the stability of within-subject amplitude varied depending on the specific task being examined emotional vs. Little work has been done in examining the reliability of the BOLD signal specifically in patients, an issue that is particularly relevant for the treatment literature. Thus, future research would benefit from examining reliability of the BOLD signal in individuals with anxiety and depression prior to treatment.
It has become clear just how interconnected the cognitive, emotional, and motivational deficits in anxiety and depression are, such that it is difficult to distinguish their influences. The present review has demonstrated how basic research on the relationships among cognition, emotion, and motivation in psychopathology and related neural mechanisms has been used to inform treatment-related research.
In fact, there continues to be rich potential for the synergy between these literatures. Despite numerous advances, we do not fully understand the mechanisms that lead to psychopathology, or how to harness these mechanisms most effectively for successful interventions. This review has highlighted numerous gaps in the literature. It is clear that motivation is related to the cognitive and emotional symptoms observed in psychopathology, but little work has been done to understand exactly how motivation interacts with and affects emotion and cognition.
Additionally, much of the treatment-related research has focused on emotion-cognition interactions and neglected to examine how interventions may lead to alterations in motivational processes.
Cognitive motivation | psychology | ywukakyzin.ml
This work could lead to the development and refinement of treatments that better target the motivational deficits observed in psychopathology. Further, there is much excitement about the application of CBM procedures and EF training to better treat psychopathology, but much research remains to be done before these methods are used in common practice. For example, it is not clear how their effects translate to everyday performance or how long they last.
If it is determined that they are as effective as current treatment methods or useful in improving the effectiveness of current methods, these training paradigms could likely be employed easily at home, via internet or computer software, for little cost. There is much promise in capitalizing on the synergy between neuroscience and intervention research to better prevent and treat psychological disorders.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Hum Neurosci v. Published online Jun Warren , 2 Aminda J. O'Hare , 3 Zachary P. Infantolino , 4 and Gregory A. Miller 1, 4, 5. Warren 2 Department of Mental Health, St. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Feb 15; Accepted May This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition relationships and related brain mechanisms are receiving increasing attention in the clinical research literature as a means of understanding diverse types of psychopathology and improving biological and psychological treatments. Introduction Research on emotion and its relationship with cognition has garnered much attention in recent years e. Emotion-cognition interactions in anxiety and depression Emotion-cognition interactions gone awry can lead to clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression.
Executive function deficits in anxiety and depression Anxiety and depression have been associated with deficits in executive function EF; Levin et al. Motivation-cognition interactions in anxiety and depression Numerous behavioral and psychophysiological studies have provided evidence that depression is associated with motivation-related deficits. Relationships among EF, emotion, and motivation Evidence reviewed above establishes many interactions among cognition, emotion, and motivation and clearly indicates that these interactions contribute to psychopathology.
Intervention and neuroplasticity Numerous interventions, both psychological and biological, have been developed to target disruptions in cognition, emotion, and motivation interactions associated with anxiety and depression. Cognitive bias modification Another line of research has explored improving response rates with strategies other than treatment-matching.
Executive function training Evidence is accruing that EF can improve with training e. Mindfulness-based intervention Not much research has been conducted examining the outcomes of specific EF training procedures utilizing EF tasks in individuals with anxiety and depression beyond the preliminary study described above. Limitations and future directions In terms of neuroplasticity, many of the structural changes have been examined in relation to medication.
Conclusion It has become clear just how interconnected the cognitive, emotional, and motivational deficits in anxiety and depression are, such that it is difficult to distinguish their influences. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Neuropsychological functions in anxiety disorders in population-based samples: Executive dysfunction and long-term outcomes of geriatric depression. Psychiatry 57 , — Attention modification program in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder. Reciprocal effects of antidepressant treatment on activity and connectivity of the mood regulating circuit: Antidepressant effect on connectivity of the mood-regulating circuit: Neuropsychopharmacology 30 , — How antidepressant drugs act: Psychiatry 52 , — Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder revision.
This article is a part of the guide:
Psychiatry , 1—45 Cognitive deficits in depression. Psychiatry , — Cognitive control mechanisms, emotion and memory: A novel treatment for anxiety disorders. Psychiatry 51 , — Neural correlates of reward processing in adolescents with a history of inhibited temperament. Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: Anxiety and Its Disorders: Caudate glucose metabolic rate changes with both drug and behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Psychiatry 49 , Cognitive bias modification for anxiety: Efficacy of attention bias modification using threat and appetitive stimuli: Cognitive performance in tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in the elderly depressed. Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. Connectivity-based parcellation of human cingulate cortex and its relation to functional specialization. Investigations of the functional anatomy of attention using the Stroop test.
Neuropsychologia 31 , — Emotional experience and expression in schizophrenia and depression. A taxonomy of emotional disturbances. Neurocognitive mechanisms of anxiety: Neural mechanisms underlying selective attention to threat. Trait anxiety and impoverished prefrontal control of attention. Attentional biases for negative information in induced and naturally occurring dysphoria. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relations between working memory performance and worry.
Working-memory training in younger and older adults: The diagnostic validity of anxiety disorders and their relationship to depressive illness. Autobiographical memory in depression: Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample.
Lateral prefrontal cortex mediates the cognitive modification of attentional bias. Psychiatry 67 , — Regional brain asymmetries in major depression with or without an anxiety disorder: Psychiatry 41 , — Rostral anterior cingulate volume predicts treatment response to cognitive-behavioural therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Conceptualizing motivation and emotion. Comparison of behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in psychotherapy research: Approach, avoidance, and the self-regulation of affect and action.
Remission in major depressive disorder: Cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults with anxiety disorders. Psychiatry 26 , — The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Expanding the mind's workspace: Positive affect versus reward: Phenomenological characteristics of attentional biases toward threat: Cognitive theory and therapy of anxiety and depression: The anxiety and depressive disorders: Distinctive and Overlapping Features , eds Kendall P.
Academic Press; , 83— Collette F. Exploration of the neural substrates of executive functioning by functional neuroimaging.
Neuroscience , — Exploring the unity and diversity of the neural substrates of executive functioning. Paying attention to emotion: The reorienting system of the human brain: Neuron 58 , — Prognostic and diagnostic potential of the structural neuroanatomy of depression. Transfer of learning after updating training mediated by the striatum.
Science , — Autobiographical memory style in seasonal affective disorder and its relationship to future symptom remission. Current status of brain imaging in anxiety disorders. Psychiatry 22 , 96— Cutting stress off at the pass: Brain functional connectivity during face perception differs between patients with social phobia and healthy control subjects. Oxford University Press; , — The neural substrates of affective processing in depressed patients treated with venlafaxine. Psychiatry , 64—75 Brain effects of antidepressants in major depression: Working memory capacity in high trait-anxious and repressor groups.
Anxiety, processing efficiency, and cognitive performance: Medications versus cognitive behavior therapy for severely depressed outpatients: Cognitive therapy versus medication for depression: Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. The MIT Press; , — Neural correlates of emotion—cognition interactions: Executive dysfunction predicts nonresponse to fluoxetine in major depression. Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players.
Abnormal response to negative feedback in unipolar depression: Neuropsychological impairments in unipolar depression: Combined effects of attention and motivation on visual task performance: Motivation sharpens exogenous spatial attention. Emotion 7 , — Specificity of regional brain activity in anxiety types during emotion processing. Psychophysiology 44 , — Co-occurring anxiety influences patterns of brain activity in depression.
Training-induced functional activation changes in dual-task processing: Cortex 17 , — Anxiety and cognitive-task performance. New perspectives in attentional control theory. Anxiety and cognitive performance: Trait anxiety, visuospatial processing, and working memory.
Changes in anterior cingulate and amygdala after cognitive behavior therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. Springer-Verlag; , 47—87 A meta-analytic study of changes in brain activation in depression. Neuroimaging studies of psychological interventions for mood and anxiety disorders: Predictive neural biomarkers of clinical response in depression: Attenuation of the neural response to sad faces in major depression by antidepressant treatment: Psychiatry 61 , Cerebral blood flow changes after treatment of social phobia with the neurokinin-1 antagonist GR, citalopram, or placebo. Psychiatry 58 , — Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Psychiatry 59 , Implications for the Effects of Stress , ed Depue R. Deficient inhibition of emotional information in depression. Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: Psychiatry 61 , 34—41 Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.
Emotion 10 , 83—91 Neural bases of social anxiety disorder: Psychiatry 66 , — Attentional biases for negative interpersonal stimuli in clinical depression. A meta-analysis of treatment outcome for panic disorder. Cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: Elements of a Two-Process Theory of Learning. Academic Press Gray J. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: Oxford University Press Gray J. Integration of emotion and cognitive control. Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex. Striatal functional alteration during incentive anticipation in pediatric anxiety disorders.
Psychiatry , Striatal functional alteration in adolescents characterized by early childhood behavioral inhibition. Reduced resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in social anxiety disorder. Neuroimage 56 , — Attention bias modification treatment: Psychiatry 68 , — A meta-analysis of the effect of cognitive bias modification on anxiety and depression.
Reward and punishment sensitivity in shy and non-shy adults: Incentive-related modulation of cognitive control in healthy, anxious, and depressed adolescents: Psychiatry 48 , — Reduced capacity to sustain positive emotion in major depression reflects diminished maintenance of frontostriatal brain activation. Neuropsychological mechanisms of individual differences in emotion, personality, and arousal. Neuropsychology 7 , — Heller W. MIT; , — Heller W. Regional brain activity in emotion: Decreased responsiveness to reward in depression.
Cognitive habits and memory distortions in anxiety and depression. Localization of asymmetric brain function in emotion and depression. Psychophysiology 47 , — Emotion-modulated performance and activity in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Emotion 5 , — Looking on the bright side: The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: Enduring effects for cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of depression and anxiety.
Task feedback effects on conflict monitoring and executive control: Emotion 7 , 68—76 Spatiotemporal dynamics of error processing dysfunctions in major depressive disorder. Psychiatry 65 , — How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. The neural substrates of mindfulness: Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training. Cognitive control under contingencies in anxious and depressed adolescents: Prefrontal cortex mediation of cognitive enhancement in rewarding motivational contexts.
Emotional attention set-shifting and its relationship to anxiety and emotion regulation. Emotion 9 , — How does practice makes perfect? Cognitive inhibition and emotion regulation in depression. Updating the contents of working memory in depression: Comorbidity as a fundamental feature of generalized anxiety disorders: The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: Neuropsychological differentiation of depression and anxiety.
A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination for the treatment of chronic depression. Attrition in the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Electroencephalographic asymmetries in adolescents with major depression: Psychiatry 51 , 8—19 Development of a superior frontal? Neuropsychologia 44 , — Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD- a randomized, controlled trial. Psychiatry 44 , — Neural responses to monetary incentives in major depression.
Psychiatry 63 , — Anterior prefrontal function and the limits of human decision-making. Brain plasticity and behavior. Introduction to the special section on cognitive bias modification in emotional disorders. Motivation and cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex. Hypothetical constructs versus intervening variables: Do psychotherapies produce neurobiological effects? On the behavioural interpretation of neurophysiological observation. Fear reduction and fear behavior: American Psychological Association; , 3rd May—June A psychophysiological analysis of fear modification using an automated desensitization procedure.
Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport 16 , — Cognitive deficits in depression and functional specificity of regional brain activity. Some neurobiological aspects of psychotherapy: How psychotherapy changes the brain- the contribution of functional neuroimaging.
Psychiatry 11 , — Motivational influences on cognitive control: Enhanced brain connectivity in long-term meditation practitioners. Neuroimage 57 , — The unique brain anatomy of meditation practitioners: The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: Neuroimage 45 , — Functional imaging in clinical assessment? Cognitive bias modification procedures in the management of mental disorders.
Psychiatry 25 , Individual differences in anxiety and the restriction of working memory capacity.
- The Virtues of Madness!
- Expectancy Theory.
- Cognitive Theories of Motivation.
- Five Little Froggies!
- Enchanted Island?
Selective attention and emotional vulnerability: Structural changes in the hippocampus in major depressive disorder: The role of risk avoidance in anxiety. Test-retest reliability of a functional MRI working memory paradigm in normal and schizophrenic subjects. Enhancing neuronal plasticity and cellular resilience to develop novel, improved therapeutics for difficult-to-treat depression. Psychiatry 53 , — Strategies for Guided Action.
Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Frackowiak San Diego, CA: Academic Press; , — Mayberg H. Modulating dysfunctional limbic-cortical circuits in depression: Cingulate function in depression: Neuroreport 8 , — [ PubMed ] Mayberg H. Regional metabolic effects of fluoxetine in major depression: Reciprocal limbic—cortical function and negative mood: Psychiatry , — [ PubMed ] Mayberg H. Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Neuron 45 , — Selective attention and clinical depression: Psychopharmacology , 97— Information-processing abnormalities in anxiety disorders: Psychophysiology 33 , — Mistreating psychology in the decades of the brain.
Issues in localization of brain function: Innovative clinical assessment technologies: The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions: Differential engagement of anterior cingulate cortex subdivisions for cognitive and emotional function. More power to the executive? The role of executive functioning in CBT: Life stress and major depression. Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control. Neuropsychological impairment in patients with major depressive disorder: Effects of behavior therapy on regional cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Keep Exploring Britannica
Anticipatory activation in the amygdala and anterior cingulate in generalized anxiety disorder and prediction of treatment response. Functional imaging studies of emotion regulation: Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory. The error-related negativity ERN and psychopathology: Treatment of recurrent major depression with attention training.
Instrumentality refers to the notion that a person will get a reward upon the satisfaction of the expected performance. The reward may present in various forms — it can be intrinsic or extrinsic, monetary or non-monetary. If this reward is similar for all the activities that a person must perform, instrumentality is said to be low.
There are three factors influencing instrumentality: The product of the three aforementioned variables — expectancy, valence and instrumentality — is called the motivational force. This is the proper formula for motivational force:. Another cognitive theory of motivation, the Goal-Setting Theory was proposed by Edwin Locke in the s. The theory explains that goal setting has an influence on task performance.
Specific and challenging goals are more likely to motivate a person and lead to a better execution of tasks, whereas vague and easy goals may result to poor task performance. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Sarah Mae Sincero Feb 19, Cognitive Theories of Motivation. Retrieved Dec 15, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.
You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Sarah Mae Sincero Share this page on your website: This article is a part of the guide: