Manual Fascinating! Human Bodies (Spectrum® Readers)

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Most of us share a common color vision sensory experience. Some people, however, have a color vision deficiency, which means their perception of colors is different from what most of us see. The most severe forms of these deficiencies are referred to as color blindness. Inherited color blindness is caused by abnormal photopigments. These color-detecting molecules are located in cone-shaped cells within the retina, called cone cells. There are three main kinds of color blindness, based on photopigment defects in the three different kinds of cones that respond to blue, green, and red light.

Red-green color blindness is the most common, followed by blue-yellow color blindness. Sometimes color blindness can be caused by physical or chemical damage to the eye, the optic nerve, or parts of the brain that process color information. As many as 8 percent of men and 0. Men are much more likely to be colorblind than women because the genes responsible for the most common, inherited color blindness are on the X chromosome. Males only have one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In females, a functional gene on only one of the X chromosomes is enough to compensate for the loss on the other.

This kind of inheritance pattern is called X-linked, and primarily affects males. Genes are bundled together on structures called chromosomes. One copy of each chromosome is passed by a parent at conception through egg and sperm cells. In X-linked inheritance, the mother carries the mutated gene on one of her X chromosomes and will pass on the mutated gene to 50 percent of her children. Because females have two X chromosomes, the effect of a mutation on one X chromosome is offset by the normal gene on the other X chromosome.

In this case the mother will not have the disease, but she can pass on the mutated gene and so is called a carrier. In autosomal recessive inheritance, it takes two copies of the mutant gene to give rise to the disease. An individual who has one copy of a recessive gene mutation is known as a carrier. In autosomal dominant inheritance, it takes just one copy of the mutant gene to bring about the disease. What color is a strawberry? Most of us would say red, but do we all see the same red? We see the natural and artificial light that illuminates our world as white, although it is actually a mixture of colors that, perceived on their own, would span the visual spectrum from deep blue to deep red.

You can see this when rain separates sunlight into a rainbow or a glass prism separates white light into a multi-color band. The color of light is determined by its wavelength. Strawberries and other objects reflect some wavelengths of light and absorb others. The reflected light we perceive as color. So, a strawberry is red because its surface is only reflecting the long wavelengths we see as red and absorbing the others. Vision begins when light enters the eye and the cornea and lens focus it onto the retina, a thin layer of tissue at the back of the eye that contains millions of light-sensitive cells called photoreceptors.

Some photoreceptors are shaped like rods and some are shaped like cones. In each eye there are many more rods than cones — approximately million rods compared to only 6 million cones. Rods and cones both contain photopigment molecules that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light. Rods and cones are different in how they respond to light. Rods are more responsive to dim light, which makes them useful for night vision. Another important difference is that all rods contain only one photopigment, while cones contain one of three different photopigments.

This makes cones sensitive to long red , medium green , or short blue wavelengths of light. Humans are unusual among mammals for our trichromatic vision — named for the three different types of photopigments we have. Most mammals, including dogs, have just two photopigment types. Other creatures, such as butterflies, have more than three. Most of us have a full set of the three different cone photopigments and so we share a very similar color vision experience, but because the human eye and brain together translate light into color, each of us sees colors differently.

The differences may be slight. The most common types of color blindness are inherited. Among ants , 23 of 24 adult ants, from three species, scratched at small blue dots painted on their fronts when they were able to see the dot in a mirror.


None of the ants scratched their fronts when they had no mirror to see the dot. None tried to scratch the blue dot on the mirror. When they had a mirror and a brown dot similar to their own color, only one of thirty ants scratched the brown dot; researchers said she was darker than average so the dot was visible. They also reacted to the mirror itself. Even without dots, 30 out of 30 ants touched the mirror with legs, antennae and mouths, while 0 of 30 ants touched a clear glass divider, with ants on the other side.

A more recent study introduces a different approach to examining self-awareness in animals, suggesting a new ethological approach which may shed light on different ways of testing for cognition, and helps advance the debate among ethologists and philosophers on consciousness.

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As such, these results may show that this capacity is not a feature specific only to great apes, humans and a few other animals, but instead that observing self-recognition in animals depends on the method researchers use to verify it. Attempts to verify this idea have been made before, but most of them were only observational, lacked empirical evidences or had been carried out only with a single individual and not repeated systematically with other dogs of different sex and age for example the ethologist Marc Bekoff in used a "yellow snow test [18] " to measure how long his dog was sniffing his scent of urine and those of the other dogs in the area.

Therefore, the final test of self-recognition in a species phylogenetically distant from apes thus with different sensory modalities and communication behaviour as the dog, was not obtained. The innovative approach to test the self-awareness with a smell test "highlights the need to shift the paradigm of the anthropocentric idea of consciousness to a species-specific perspective [19] "—said Roberto Cazzolla Gatti: An organism can be effectively altruistic without being self-aware, aware of any distinction between egoism and altruism, or aware of qualia in others.

This by simple reactions to specific situations which happens to benefit other individuals in the organism's natural environment. If self-awareness led to a necessity of an emotional empathy mechanism for altruism and egoism being default in its absence, that would have precluded evolution from a state without self-awareness to a self-aware state in all social animals. The ability of the theory of evolution to explain self-awareness can be rescued by abandoning the hypothesis of self-awareness being a basis for cruelty.

Self-awareness has been called "arguably the most fundamental issue in psychology, from both a developmental and an evolutionary perspective. Self-awareness theory, developed by Duval and Wicklund in their landmark book A theory of objective self awareness , states that when we focus our attention on ourselves, we evaluate and compare our current behavior to our internal standards and values.

This elicits a state of objective self-awareness. We become self-conscious as objective evaluators of ourselves.

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However, some people may seek to increase their self-awareness through these outlets. People are more likely to align their behavior with their standards when made self-aware. People will be negatively affected if they don't live up to their personal standards. Various environmental cues and situations induce awareness of the self, such as mirrors, an audience, or being videotaped or recorded. These cues also increase accuracy of personal memory. It is "the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations.

Someone with a strong self-efficacy, for example, views challenges as mere tasks that must be overcome, and are not easily discouraged by setbacks. They are aware of their flaws and abilities and choose to utilize these qualities to the best of their ability.

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Someone with a weak sense of self-efficacy evades challenges and quickly feels discouraged by setbacks. They may not be aware of these negative reactions, and therefore do not always change their attitude. This concept is central to Bandura's social cognitive theory, "which emphasizes the role of observational learning, social experience, and reciprocal determinism in the development of personality. Individuals become conscious of themselves through the development of self-awareness.

Self-awareness - Wikipedia

In developing self—awareness through self-exploration and social experiences one can broaden his social world and become more familiar with the self. According to Emory University's Philippe Rochat, there are five levels of self-awareness which unfold in early development and six potential prospects ranging from "Level 0" having no self-awareness advancing complexity to "Level 5" explicit self-awareness.

It is to be kept in mind that as an infant comes into this world, they have no concept of what is around them, nor for the significance of others around them. It is throughout the first year that they gradually begin to acknowledge that their body is actually separate from that of their mother, and that they are an "active, causal agent in space".

By the end of the first year, they additionally realize that their movement, as well, is separate from movement of the mother. That is a huge advance, yet they are still quite limited and cannot yet know what they look like, "in the sense that the infant cannot recognize its own face".

They begin to acknowledge the fact that the image in front of them, who happens to be them, moves; indicating that they appreciate and can consider the relationship between cause and effect that is happening. Prior to 15 months of age, the infant will not react to this, but after 15 months of age, they will either touch their nose, wondering what it is they have on their face, or point to it.

By two years old, they also usually acquire gender category and age categories, saying things such as "I am a girl, not a boy" and "I am a baby or child, not a grownup". Evidently, it is not at the level of an adult or an adolescent, but as an infant moves to middle childhood and onwards to adolescence, they develop a higher level of self-awareness and self-description. As infants develop their senses, using multiple senses of in order to recognize what is around them, infants can become affected by something known as "facial multi stimulation".

Around school age a child's awareness of personal memory transitions into a sense of one's own self. At this stage, a child begins to develop interests along with likes and dislikes. This transition enables the awareness of an individual's past, present, and future to grow as conscious experiences are remembered more often. For example, the infant will talk about the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team, and the New York Rangers hockey team, instead of the infant just stating that he likes sports.

Furthermore, they will start to express certain preferences e. At this age, the infant is in the stage Piaget names the pre operational stage of development. The infant is very inaccurate at judging themselves because they do not have much to go about. For example, an infant at this stage will not associate that they are strong with their ability to cross the jungle gym at their school, nor will they associate the fact that they can solve a math problem with their ability to count.

One becomes conscious of their emotions during adolescence. Most children are aware of emotions such as shame , guilt , pride and embarrassment by the age of two, but do not fully understand how those emotions affect their life. A study entitled "The Construction of the Self" found that many adolescents display happiness and self-confidence around friends, but hopelessness and anger around parents due to the fear of being a disappointment.

Teenagers were also shown to feel intelligent and creative around teachers, and shy, uncomfortable and nervous around people they were not familiar with. In adolescent development, the definition self-awareness also has a more complex emotional context due to the maturity of adolescents compared to those in the early childhood phase, and these elements can include but are not limited to self-image, self-concept, and self—consciousness along many other traits that can relate to Rochat's final level of self awareness, however it is still a distinct concept within its own previous definition.

As children reach their adolescent stages of life, the acute sense of emotion has widened into a meta cognitive state in which mental health issues can become more prevalent due to their heightened emotional and social development. An early philosophical discussion of self-awareness is that of John Locke. In chapter XXVII "On Identity and Diversity" of Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding he conceptualized consciousness as the repeated self-identification of oneself through which moral responsibility could be attributed to the subject —and therefore punishment and guiltiness justified, as critics such as Nietzsche would point out, affirming " According to Locke, personal identity the self "depends on consciousness, not on substance ".

If consciousness is this "thought" which doubles all thoughts, then personal identity is only founded on the repeated act of consciousness: However, one would be the same person as Plato only if one had the same consciousness of Plato's thoughts and actions that he himself did. Therefore, self-identity is not based on the soul.

One soul may have various personalities. Locke argues that self-identity is not founded either on the body or the substance, as the substance may change while the person remains the same. The prince still views himself as a prince, though he no longer looks like one. This border-case leads to the problematic thought that since personal identity is based on consciousness, and that only oneself can be aware of his consciousness, exterior human judges may never know if they really are judging—and punishing—the same person, or simply the same body.

Locke argues that one may be judged for the actions of one's body rather than one's soul, and only God knows how to correctly judge a man's actions. Men also are only responsible for the acts of which they are conscious. This forms the basis of the insanity defense which argues that one cannot be held accountable for acts in which they were unconsciously irrational, or mentally ill [48] — In reference to man's personality, Locke claims that "whatever past actions it cannot reconcile or appropriate to that present self by consciousness, it can be no more concerned in it than if they had never been done: The medical term for not being aware of one's deficits is anosognosia , or more commonly known as a lack of insight.

Having a lack of awareness raises the risks of treatment and service nonadherence. Disorders of self-awareness frequently follow frontal lobe damage. Independently, relatives or significant others who know the patient well are also asked to rate the patient on each of the same behavioral items. The limitations of this experiment rest on the answers of the relatives. Results of their answers can lead to a bias. This limitation prompted a second method of testing a patient's self-awareness.

Simply asking a patient why they are in the hospital or what is wrong with their body can give compelling answers as to what they see and are analyzing. Anosognosia was a term coined by Joseph Babinski to describe the clinical condition in which an individual suffered from left hemiplegia following a right cerebral hemisphere stroke yet denied that there were any problems with their left arm or leg.

This condition is known as anosognosia for hemiplegia AHP. This condition has evolved throughout the years and is now used to describe people who lack subjective experience in both neurological and neuropsychological cases. For example, patients who are blind from cortical lesions might in fact be unaware that they are blind and may state that they do not suffer from any visual disturbances. Individuals with aphasia and other cognitive disorders may also suffer from anosognosia as they are unaware of their deficiencies and when they make certain speech errors, they may not correct themselves due to their unawareness.

Dissociative identity disorder or multiple personality disorder MPD is a disorder involving a disturbance of identity in which two or more separate and distinct personality states or identities control an individual's behavior at different times. They are often unaware of the different lives they lead or their condition in general, feeling as though they are looking at their life through the lens of someone else, and even being unable to recognize themselves in a mirror. This patient harbored three different personalities: Eve White the good wife and mother, Eve Black the party girl, and Jane the intellectual.

Under stress, her episodes would worsen. She even tried to strangle her own daughter and had no recollection of the act afterward. Eve went through years of therapy before she was able to learn how to control her alters and be mindful of her disorder and episodes. Her condition, being so rare at the time, inspired the book and film adaptation The Three Faces of Eve , as well as a memoir by Eve herself entitled I'm Eve. Doctors speculated that growing up during the Depression and witnessing horrific things being done to other people could have triggered emotional distress, periodic amnesia, and eventually DID.

Her accounts of horrific and sadistic abuse by her mother during childhood prompted doctors to believe that this trauma caused her personalities to split, furthering the unproven idea that this disorder was rooted in child abuse, while also making the disorder famous. In however, Sybil's case was exposed as a sham.

Her therapist would encourage Sybil to act as her other alter ego although she felt perfectly like herself. Her condition was exaggerated in order to seal book deals and television adaptations. To this day, no proven cause of DID has been found, but treatments such as psychotherapy, medications, hypnotherapy, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be very effective.

Autism spectrum disorder ASD is a range of neurodevelopmental disabilities that can adversely impact social communication and create behavioral challenges Understanding Autism, These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors.

Their different thinking patterns and brain processing functions in the area of social thinking and actions may compromise their ability to understand themselves and social connections to others. To understand the many effects of autism spectrum disorders on those afflicted have led many scientists to theorize what level of self-awareness occurs and in what degree. Research found that ASD can be associated with intellectual disability and difficulties in motor coordination and attention. It can also result in physical health issues as well, such as sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances.

As a result of all those problems, individuals are literally unaware of themselves. Scientists at the University of Cambridge have produced evidence that self-awareness is a main problem for people with ASD. Researchers used functional magnetic resonance scans FMRI to measure brain activity in volunteers being asked to make judgments about their own thoughts, opinions, preferences, as well as about someone else's. One area of the brain closely examined was the ventromedial pre-frontal cortex vMPFC which is known to be active when people think about themselves.

A study out of Stanford University has tried to map out brain circuits with understanding self-awareness in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Black body

It is in the company of others while engaging in interpersonal interaction that the self-awareness mechanism seems to fail. Higher functioning individuals on the ASD scale have reported that they are more self-aware when alone unless they are in sensory overload or immediately following social exposure. This theory suggests that this happens due to the behavioral inhibitory system which is responsible for self-preservation. This is the system that prevents human from self-harm like jumping out of a speeding bus or putting our hand on a hot stove.

Once a dangerous situation is perceived then the behavioral inhibitory system kicks in and restrains our activities. In these situations self-awareness can be compromised due to the desire of self preservation, which trumps social composure and proper interaction. The Hobson hypothesis reports that autism begins in infancy due to the lack of cognitive and linguistic engagement which in turn results in impaired reflective self-awareness. In this study ten children with Asperger's Syndrome were examined using the Self-understanding Interview.

This interview was created by Damon and Hart and focuses on seven core areas or schemas that measure the capacity to think in increasingly difficult levels. This interview will estimate the level of self understanding present. Without self-understanding it is reported that self-awareness is lacking in people with ASD. Joint attention JA was developed as a teaching strategy to help increase positive self-awareness in those with autism spectrum disorder.

Self-awareness and knowledge is not something that can simply be taught through direct instruction. Instead, students acquire this knowledge by interacting with their environment. It also proves to be a highly engaging and highly preferred tool in understanding the developmental stages of self- awareness. There have been many different theories and studies done on what degree of self-awareness is displayed among people with autism spectrum disorder.

Scientists have done research about the various parts of the brain associated with understanding self and self-awareness. Studies have shown evidence of areas of the brain that are impacted by ASD. Other theories suggest that helping an individual learn more about themselves through Joint Activities, such as the Mirror Self Awareness Development may help teach positive self-awareness and growth. In helping to build self-awareness it is also possible to build self-esteem and self acceptance.

This in turn can help to allow the individual with ASD to relate better to their environment and have better social interactions with others. Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric illness characterized by excessive dopamine activity in the mesolimbic tract and insufficient dopamine activity in the mesocortical tract leading to symptoms of psychosis along with poor cognition in socialization.

Under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , people with schizophrenia have a combination of positive, negative and psychomotor symptoms. The cause of schizophrenia has a substantial genetic component involving many genes. Schizophrenia as a disease state is characterized by severe cognitive dysfunction and it is uncertain to what extent patients are aware of this deficiency.

In the DSM-5 , to receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia, they must have two or more of the following symptoms in the duration of one month: Sometimes these symptoms are very prominent and are treated with a combination of antipsychotics i.

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  5. When a patient is undergoing treatment and recovering from the disorder, the memory of their behavior is present in a diminutive amount; thus, self-awareness of diagnoses of schizophrenia after treatment is rare, as well as subsequent to onset and prevalence in the patient. The above findings are further supported by a study conducted by Amador and colleagues. Investigators assess insight of illness was assessed via Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and was used along with rating of psychopathology, course of illness, and compliance with treatments in a sample of 43 patients.

    Patients with poor insight are less likely to be compliant with treatment and are more likely to have a poorer prognosis. These psychoses skew the patient's perspectives of reality in ways in which they truly believe are really happening. For instance, a patient that is experiencing delusions of reference may believe while watching the weather forecast that when the weatherman says it will rain, he is really sending a message to the patient in which rain symbolizes a specific warning completely irrelevant to what the weather is. Another example would be thought broadcast, which is when a patient believes that everyone can hear their thoughts.

    These positive symptoms sometimes are so severe to where the schizophrenic believes that something is crawling on them or smelling something that is not there in reality. These strong hallucinations are intense and difficult to convince the patient that they do not exist outside of their cognitive beliefs, making it extremely difficult for a patient to understand and become self-aware that what they are experiencing is in fact not there. Furthermore, a study by Bedford and Davis [79] was conducted to look at the association of denial vs. Study results suggest patients with increased disease denial have lower recollection for self evaluated mental illnesses.

    To a great extent, disease denial creates a hardship for patients to undergo recovery because their feelings and sensations are intensely outstanding. But just as this and the above studies imply, a large proportion of schizophrenics do not have self-awareness of their illness for many factors and severity of reasoning of their diagnoses. Bipolar disorder is an illness that causes shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function.