Chapter 11 Infectious diseases in the context of war civil strife and social dislocation. Chapter 13 Infectious diseases associated with natural disasters. Chapter 14 Climate change and infectious diseases. Chapter 16 International organizational response to infectious disease epidemics. Chapter 17 Principles of building the global health workforce. Chapter 8 Food safety in the industrialized world.
Chapter 9 Antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infections. Browse book content About the book Search in this book. Browse this book By table of contents. Book description Social Ecology of Infectious Diseases explores how human activities enable microbes to disseminate and evolve, thereby creating favorable conditions for the diverse manifestations Description Social Ecology of Infectious Diseases explores how human activities enable microbes to disseminate and evolve, thereby creating favorable conditions for the diverse manifestations of communicable diseases.
Key Features Provides essential understanding of current and future epidemics Presents a crossover perspective for disciplines in the medical and social sciences and public policy, including public health, infectious diseases, population science, epidemiology, microbiology, food safety, defense preparedness and humanitarian relief Creates a new perspective on ecology based on the interaction of microbes and human activities.
Phase II — Research Consortia Grants - aims to fund interdisciplinary teams of researchers conducting high quality innovative interdisciplinary research, that would not usually be supported through existing funding schemes.
Environmental and Social Ecology of Human Infectious Diseases (ESEI) specification
Below we specify the principles that Research Consortia would be expected to fulfil. These principles are not expected to necessarily be achieved by all applicants from the outset, in Phase I of the initiative, but are the desired goals to aim for by the submission of final Research Consortia proposals. To this end, catalyst grants are an important formative element.
It is expected that Research Consortia funded through this initiative would meet the following principles:. Research Consortia are expected to be innovative, break the mould of current thinking, and integrate Environmental, Social, Biological and Health Sciences. The following examples are intended to give a flavour of the type of research topics, methodologies and categories of pathogens that could be included in Research Consortia. They are intended to be illustrative, not prescriptive or exclusive, nor are they in order of preference. These also do not attempt to provide examples of fully integrated interdisciplinary approaches.
The environment will play a critical role in the emergence of zoonotic pathogens and the impact of selection in polluted sites may have a dramatic effect by increasing the rate at which such pathogens emerge. Bacteria from diverse sources such as hospital, sewage and animal wastes can become mixed and enter natural habitats through a variety of routes. The subsequent gene pool is exposed to the selective effects of pollutants such as heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and bulk chemicals which can offer unprecedented opportunities for horizontal gene transfer.
A number of drug-resistant pathogens may have developed in this way and preliminary studies are now proving that gene transfer can be enhanced by stress factors such as the presence of pollutants. What are the major environmental and social risk factors for this mixing and how should we reduce the risk in future? Most new and emerging diseases occur in developing countries and a high proportion of these infections are zoonoses and rodent-borne, such as haemorrhagic fever viruses.
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Such infections can spread rapidly in highly populated areas and there is a great risk of infections spreading to other urban areas in different parts of the world. A case study may provide valuable insights into the dynamics of infection.
What pathogens are being carried by rodents in this setting? How and when do pathogens spread within rodent populations from the hinterland to urban areas? How close is the match between patterns of infection and exposure between hinterland rodents, urban rodents and humans? What are the effects of settlement structures, how people live, their proximity to each other and levels of poverty on the dynamics of infection?
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What are the risk factors, especially the cultural and socio-economic risk factors, for rodent infections amongst the human community and how do rodent infections spread within human communities? Faecal-oral zoonoses frequently occur as high-profile outbreaks of food poisoning in the UK.
They represent the single most important group of UK zoonoses, including regular fatalities. Understanding how outbreaks occur would be of public health importance and could emerge from a study of a high risk rural community. What occupations and life styles are risk factors for pathogen carriage?
How does human behaviour affect pathogen carriage and how could behaviour best be modified to reduce the risk? Where are the pathogens in the environment?
The Social Ecology of Infectious Diseases - Google Книги
Are they in domesticated animals or wildlife or their environs? Do they move through different compartments e. Many new and emerging infections are vector-borne e. West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus etc. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of these pathogens and their vectors in the tropics and how, when and where they spill-over into human populations. Environmental change will lead to vegetation change, and also changes in water quality and quantity, affecting vector habitats.
Remote-sensing data and climate-landscape models can be used to predict patterns of future change, and the potential consequences for vector populations. What will be the next emerging pathogen transmitted by vectors?
How will environmental change affect the controls on vector populations and risk of vector-borne diseases acquired from animals? Do certain human cultural practises and individual behaviours such as responses to public health advice, health seeking behaviour and responses to controls of disease spread in agricultural systems, increase the likelihood of transmission and if so, can these risks be mitigated?
What are the consequences of human settlement and farming practices on vector-bourne infections? What are the impacts of globalisation and mobility e. A better appreciation of human behaviour and how it influences the risk of infection and the passage of pathogens between individuals is fundamentally important for understanding how zoonotic infections emerge and spread within communities. What are the interactions between humans and other animals that increase risk of infection?