The Palestinian refugees remaining in Syria suffer a lack of livelihoods or assets and rely on humanitarian aid for covering their basic needs. Despite increased security measures along the border, Syrian refugees continue to be granted asylum in Turkey. The number has been relatively stable since June , with few new arrivals due to the restriction of borders. Some , returns were recorded in the month of September across Syria.
IDPs and returnees are particularly exposed to food insecurity. The agricultural sector has been heavily affected by a decline in crop production, reduced livestock numbers, destruction of infrastructure and services, land degradation, contamination by explosive hazards, drought and loss of human resources for production. Wheat and barley production has sharply declined in , compared to , as erratic dry weather conditions have affected harvests countrywide.
Wheat production fell to 1. Unfavourable rain patterns, combined with the high cost of agricultural inputs, has severely impacted cereal production. Food availability is often limited in hard-to-reach areas, which report the highest percentage of households with inadequate food consumption.
A lack of income and low purchasing power, fragmented markets, and high prices severely affect food access. Insecurity limits access to markets, which are often targeted by airstrikes. Access to food is limited in hard-to-reach areas. More than half of the Syrian population prior to the conflict worked in agriculture. Livelihood activities are particularly limited in existing and former besieged and hard-to-reach areas. As of September there have been attacks on healthcare across Syria this year, with kidnappings of humanitarian workers and medical personnel increasing.
Trauma and burns care are acutely needed across Syria. No new information regarding what has happened to these hospitals is available as of November. Though in November, aid finally reached Rukban camp for the first time since January, UN reporting suggests conditions there are still dire. Many healthcare centres have seen patient loads double.
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Particularly, in Aleppo attacks against health workers have increased during October. Healthcare needs have increased in the governorate, while funding has decreased. Healthcare responses in northeast Syria are improving, however the area is still highly vulnerable to communicable diseases in November Half of all cases reported to various health actors are influenza-like illnesses. There are 23, reported cases of acute diarrhoea. Reporting continues to highlight concerns about the increasing caseload of diarrhoeal diseases countrywide.
Laboratory testing continues to highlight E. Also known as 'the Aleppo boil', leishmaniasis has made a resurgence across northern Syria due to factors such as poor sanitation and vector control. Deir-ez-Zor is particularly affected by leishmanisasis. The reported caseload exceeds 2, New typhoid, bloody diarrhoea and measles have been reported across the northeast.
Access to mental health services remains scarce. Conflict and torture from authorities are cited as the most common causes for PTSD.
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With the escalation of fighting and airstrikes, a growing number of children present extreme panic and fright during classes. Overall, children have been deeply affected by the conflict. Increased aggression and use of drugs by children as a coping mechanism is also reported. A survey conducted in Ein Issa, Suluk and Tell Abyiad sub-districts of Raqqa governorate found that the prevalence of stunting was In Rukban camp in the southwest, the water situation also remains critical as access to and the quality of water is intermittent and unreliable.
Access to piped water remains limited across the country, particularly in the opposition-held areas. People are resorting to untreated water from unsafe sources, such as rivers, makeshift wells, and boreholes. Access to water remains challenging in hard-to-reach areas. The price of water is often too high for poor people to afford.
Poor sanitation is a concern across the country. Overstretched water and sanitation infrastructure combined with a lack of hygeine awareness in affected areas poses several health risks. Inadequate sanitation facilities and waste management are likely to increase health problems and insect-transmitted diseases.
In hard-to-reach areas, sanitation and lack of solid waste disposal are of concern. The lack of opportunities for personal hygiene particularly affects women and children, exacerbating protection and health issues. Winterisation kits are an increasingly urgent need as winter weather arrives. Lack of access, limited funding, reduced coping strategies among IDPs, and the limited finacial capacity of the Syrian government to provide compensation for destroyed housing, are resulting in increasing response gaps in providing IDPs and other groups affected with adequate shelter.
As winter approaches, winterisation kits and adequate shelter will become vital for some 1. Electricity is unavailable in several areas of the country. IDPs and the population remaining in Eastern Ghouta have faced serious fuel shortages in Fuel costs have climbed since May after falling over the last 12 months of reporting. Prices of diesel and butane gas are highest in opposition-held areas. High NFI needs are reported in hard-to-reach areas.
Electricity networks in the district were destroyed. Most communities in Deir-ez-Zor and ar Raqqa governorates have no or limited access to electricity. Education services continue to be disrupted by violence, displacement, persecution, and lack of access. Schools and education personnel are often targeted by airstrikes and shelling. In alone, some 45 schools have been targeted in Eastern Ghouta, and 11 were completely destroyed. Displaced children have the highest chance of dropping out of school.
Education in the IDP camps and settlements is often overlooked. Staff shortages and persecution have been reported. Schools in ar Raqqa report shortages of materials, supplies, and teachers. Vulnerable groups include women, girls, boys, and elderly people. Common protection concerns include exposure to active hostilities, explosive hazards, deliberate targeting of civilians, and gender-based violence GBV. The protection cluster reported large geographical gaps in protection services in June, with some governorates such as Homs, Deir-ez-Zor, Rural Damascus and as-Sweida having no ongoing protection interventions at all.
The use of incendiary weapons, cluster munitions, and barrel bombs is common.
Indiscriminate targeting of civilian areas and facilities by airstrikes was widely reported in The use of chemical weapons has been reported. Executions by different parties to the conflict have been reported. Kidnapping and arbitrary detention is an ongoing protection concern across Syria. Adolescent boys are more likely to be killed, injured, detained, and forcibly recruited. This results in psychosocial consequences, including chronic stress.
Children are exposed to exploitative employment practices. Multiple and protracted displacement results in lack of civil status, which puts children at a risk of statelessness. Women and girls are particularly vulnerable to GBV, early marriages, and restrictions of freedom of movement. Sexual violence and harassment while accessing aid have been reported. Sexual violence, domestic violence and other kinds of violence within the family affect women and girls disproportionately. IDP sites report serious protection concerns related to risks of gender-based violence, unaccompanied and separated children, and restrictions on movement.
Middle East Policy, Special Section: The EU and the Region. Middle East Policy Council, Seeberg, Peter, Learning to Cope. Persistence in Times of Change. Lebanon, Dual Legitimacy, and the Syrian Crisis. Seeberg, Peter; Eyadat, Zaid Migration, Security, and Citizenship in the Middle East.
Seeberg, Peter; Andersen, Rune Palestine in Western travel literature narratives with a focus on the 19th century,In Magnussen, A. University Press of Southern Denmark, pp. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt: University Press of Southern Denmark, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, It is furthermore the idea through the analysis of the development of European-Middle Eastern relations to discuss the EU as foreign and security policy actor.
The work applies a historic perspective looking at the development over time from the launching of the Venice Declaration in to the present, thereby examining how the political and institutional practices of the EU gradually have changed over time and how this has affected the relations between the EU and the Middle East in the period from to The different agreements are seen as elements in a foreign and security regime on behalf of the EU. The idea of analyzing EU policies as a regime is inspired by Roland Dannreuther, who in an article in , quoting Stephen D.
The project discusses the regionalist ambitions of the EU policies, demonstrating that they never in reality were realized.
The project argues that recent EU policies can be termed pragmatic multilateralism, claiming a continuation of pragmatic dimensions of the ENP and that the EU through the UfM pursues a policy which neglects former ambitions of promoting democracy and human rights. The character of the UfM with its focus on selected projects in itself underlines the pragmatic approach in the sense that the institutional development of the UfM and its prioritized projects takes place without touching on politically sensitive issues.
The project focuses on foreign and security policies in a recent context emphasizing the significance of the migration and refugees issues. Taking these aspects of the conflict-ridden Mediterranean region as point of departure it is finally the ambition to discuss possible future scenarios for the EU on the Mediterranean political scene. Palgrave Communications, Special Issue: Democracy and Security, Special Issue: Bringing People Back In Politics: An Arab World in Transition — democratic changes and theoretical discussions, Routledge. Routledge Seeberg, Peter ed. EU and the Mediterranean: Foreign Policy and Security.