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For the reasons set forth below, we will affirm.

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The facts underlying this matter are complicated, and involve the tragic death of Fetterman's granddaughter Natalee. Natalee was born on December 7, , six weeks premature and with a severe opiate addiction as a result of her mother Kayla Jo's chronic drug use during pregnancy.

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Because of Natalee's addiction, the hospital sent a social worker to conduct a safety investigation at Kayla Jo's residence. The next day, Kayla Jo gave Natalee to Fetterman, although no formal legal guardianship was established. Although Supancic did not return these calls, she made notes of these concerns in her files. In addition, Natalee's pediatrician called and spoke with both Supancic and Haywood and voiced his concerns about Natalee's health and safety.

United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit.

WCCB made no efforts to check in on Natalee immediately after her return to her parents, despite numerous concerned calls from Fetterman. Twelve days later, on December 27, Natalee died as a result of multifocal blunt force head trauma which resulted in subdural and bilateral hemorrhaging. The autopsy also revealed numerous broken bones and other injuries.

On January 6, , upon the defendants' motion, the District Court dismissed the suit against Haywood and Supancic as untimely, and determined that the Supreme Court's decision in DeShaney v. We first address whether the District Court erred in finding the Amended Complaint untimely with respect to Supancic and Haywood. In Pennsylvania, the statute of limitations for claims brought pursuant to 42 U. Here, the District Court found that the Amended Complaint did not adequately relate back under Rule 15 with respect to defendants Supancic and Haywood.

Specifically, it noted that Fetterman's original complaint alleged substantially all of Supancic and Haywood's conduct, yet failed to include them as defendants. In the absence of any evidence that Fetterman made a mistake as to the legal or factual circumstances surrounding Supancic and Haywood's involvement in Natalee's death, the District Court drew the reasonable inference that Fetterman made the conscious decision to only sue WCCB.

Fetterman argues on appeal that she made no such deliberate choice, but alleges no facts indicating that the failure to include Supancic and Haywood in the initial complaint was the result of a mistake as to identity.

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  • In the continued absence of any evidence that Fetterman was operating under a mistaken factual or legal premise at the time she filed the initial complaint, we will affirm the District Court's finding that the Amended Complaint does not relate back with respect to Supancic and Haywood. We turn next to whether the District Court erred in treating DeShaney v.

    Exception that proves the rule

    Winnebago County Department of Social Services as controlling. Special leave is given for men to be out of barracks tonight till The value of this in interpreting statutes is plain.

    This legal principle is classically referred to as inclusio unius est exclusio alterius Inclusion of one is to exclude the others. The idea is that if the promulgator of law finds reason to enumerate one exception, then it is only reasonable to infer no others were intended. The Ninth Amendment of the United States Constitution was enacted to explicitly suppress this principle by stating that "The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

    A case may appear at first sight to be an exception to the rule.

    Natalee - Exception to the Rule

    However, when the situation is examined more closely, it is observed that the rule does not apply to this case, and thus the rule is shown to be valid after all. Fowler's example is of a critic, Jones, who never writes a favourable review. So it is surprising when he writes a favourable review of a novel by an unknown author. Then it is discovered that the novel is his own, written under a pseudonym. Obviously the rule doesn't apply to this case although the rule may need to be more precisely stated in future and the previous evaluation of Jones's ill-nature toward others is re-affirmed.

    Cnidaria is a phylum of animals including jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones. There is one exception to this rule. Some species of sea slugs of the nudibranch group have tentacles containing cnidocytes, even though the slugs aren't cnidarians.

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    But it turns out that the slug eats jellyfish and passes the jellyfish's commandeered weapons, intact and still working, into its own tentacles. So examining the only known exception really proved the original rule valid after all. A rural village is "always" quiet. A local farmer rents his fields to a rock festival, which disturbs the quiet. In this example, saying "the exception proves the rule" is literally incorrect, but it is used to draw attention to the rarity of the exception, and to establish the status of the village prior to the exceptional event.

    The general misuse of the phrase is attributable to the ambivalence of the word 'rule'.

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    In the original sense, 'rule' is taken as a strict rule, while in the loose rhetorical sense 'rule' is taken to mean 'rule of thumb'. A couple of examples of the loose rhetorical use would be to say: The original sense of the phrase could only apply to this situation if it were somehow altered, for example: In this way it is implied that none of the rest of them may be allowed as a universal rule to which Ted is the stated exception to wear jeans in the workplace. If the original meaning of the phrase is preserved along with the original example of Ted, it will not fit. The simple fact that Ted is an exception that an exception exists at all proves that the statement about company employees is not a rule, it is merely a trend.


    Another example, if it is common place for a nurse that is male to be described as "a male nurse", it could be taken as evidence to a rule of thumb that most nurses are female. It is also used in jocular nonsense.