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After twelve years of wandering, and at the request of his disciples, Swami Bawra agreed to establish a center for spiritual practice. The first center was inaugurated in , and his mission eventually became an international organization with centers in Holland, England, Canada, and the United States. Swami Bawra also founded schools that included more than ten missionary schools for poor children in the villages of India.

Swami Bawra's teaching emphasizes that the spiritual science of Brahma Vidya, knowledge of the source of life in Brahman, has two aspects, theory and practice. In the Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita the theory of this science is called Samkhya, and its practical aspect is called Yoga. On the basis of his own experiences, Swami Bawra taught a higher practice called Maha Yoga, the "great path" for realizing ultimate truth and finding freedom from suffering.

His teachings are universal and not related with any caste, creed, color, country, community, gender, or sect. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? When death is near, we seek to understand life.

Full text of "Commentary On Katha Upanishad"

This is the premise of the Katha Upanishad and the inspired commentary of Swami Bawra. This commentary on the Katha is a great sequel to Swami Bawra's "Kapil's Samkhya Patanjali's Yoga" where the rational basis of inner connection with the source of life is developed in full detail. Read more Read less. Customers who bought this item also bought.

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There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Excellent exposition on REALity. I love this book for two reasons: It is delightful and engaging to read; and it is full of useful guidance. The Eternal Soul includes a translation of the Katha Upanishad, which is in itself a good story. The commentary is also full of wonderful stories and analogies which clarify the meaning of the ancient text. Yama states that even gods doubt and are uncertain about that question, and urges Nachiketa to pick another wish.

Yama offers him all sorts of worldly wealth and pleasures instead, but Nachiketa says human life is short, asks Yama to keep the worldly wealth and pleasures to himself, declares that pompous wealth, lust and pleasures are fleeting and vain, then insists on knowing the nature of Atman Soul and sticks to his question, "what happens after death? Different is the good and different is the dear, they both, having different aims, fetter you men; He, who chooses for himself the good, comes to wellbeing, he, who chooses the dear, loses the goal.

The Eternal Soul: Commentary on the Katha Upanishad

The good and the dear approach the man, The wise man, pondering over both, distinguishes them; The wise one chooses the good over the dear, The fool, acquisitive and craving, chooses the dear. Knowledge requires effort, and often not comprehended by man even when he reads it or hears it or by internal argument. A similar discussion and distinction between the pleasant and the beneficial is found in ancient Greek philosophy, such as in Phaedrus by Plato. Katha Upanishad, in verses 1. This is one of the earliest mentions of Yoga in ancient Sanskrit literature, in the context of Self-development and meditation.

He the Atman , difficult to be seen, full of mystery, the Ancient, primaeval one, concealed deep within, He who, by yoga means of meditation on his self, comprehends Atman within him as God, He leaves joy and sorrow far behind. Yama, as the spokesman in the second Valli of the Katha Upanishad asserts that man must not fear anyone, anything, not even death, because the true essence of man, his Atman is neither born nor dies, he is eternal, he is Brahman.

These passages have been widely studied, and inspired Emerson among others, [8] [45]. The seer Atman, Self is not born, nor does he die, He does not originate from anybody, nor does he become anybody, Eternal, ancient one, he remains eternal, he is not killed, even though the body is killed. If the killer thinks that he kills, if the killed thinks that he is killed, they do not understand; for this one does not kill, nor is that one killed.

The Self Atman , smaller than small, greater than great, is hidden in the heart of each creature, Free from avarice, free from grief, peaceful and content, he sees the supreme glory of Atman. In final verses of the second Valli, the Katha Upanishad asserts that Atman-knowledge, or Self-realization, is not attained by instruction, not arguments nor reasoning from scriptures. It is comprehended by oneself through meditation and introspection.

It is not attained by those who do not abstain from misconduct, not those who are restless nor composed, not those whose mind is not calm and tranquil, but only those who live ethically, are composed, tranquil, internally peaceful, search within and examine their own nature.

The third Valli of Katha Upanishad presents the parable of the chariot , to highlight how Atman, body, mind, senses and empirical reality relate to a human being. Know that the Atman is the rider in the chariot, and the body is the chariot, Know that the Buddhi intelligence, ability to reason is the charioteer, and Manas mind is the reins.

The senses are called the horses, the objects of the senses are their paths, Formed out of the union of the Atman, the senses and the mind, him they call the "enjoyer". The Katha Upanishad asserts that one who does not use his powers of reasoning, whose senses are unruly and mind unbridled, his life drifts in chaos and confusion, his existence entangled in samsara. Those who use their intelligence, have their senses calm and under reason, they live a life of bliss and liberation, which is the highest place of Vishnu.

This metaphorical parable of chariot is found in multiple ancient Indian texts, and is called the Ratha Kalpana. A similar simile is found in ancient Greek literature, such as the Parmenides , Xenophon 's prologue of Prodikos, and in the Platonic dialogue Phaedrus.

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The Katha Upanishad, in verses 1. It asserts that Artha objects, means of life are above Indriya senses , that Manas mind is above Artha in this hierarchy, above the Manas is Buddhi intellect, his ability to reason , above the Buddhi is Atman his Soul, great Self. The Soul is hidden in all beings, asserts the Katha Upanishad; it does not show itself, but its awareness is felt by seers with agrya sukshma subtle, more self-evident conscious, keen thinkers. Man should, asserts Katha Upanishad, holistically unify his tempered senses and mind with his intellect, all these with his Atman Soul, great Self , and unify his "great Self" with the Self of the rest, the tranquility of Oneness with the Avyaktam and "cosmic soul".

Having obtained these boons, understand them! Like the Razor's sharp edge is difficult to traverse, The path to one's Self is difficult. Paul Deussen states that verses 1. The fourth Valli starts by asserting that inner knowledge is that of unity, eternal calmness and spiritual Oneness, while the external knowledge is that of plurality, perishable "running around" and sensory objects.

For definition, it deploys an epistemic combination of "positive assertions" as well as "exposition by elimination", the latter repeated with, [61]. Atman, asserts Katha Upanishad, is the subject of Self-knowledge, the bearer of spiritual reality, that which is all-prevading, inside every being, that unifies all human beings as well as all creatures, the concealed, eternal, immortal, pure bliss.

It exists and active when man is in awake-state, it exists and active when man is in dream-state.


  1. Après le commencement (FICTION) (French Edition).
  2. Choisir une psychothérapie efficace (Sciences Humaines) (French Edition).
  3. .

To know Atman, look inward and introspect; to know objects, look outward and examine, states Katha Upanishad. Everything that changes is not Atman, that which was, is, will be and never changes is Atman. Soul is the lord of the past, the lord of the now, and the lord of the future.

Anyone who runs after sensory-impressions, gets lost among them just like water flows randomly after rainfall on mountains, state verses 2. There is no plurality and separateness between the essence Atman of I and others, between the essence of nature and spirit, asserts Katha Upanishad in verses 2.

This position contrasts with one of the fundamental premises of the dualistic schools of Hinduism. Ramanuja doesn't and offers a theistic dualism based interpretation instead. Katha Upanishad's fifth Valli is an eschatological treatise. It begins by stating that human body is like a Pura Sanskrit: The individual, asserts Katha Upanishad, who understands and reveres this town of eternal, non-changing spirit, is never crooked-minded, is always free.

This Soul is worshipped by all the gods. Body dies, Soul doesn't. The Soul is always awake and active, while one is asleep, shaping wishful dreams. It is one with Brahman. It is everywhere, within and without, it is immortal. This universal, oneness theme is explained by the Katha Upanishad by three similes , which Paul Deussen calls as excellent. That individual is perennially happy, asserts Katha Upanishad, who realizes the Atman is within him, that he himself is the Master, that the inner Self of all beings and his own Self are "one form manifold", and none other.

Meaning is Atman, full of perennial peace. It is he who realizes this who shines, his splendour shines everything with and by Anu , the whole world shines by such joy unleashed, such splendour manifested. The sixth Valli continues the discussion of Karma and rebirth theory, sections of which Max Muller states is possibly interpolated and inserted in a later period. The first five verses of the last section of the Upanishad assert that those who do not know or do not understand Atman return to the world of creation, and those who do are free, liberated.

The Katha Upanishad, in verses 2.

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Only when Manas mind with thoughts and the five senses stand still, and when Buddhi intellect, power to reason does not waver, that they call the highest path. That is what one calls Yoga, the stillness of the senses, concentration of the mind, It is not thoughtless heedless sluggishness, Yoga is creation and dissolution. The Katha Upanishad concludes its philosophical presentation in verses of the sixth Valli.

The state of perfection, according to the last section of the Upanishad, explains Paul Deussen, consists "not in the attainment of a future or yonder world, but it is already just now and here for one who is Self-realized, who knows his Self Soul as Brahman Cosmic Soul ". This teaching is also presented in the other ancient scriptures of Hinduism, such as Brihadaranyaka Upanishad's Chapter 4.

The verse 15 of the sixth Valli declares that the Upanishad concludes its teaching therein. Scholars suggest [81] [82] that these remaining verses 2. Charles Johnston has called Katha Upanishad as one of the highest spiritual texts, with layers of metaphors embedded therein. To Johnston, the three nights and three boons in the first Valli of Katha Upanishad, for example, are among the text's many layers, with the three connoting the past, the present and the future.

The various themes contained in Katha Upanishad have been subject of many scholarly works. For example, Elizabeth Schiltz [89] has compared "the parable of the chariot" in Katha Upanishad and Platonic dialogue "Phaedrus", noting the "remarkable similarities give rise to a great many tantalizing historical and literary questions", and adding the comment, "each provides an image of the self as the chariot, they each offer a complex moral psychology, and point toward an effective justification of the best life".

A verse in the Upanishad inspired the title and the epigraph of W. The epigraph reads, "The sharp edge of a razor is difficult to pass over; thus the wise say the path to Salvation is hard.


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