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In 1 Peter 3: In support of this is a complex of links with the preceding verses. Here "life" is something that is "inherited". Therefore "life in 3: We are now in a position to see more precisely of what and how it functions as a ground. The entire Old Testament quotation is an expansion and restatement of the argumentation in 3: And since the Old Testament is authoritative for 1 Peter its confirmation of the logic of v. The logic of 3: That this is the writer's intention is confirmed by another redactional element in the Psalm quotation: Let him turn away from evil and do good; let him seek peace and pursue it, because the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous and his ears are open to their prayer but the face of the Lord is against those who do evil.

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One must cease from evil and do good precisely because the Lord is for the righteous and against those who do evil. In view of this conscious redactional treatment of Ps. In other words, the way 1 Peter 3: Therefore the "desire to enjoy eternal life" 3: As additional confirmation of this interpretation we may ask whether a similar kind of motivation is found elsewhere in this letter. Surely Herbert Preisker was wide of the mark when he used this text to illustrate how in "The middle period of early Christianity.

The writer apparently sees no inconsistency between pointing the believer forward toward the future of God's judgment 1: And this is a clear warning against equating 1 Peter 1: Several other texts illustrating 1 Peter's future—oriented paraenetic motivation may be cited briefly. Two other pertinent sayings from chapter 5 contain Old Testament wisdom and reflect the sayings of Jesus: Again it would be wrong as at 1: I think it is fair to say therefore that the interpretation of 1 Peter 3: We are urged to bless those who revile us precisely because this is a means of inheriting the blessing of eternal life and because "the face of the Lord is against those who do evil".

Having now dealt in general with hope as an ethical motivation in 1 Peter Part 2 and having engaged in a detailed analysis of the motivation of enemy—love Part 3 , we are prepared to approach what I called in Part 1 a "mutually correcting interaction" between the two. On the one hand, Part 2 could mislead us into thinking that loving conduct toward our enemy is not a condition of final salvation. It could suggest that, since salvation is secured for all who are born of God, we should never try to motivate love by calling attention to such a condition or by warning that God's face is against those who do evil.

On the other hand, Part 3 could mislead us into thinking that there is no assurance of salvation and that salvation is a reward to be earned with sufficiently valuable moral effort. But neither of these misleading conclusions follows necessarily from our exegesis. Rather, when we hold the two parts together a more balanced and true picture emerges of how 1 Peter aims to motivate enemy—love. From Part 2 it is true: From Part 3 it is true: Make sure you fulfill the condition of love in order to inherit salvation. If we take all of this into consideration when we are addressed with the command and motive of 1 Peter 3: As a synthesis I would suggest the following: If in our heart we do not desire the well being of the one who reviles us, then we will not legalistically and hypocritically proceed to do some good deed for him just because the apostolic word demands it, all the while bearing a grudge in our heart.

That would not be obedience to this command to bless, for one cannot truly bless while inwardly desiring someone's hurt. Instead taking the whole message of 1 Peter into account we will recognize in our own ill will a failure to "hope fully" in the grace of Christ 1: We will admit that not legalistic moral effort but a change of heart is demanded. To that end we will "be sober unto prayer" 4: Thus by the grace of God we may experience a renewal of hope so that in all sincerity and earnestness 1: Thus the function of the motive in 1 Peter 3: Only in this way will our "good conduct" bear witness to God's power and not to our achievement, so that he alone receives the glory 2: Our discussion of ethical motivation in 1 Peter will not be exhaustive: The aim here is not to give a comprehensive view of ethical motivation in 1 Peter but to uncover an I believe the essential aspect of that motivation by grappling with two apparently contradictory motifs see Part I.

Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, , p.

New Testament Studies, 1980, Volume 26, Issue 02

With reference to these three texts Lohse p. Das Ende der Zeit: Herder, , —8. Briefly, the foundation reveals an entire "plan of salvation" rooted in the mercy 1: Christ was predestined before the foundation of the world, was manifested in history 1: Yet he was raised from the dead 3: Now the good news of this accomplished redemption is preached in the power of the Holy Spirit sent from heaven 1: Gerhard Delling's fine statement on motivation in 1 Peter also stops short of explaining how the Christ event enables new behaviour in actual experience: Mohr Paul Siebeck , , The term is adapted from Schlier SCM, , , "In 1 Peter [obedience to the truth] probably refers to the once—for—all act of obedience at conversion—initiation Der erste Petrusbrief; See also Dunn, Goppelt and J.

See also Acts I would want to stress, however, that in Paul faith always includes trusting God's promise Rom. Again the divine priority is expressed in I John 5: So Christian Maurer in T. Delling, "Bezug der christlichen Existenz: But this is an over statement wrongly excluding the subjective dimension. The Epistles of Peter and Jude, The commentators usually just express their feelings and cite each other's opinions.

I can do no better: Which Goppelt as far as I can see, inconsistently admits The New Testament knows nothing of the philosophical difficulty that affections or desires cannot be commanded.

We find commands to rejoice, to be grateful, not to fear or be anxious, etc. The command to love God with all our heart may mean more, but surely not less, than that we should delight ourselves in the Lord and desire his fellowship. The reason affections can be commanded is not that they are in our ultimate control but because, given the nature of divine reality, some affections ought to exist toward God and man and some ought not. To know that a certain affection ought to exist is a sufficient condition for being the object of a reasonable command to experience that affection if we feel unable to render obedience the solution is not to call the commands unreasonable but to pray with St.

Grant what thou commandest and command what thou wilt. Some of the most insightful reflections on the relation between will and desire are still those by Jonathan Edwards in Freedom of the Will New York: That is why our minds must be "girded up" and "sober": Burns and Oates, , , "This epistle shows more compellingly than almost any other New Testament writing what strong moral stimulus hope gives.

Not "human institution", C. Clark, , So Goppelt, ; and Delling, I have phrased these last two sentences carefully so as not to imply that a Christian in absolutely every situation is forbidden to retaliate against evil. In view of 2: But even when he resists, it will be from a different spirit: Er wird in anderer Weise widerstehen, z.

Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, , The efforts of E. Selwyn "establish more clearly than ever the literary dependence of 1 Peter upon several if not all of the epistles of the Pauline corpus", Petrusbrief" see note 6 , In agreement are J. Kelly, The Epistles of Peter, , and K. Schelkle, Die Petrusbriefe Freiburg: Herder, , The saying was also alive in the rabbinic tradition: Burchard cites the use of this expression in I Thess.

Untersuchungen zu Joseph u. Epictetus, Discourses iii, Epictetus, Encheiridion, 42; for other discussions of reviling in Epictetus see Discourses i, Cambridge University Press, forthcoming that this command is not Matthean but original. The commands "Do good to those who hate you and bless those who curse you" Luke 6: Bultmann argues that Luke's four—line unit "is more likely to be the original form since he gives otherwise parallel elements in abridged form", The History of the Synoptic Tradition Oxford: Basil Blackwell, , p.

Seitz argues that the synthetic parallelism of Luke 6: His reasons for rejecting Luke's two unique commands are that the first "do good to those who hate you" can be constructed from words in 6: I do not think either of these arguments is compelling. His reason for rejecting Matt. But the only correspondence between the rhetorical questions and the commands in 5: Herder, , p.

In agreement with C. Barrett, the Epistle to the Romans New York: Harper, , ; P. Cranfield, A commentary on Romans 12—13, S. Gundry, "'Verba Christi' in 1 Peter: Der Segen im Neuen Testament Berlin, , For example IV Ezra 7: Suggestive too is the reference in Matt. Delling, 97, points out the verbal and substantial parallels between Matt. But the author does not buttress his command with an explicit reference to the Lord as Paul occasionally does. It is probably inappropriate to ask why, since the question assumes wrongly that one should or would make explicit the source of every allusion to Jesus' teachings.

For a discussion of why Jesus was not quoted more freely in the early Christian paraenesis see L. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, , — To write as an apostle 1: Ernest Best's remark that Jesus is not cited because he was not yet a moral authority for the church is totally unwarranted. Oliphants, , Admittedly there is no clear break between vv. Selwyn, The First Epistle of Peter, p. Doubleday, , ; J. Broadmann, , Cambridge University Press, , reprinted , Selwyn see note 2 argues f.

He suggests that the form it has in 1 Peter may have already existed in the catechetical tradition p. The Hebrew text reads, "Who is the man who desires life, who loves days to see good? Schelkle, Petrusbriefe, 95; W. On the other side, interpreting them in an earthly, present sense are Bigg, , and Alford, A common Rabbinic interpretation of Ps. But also among the Rabbis the psalm had been given an eschatological interpretation: Therefore it says, 'Keep your tongue from evil' etc. The Rabbis often admonished not to return evil for evil but instead to do good, basing this on OT texts like Proverbs But in the material gathered by Strack—Billerbeck, i, —2, I did not find any connection with Ps.

Hope as the Motivation of Love: 1 Peter –12 | Desiring God

Petrusbrief" note 6 , So Schenk note 55 , On 1 Peter 3: In short, he shows what a gain patience will be, for if we submissively bear injuries the Lord will bestow on us this blessing. Eerdmans, , Best, "1 Peter and the Gospel Tradition", N.


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A register of the genealogy of them which came at the first out of Babylon, of the people, of the priests, of the Levites, of the Nethinims, of Solomon's servants, and of the priests which could not find their pedigree. The whole number of them, with their substance. Study Nehemiah 8 The religious manner of reading and hearing the Law.

They comfort the people. The forwardness of them to hear and be instructed. They keep the feast of the Tabernacles. Study Nehemiah 9 A solemn feast, and repentance of the people. The Levites make a religious confession of God's goodness, and their wickedness. Study Nehemiah 10 The names of them that sealed the Covenant. The points of the Covenant. Study Nehemiah 11 The rulers, voluntary men, and the tenth man chosen by lot, dwell at Jerusalem. A catalogue of their names.

How Do I Teach ‘Christian Hedonism’ to My Kids?

The residue dwell in other cities. Study Nehemiah 12 The priests, and the Levites, which came up with Zerubbabel. The succession of high priests.

Hebrews 8:5 to 6

The solemnity of the dedication of the walls. The offices of priests and Levites appointed in the Temple. Study Nehemiah 13 Upon the reading of the Law, separation is made from the mixed multitude.