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The core values of an organization begin with its leadership, which will then evolve to a leadership style. Subordinates will be led by these values and the behavior of leaders, such that the behavior of both parties should become increasingly in line. When strong unified behavior, values and beliefs have been developed, a strong organizational culture emerges. Leaders have to appreciate their function in maintaining an organization's culture.

This would in return ensure consistent behavior between members of the organization, reducing conflicts and creating a healthy working environment for employees [ 20 ]. Hypothesis 1- Organizational culture is positively correlated with leadership behavior. Job satisfaction has been associated with nurses who perceive their managers as supportive and caring.

A supportive manager shares values, believes in a balance of power, and provides opportunities for open dialogue with nurses [ 21 ], which in turn reduces the chances of internal conflicts. This type of leader is successful in his or her role and is supportive and responsive to clinical nurses, thereby preserving power and status within the hospital system. Such leaders are valued throughout the organization and have executive power to do what they see as necessary to create a positive environment for nursing [ 22 ].

Accordingly, they have a measurable effect on the morale and job satisfaction of nurses [ 23 ]. Hypothesis 2 - Leadership behavior is positively correlated with job satisfaction. Organizational culture expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs, and is the social glue holding an organization together [ 24 ]. A strong culture is a system of rules that spells out how people should behave [ 25 ]. An organization with a strong culture has common values and codes of conduct for its employees, which should help them accomplish their missions and goals.

Work recognition and job satisfaction can be achieved when employees can complete the tasks assigned to them by the organization. Organizational culture is positively correlated with job satisfaction.

The Environment and Management

A structured questionnaire was compiled based on similar studies published in international journals [ 26 , 27 ]. Twenty-three factors regarding organizational culture were taken from Tsui et al.

Our research was focused on clinical nurses in hospitals; therefore, refinements were made to the questionnaire designed by Tsui et al. The study invited three directors or supervisors from the medical center to validate the questionnaire. Lastly, there were 22 questions in the organizational culture section. However, the proposed test was not empirically studied.

Nurses from hospital A were used as a pilot study sample. Four question items were deleted to improve the validity of the questionnaire: Vroom [ 28 ] classified job satisfaction into 7 dimensions: We took into consideration that nurses' salary increases are based on promotion.

Furthermore, a large number of variables in organization culture and leadership behavior were covered by this research. To prevent too few number nurses from responding to the questionnaires, we asked only 4 job satisfaction dimensions out of a total of 12 items: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospitals in Central Taiwan. We employed self-administered questionnaires to collect research data. Data was collected between October 1 and November 30, We selected 2 hospitals as our sample target and appointed a designated person at each to issue questionnaires to employees.

The number of questionnaires issued depended on the designated person. The questionnaires were completed voluntarily by all respondents. During the research period, there were nurses in hospital A; questionnaires were distributed, and 57 valid questionnaires were returned. In hospital B there were a total of nurses; questionnaires were distributed, and valid questionnaires were returned total return rate Of the subjects, The majority of employees at the hospitals were general nurses Within the research sample there is only 1 male nurse.

All data were analyzed using the SPSS To explore the factor construct of scale, a series of exploratory factor analysis EFA were employed. Correlation analysis was used to test for the relationships among subscales of organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction scale.

Finally, a series of regression analysis were used to identify the proposed hypotheses. For H1 and H3, two sets of simple linear regression were used to assess the association between independent variable and dependent variable. For H2, hierarchical regression analysis was used to assess the independent association between leadership behavior and job satisfaction after controlling for the effect of organizational culture.


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The questionnaires used exploratory factor analysis. We extracted 4 factors from the organizational culture via principal component analysis, used the Varimax of the rotation method, and named them: We extracted 4 factors from leadership behavior and named them: We extracted factors for job satisfaction and called them: The average score for organizational culture was between 3.

The average score for leadership behavior was between 3.


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  7. The second highest score was 3. The average score for job satisfaction was between 3. The association between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. The values shown were standardized regression coefficient and value in parenthesis was partially standardized regression coefficient. However, by adopting regression analysis, we also found that leadership behavior impacts on organizational culture. Mayo [ 30 ] argued that the key determinant of job satisfaction was group interaction, and highlighted the importance of good leadership and satisfying personal relations in the workplace.

    Management and leadership behavior at the hospital affected nurses' job satisfaction [ 31 ]. The research also discovered that leadership behavior will also influence employee job satisfaction. As well as the above-described individual factors, the research also showed that factors at the organization level, such as the organizational culture, also have an effect on job satisfaction. This result is consistent with the results of Gifford et al.

    It is recommended that it is also important for hospital administrators to establish a good organizational infrastructure in addition to improving the working environment in order to increase employee job satisfaction. Decisions about patient care are often made by a team, rather than by a single individual [ 33 ].

    To maintain open communication and better coordination, as well as avoiding possible conflicts, one must rely on the role of leaders to motivate the team to achieve the organization goal. It was found that encouragement and support by leaders, their trust and clear vision, their consistent behavior in this regard and their ability to convince subordinates to acknowledge their vision, can all influence employee job satisfaction.

    On the other hand, we found that the factors in achieving job satisfaction were not limited to the employee's working environment, but also included interactions between working partners. Good health care requires good team behavior, so it is also recommended that hospital administrators not only establish relationships within the health care teams, but also work to improve these relationships to increase employee job satisfaction.

    Academics who study organizational culture as their research topic feel that organizational culture is complex. Other academics have found that organizational culture is also related to organization or employee efficiency. Good examples are an organization's innovative ability [ 36 ], employee effectiveness e.

    Kane-Urrabazo [ 20 ] believed that a satisfactory work environment can be created by the employees when an organisation possesses a healthy culture and thus has a positive attitude towards employee work. Since a wide range of variables were included in our study, only a limited number of clinical nurses were interested in participating. Furthermore, only 2 hospitals were involved in this research; therefore, it is proposed that in view of the response rate, future research should consider adjusting the research variables.

    Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

    Organizations face challenges in the external environment and changing internal context, and leaders will alter their behavior to adapt to these environment changes. Therefore it is proposed that longitudinal research methods can be adopted in future investigations into how changes in organizational context impact on leadership behavior. Will these changes create a brand new organization culture? And how will these changes in leadership behavior influence employee behavior and their contribution to the organization?

    Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior in order to reach the organizational goal. It is proposed that future research can explore the type of leadership behavior that will shape a particular culture within an organization. Thus, administrators can achieve the objective of shaping a new organization culture by adopting different leadership behavior training programs. Culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether or not the organization is a happy and healthy place to work [ 20 ]. Through communicating and promoting the organizational vision to subordinates, and in getting their acknowledgement of the vision, it is possible to influence their work behavior and attitudes.

    When there is good interaction between the leader and subordinates, there will be contributions to team communication and collaboration, and encouragement of subordinates to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, which in turn enhances job satisfaction. Special thanks to all persons who assist in distributing questionnaires and those hospital employees who assist in filling out the questionnaires. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

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    Published online May Yafang Tsai 1, 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 3; Accepted May This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken that focused on hospital nurses in Taiwan. Results Organizational cultures were significantly positively correlated with leadership behavior and job satisfaction, and leadership behavior was significantly positively correlated with job satisfaction. Conclusions The culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether it is a happy and healthy environment in which to work.

    Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

    Relationship between organizational culture and leadership behavior Culture is socially learned and transmitted by members; it provides the rules for behavior within organizations [ 18 ]. Relationship between leadership behavior and job satisfaction Job satisfaction has been associated with nurses who perceive their managers as supportive and caring. Relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction Organizational culture expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs, and is the social glue holding an organization together [ 24 ]. How would you prioritize your work, if different managers assigned you tasks due at the same time?

    There is a lot of bossism exist in most of the companies. As a team leader, to what extent do you believe that providing a work environment can help create successful teams? How to embed a strong risk culture into the telecom. What kind of safety culture, management should spread it inside organization? Do you need help in adding the right keywords to your CV? Let our CV writing experts help you.

    Please make sure that your answer is written in the same language as the question. Try adding a different answer. Thank you for answering the question. Unfortunately, the answer you are trying to submit has already been added. You can't add content on Bayt. By Sonia Khayat at Jan Views Followers 2 Upvote 0. Describe the work environment or culture and its management style in which you have experienced the most success for you and for the organization?