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His memory, while not photographic, is nevertheless excellent and has helped keep him alive on more than a few occasions. The author, Gerard de Villiers, has told how in , a friend in the French publishing business talked about the brewing success of James Bond, this just shortly after Ian Fleming had passed away. He thought about the possibility of creating his own series and soon came up with Prince Malko Linge.
Since that start of the series, de Villiers has produced on average 3 to 4 episodes each year. According to information on the Internet, each new adventure sells at least , copies, making a fairly decent living for the writer. These stories, written in French and translated to other languages in Europe, continue to this day. A complete list of the French titles is given below. They were, unfortunately, published in no particular order, which did add to some confusion to the readers. La Traque Bin Laden: Saving Kabul, part 1?
Saving Kabul, part 2? Translations are always a gamble as it is next to impossible to reproduce the feelings the author intended in the original. Nevertheless, the job done by the various translators, largely one Lowell Bair, is a quite good one. Partly inspired by Nasser 's pan-Arab nationalism , it began on 14 October with the throwing of a grenade at a gathering of British officials at Aden Airport.
A state of emergency was then declared in the British Crown colony of Aden and its hinterland, the Aden Protectorate. The emergency escalated in and hastened the end of British rule in the territory which had begun in Aden was originally of interest to Britain as an anti- piracy station to protect shipping on the routes to British India. With the opening of the Suez Canal in , it further served as a coaling station. Following the independence of India in , Aden became less important to the United Kingdom.
The Emergency was precipitated in large part by a wave of Arab nationalism spreading to the Arabian Peninsula and stemming largely from the socialist and pan-Arabist doctrines of Egyptian leader Gamel Abdel Nasser.
The British , French and Israeli forces that had invaded Egypt following Nasser's nationalisation of the Suez Canal in had been forced to withdraw following intervention from both the United States and the Soviet Union. Nasser enjoyed only limited success in spreading his pan-Arabist doctrines through the Arab world , with his attempt to unify Egypt and Syria as the United Arab Republic collapsing in failure three years later. A perceived anti-colonial uprising in Aden in provided another potential opportunity for his doctrines, though it is not clear to what extent Nasser directly incited the revolt in Aden, as opposed to the Yemeni guerrilla groups drawing inspiration from Nasser's pan-Arabist ideas but acting independently themselves.
By and in the ensuing years, anti-British guerrilla groups with varying political objectives began to coalesce into two larger, rival organisations: The grenade killed a woman and injured fifty other people. On that day, a state of emergency was declared in Aden. One such attack was carried out against RAF Khormaksar during a children's party, killing a girl and wounding four children. The guerrilla attacks largely focused on killing off-duty British officers and policemen. Much of the violence was carried out in Crater , the old Arab quarter of Aden. Despite taking a toll on British forces, the death toll among rebels was far higher, largely due to inter-factional fighting among different rebel groups.
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In the British 24th Infantry Brigade arrived to conduct land operations. It remained in Aden and the Aden Protectorate until November These included transport units with helicopters and a number of Hawker Hunter fighter bomber aircraft. Annual census was 16, Q1-Q3: The chief complaints of consultation are presented in Fig 1. Chief complaints are represented per age in Fig 2.
To the best of our knowledge, the French Emergency Survey is the first study that provides data aimed to portray the characteristics of all EDs in a European Country with such exhaustivity [ 30 ]. A previous study performed in among a sample of French EDs and considered as representative of all French EDs reported an annual census of 23, [ 31 ]. The triage nurse concept was introduced in in French EDs [ 32 ]. The decree No — regarding ED organization [ 24 ] recommends that when the activity of the emergency structure allows it, the team should also include a triage nurse.
In , the SFMU published triage recommendations [ 33 ] calling for a triage nurse in all EDs with more than 5 patients per hour corresponding to 43, ED visits per year. In our study, every ED with more than 45, ED visits per year had a triage nurse. Numerous international studies have been published about the use of triage scales [ 34 , 35 ]. But few data are available regarding the rate of triage implementation in developed countries. To mitigate overcrowding, triage, as well as other interventions that aim at improving patient flow, has been extensively evaluated.
Short tracks have been shown to be effective in reducing low priority patients waiting time and length of stay, without negatively affecting the times of patients with higher priority [ 26 , 37 — 41 ]. Our results show that ED patients were less likely to have a supplementary health insurance or CMU-C coverage, as compared to the overall French population. Numerous studies have demonstrated that no or poor supplementary health insurance coverage is associated with both difficulties in health care access and frequency of ED visits [ 45 — 48 ].
Thus, over-representation of people with no supplementary health insurance coverage or CMU-c might reflect the social vulnerability of this population. We found approximately the same hospitalization rate as the previous study performed in [ 31 ]. As in , the median hospitalization rate was higher in public hospitals than private hospitals [ 31 ]. The main limitation is that data regarding patients were recorded in real time i.
Second, this study has limitations that are common to this type of study design declarative surveys such as reporting bias including social desirability bias and representativeness of the sample. But it is important to note that in most cases, the proxy was a family member. Thus, we can assume that the proxy is sufficiently close to the individual to correctly answer, particularly concerning socio-demographic characteristics.
In addition, the design of the survey allowed for responses to the ED questionnaire provided by an ED administrator, which reduced the risk of missing data and reporting bias. Concerning representativeness of the sample, as And finally, data referred to French EDs, which raises the question of the generalizability of the results. In , the French Health and Social Affairs Ministry compared the organization of emergency systems in 10 European countries [ 49 ] and reported that major differences existed for pre-hospital care but that EDs were similar. In addition, it underlines how ED organization has been redesigned to face the increase in the number of ED visits, such as the establishment of a triage nurse or of a fast-track process.
Moreover, French EDs appear to have a particular role for vulnerable people, age-related vulnerability as one in five patients are more than 75 years old, but also socio-economic vulnerability, with an over-representation of patients with no complementary health coverage. These major considerations might guide future studies on the subject of ED organization and care. We also thank all members of the Frenche Society of Emergency Medicine who helped filling the questionnaire on the day of the survey: The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Jan 2; Accepted May This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Glossary of abbreviations used. Abstract Introduction Some major changes have occurred in emergency department ED organization since the early s, such as the establishment of triage nurses and short-track systems.
The French Emergency National Survey: A description of emergency departments and patients in France
Methods The French Emergency Survey was a nationwide cross-sectional survey. Results Among the EDs in France, were surveyed. Introduction The main aim of emergency medicine EM is prevention, diagnosis, treatment and orientation for patients with a wide range of un-anticipated illnesses or injuries [ 1 — 4 ]. Methods Study design and selection of participants The F rench E mergency S urvey FES was a nationwide cross-sectional survey with a two-level design aiming to describe hospital-based emergency care in France through ED organization and ED patients.
Survey development The research tool was developed by the study steering committee based on a previous survey of a sample of EDs [ 28 ], a literature review and a qualitative study as previously described [ 28 ].
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Survey description A two-level design was used for the survey. ED questionnaire The ED questionnaire comprised questions organised as follows: Patient questionnaire For every patient who presented to a participating ED on that day, the patient section of the questionnaire was completed by the patient or the accompanying person under the supervision of the EP. Data collection One study referent in each ED transmitted data from completed questionnaires to a dedicated secure website. Statistical analysis Descriptive analyses were performed.
Results Characteristics of all emergency departments Among the surveyed EDs, Table 1 Characteristics of all emergency department.
Open in a separate window. Table 2 Characteristics of general emergency departments. Table 3 Characteristics of triage organization depending on the number of ED visits per year.