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Spinoza argued that God exists and is abstract and impersonal. This view was held by Epicureans before him, as they believed that atoms with their probabilistic paths were the only substance that existed fundamentally. Spinoza viewed God and Nature as two names for the same reality, [77] namely a single, fundamental substance meaning "that which stands beneath" rather than "matter" that is the basis of the universe and of which all lesser "entities" are actually modes or modifications, that all things are determined by Nature to exist and cause effects, and that the complex chain of cause-and-effect is understood only in part.

His identification of God with nature was more fully explained in his posthumously published Ethics. Humans presume themselves to have free will , he argues, which is a result of their awareness of appetites that affect their minds, while being unable to understand the reasons why they desire what they desire and act as they do. Spinoza contends that " Deus sive Natura " is a being of infinitely many attributes, of which thought and extension are two.

His account of the nature of reality then seems to treat the physical and mental worlds as intertwined, causally related, and deriving from the same Substance.

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It is important to note that, in Parts 3 through 4 of the Ethics," Spinoza describes how the human mind is affected by both mental and physical factors. He directly contests and denies dualism. The universal Substance emanates both body and mind; while they are different attributes, there is no fundamental difference between these aspects.

This formulation is a historically significant solution to the mind—body problem known as neutral monism. Spinoza's system also envisages a God that does not rule over the universe by Providence, by which it can and does make changes, but a God that is the deterministic system of which everything in nature is a part. Spinoza argues that "things could not have been produced by God in any other way or in any other order than is the case,"; [90] he directly challenges a transcendental God that actively responds to events in the universe.

Everything that has and will happen is a part of a long chain of cause-and-effect, which, at a metaphysical level, humans are unable to change. No amount of prayer or ritual will sway God. Only knowledge of God provides the best response to the world around them.

Not only is it impossible for two infinite Substances to exist two infinities being absurd , [91] God as the ultimate Substance cannot be affected by anything else, or else it would be affected by something else, and not be the fundamental, all-pervasive Substance. Spinoza was a thoroughgoing determinist who held that absolutely everything that happens occurs through the operation of necessity.

For him, even human behaviour is fully determined, with freedom being our capacity to know that we are determined and to understand why we act as we do. By forming more "adequate" ideas about what we do and our emotions or affections , we become the adequate cause of our effects internal or external , which entails an increase in activity versus passivity.

This process allows us to become both more free and more like God, as Spinoza argues in the Scholium to Prop. However, Spinoza also held that everything must necessarily happen the way that it does. Therefore, humans have no free will, despite strongly believing that they do. This illusionary perception of freedom stems from human consciousness, experience, and indifference to prior natural causes.

For Spinoza, our actions are guided entirely by natural impulses. In his letter to G. Schuller Letter 58 , he wrote: This picture of Spinoza's determinism is illuminated by this famous quote in Ethics: Spinoza's philosophy has much in common with Stoicism inasmuch as both philosophies sought to fulfil a therapeutic role by instructing people how to attain happiness. Spinoza, however, differed sharply from the Stoics in one important respect: He utterly rejected their contention that reason could defeat emotion. On the contrary, he contended, an emotion can only be displaced or overcome by a stronger emotion.

For him, the crucial distinction was between active and passive emotions, the former being those that are rationally understood and the latter those that are not. He also held that knowledge of true causes of passive emotion can transform it to an active emotion, thus anticipating one of the key ideas of Sigmund Freud 's psychoanalysis. Spinoza shared ethical beliefs with ancient Epicureans, in renouncing ethics beyond the material world, although Epicureans focused more on physical pleasure and Spinoza more on emotional wellbeing. Spinoza held good and evil to be relative concepts, claiming that nothing is intrinsically good or bad except relative to a particularity.

Things that had classically been seen as good or evil, Spinoza argued, were simply good or bad for humans.

Spinoza believes in a deterministic universe in which "All things in nature proceed from certain [definite] necessity and with the utmost perfection. Given Spinoza's insistence on a completely ordered world where "necessity" reigns, Good and Evil have no absolute meaning. The world as it exists looks imperfect only because of our limited perception. In the universe anything that happens comes from the essential nature of objects, or of God or Nature.

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According to Spinoza, reality is perfection. If circumstances are seen as unfortunate it is only because of our inadequate conception of reality. While components of the chain of cause and effect are not beyond the understanding of human reason, human grasp of the infinitely complex whole is limited because of the limits of science to empirically take account of the whole sequence. Spinoza also asserted that sense perception, though practical and useful, is inadequate for discovering truth.

Also in the "Ethics", [96] Spinoza discusses his beliefs about what he considers to be the three kinds of knowledge that come with perceptions. The first kind of knowledge he writes about is the knowledge of experiences. More precisely, this first type of knowledge can be known as the knowledge of things that could be "mutilated, confused, and without order. Dangerous reason lacks any type of rationality, and causes the mind to be in a "passive" state.

This type of "passive mind" that Spinoza writes about in the earlier books of The Ethics is a state of the mind in which adequate causes become passions. He explains that this knowledge is had by the rationality of any adequate causes that have to do with anything common to the human mind. An example of this could be anything that is classified as being of imperfect virtue. Imperfect virtues are seen as those which are incomplete. Many philosophers, such as Thomas Aquinas and Aristotle, would compare imperfect virtue to pagan virtue. Spinoza defines the third and final knowledge as the knowledge of God, which requires rationality and reason of the mind.

In more detail, Spinoza uses this type of knowledge to join together the essence of God with the individual essence. This knowledge is also formed from any adequate causes that include perfect virtue. In the final part of the " Ethics ", his concern with the meaning of "true blessedness", and his explanation of how emotions must be detached from external causes in order to master them, foreshadow psychological techniques developed in the s. It is a widespread belief that Spinoza equated God with the material universe.

He has therefore been called the "prophet" [98] and "prince" [99] and most eminent expounder of pantheism. More specifically, in a letter to Henry Oldenburg he states, "as to the view of certain people that I identify God with Nature taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter , they are quite mistaken". God has infinitely many other attributes which are not present in our world. According to German philosopher Karl Jaspers — , when Spinoza wrote Deus sive Natura Latin for 'God or Nature' , Spinoza meant God was natura naturans nature doing what nature does; literally, 'nature naturing' , not natura naturata nature already created; literally, 'nature natured'.

Jaspers believed that Spinoza, in his philosophical system, did not mean to say that God and Nature are interchangeable terms, but rather that God's transcendence was attested by his infinitely many attributes, and that two attributes known by humans, namely Thought and Extension, signified God's immanence.


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That world is of course "divisible"; it has parts. But Spinoza said, "no attribute of a substance can be truly conceived from which it follows that the substance can be divided", meaning that one cannot conceive an attribute in a way that leads to division of substance. He also said, "a substance which is absolutely infinite is indivisible" Ethics, Part I, Propositions 12 and Therefore, according to Jaspers, the pantheist formula "One and All" would apply to Spinoza only if the "One" preserves its transcendence and the "All" were not interpreted as the totality of finite things.

The world is not God, but it is, in a strong sense, "in" God. Not only do finite things have God as their cause; they cannot be conceived without God. In , Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi published a condemnation of Spinoza's pantheism, after Gotthold Lessing was thought to have confessed on his deathbed to being a "Spinozist", which was the equivalent in his time of being called an atheist.

Jacobi claimed that Spinoza's doctrine was pure materialism, because all Nature and God are said to be nothing but extended substance. This, for Jacobi, was the result of Enlightenment rationalism and it would finally end in absolute atheism. Moses Mendelssohn disagreed with Jacobi, saying that there is no actual difference between theism and pantheism. The issue became a major intellectual and religious concern for European civilization at the time.

The attraction of Spinoza's philosophy to late 18th-century Europeans was that it provided an alternative to materialism, atheism, and deism.


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  6. Three of Spinoza's ideas strongly appealed to them:. Coleridge and Shelley saw in Spinoza's philosophy a religion of nature. Spinoza was considered to be an atheist because he used the word "God" Deus to signify a concept that was different from that of traditional Judeo—Christian monotheism. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Spinoza's God is an "infinite intellect" Ethics 2p11c — all knowing 2p3 , and capable of loving both himself—and us, insofar as we are part of his perfection 5p35c. And if the mark of a personal being is that it is one towards which we can entertain personal attitudes, then we should note too that Spinoza recommends amor intellectualis dei the intellectual love of God as the supreme good for man 5p However, the matter is complex.

    Spinoza's God does not have free will 1p32c1 , he does not have purposes or intentions 1 appendix , and Spinoza insists that "neither intellect nor will pertain to the nature of God" 1p17s1. Moreover, while we may love God, we need to remember that God is really not the kind of being who could ever love us back. Steven Nadler suggests that settling the question of Spinoza's atheism or pantheism depends on an analysis of attitudes. If pantheism is associated with religiosity, then Spinoza is not a pantheist, since Spinoza believes that the proper stance to take towards God is not one of reverence or religious awe, but instead one of objective study and reason, since taking the religious stance would leave one open to the possibility of error and superstition.

    Similarities between Spinoza's philosophy and Eastern philosophical traditions have been discussed by many authors. We mean the philosophy of Spinoza, a man whose very life is a picture of that moral purity and intellectual indifference to the transitory charms of this world, which is the constant longing of the true Vedanta philosopher Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries grew even more interested in Spinoza, often from a left-wing or Marxist perspective.

    Karl Marx liked Spinoza's account of the universe, interpreting it as materialistic. Deleuze's doctoral thesis, published in , calls him "the prince of philosophers".

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    In Santayana's autobiography, he characterized Spinoza as his "master and model" in understanding the naturalistic basis of morality. Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein evoked Spinoza with the title suggested to him by G. Moore of the English translation of his first definitive philosophical work, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus , an allusion to Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Elsewhere, Wittgenstein deliberately borrowed the expression sub specie aeternitatis from Spinoza Notebooks, , p.

    The structure of his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus does have some structural affinities with Spinoza's Ethics though, admittedly, not with the latter's own Tractatus in erecting complex philosophical arguments upon basic logical assertions and principles. Furthermore, in propositions 6. Leo Strauss dedicated his first book, Spinoza's Critique of Religion , to an examination of the latter's ideas.

    In the book, Strauss identified Spinoza as part of the tradition of Enlightenment rationalism that eventually produced Modernity. Moreover, he identifies Spinoza and his works as the beginning of Jewish Modernity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Spinoza disambiguation. Amsterdam , Dutch Republic. The Hague , Dutch Republic. Wagner , Davidson , Deleuze , Einstein , G. Philosophy of Baruch Spinoza. Biography portal Philosophy portal Amsterdam portal.

    A Life" by Steven Nadler ". The New York Times , Books. Retrieved 7 September Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 7 March Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 2 May Portugal compelled them to convert to Catholicism in XVI, number 2, Manfred Walther unter Mitarbeit v. Specula 4,1 — 4,2. Retrieved 7 October Spinoza in 90 Minutes.

    Benjamin Bragg, , 4. Brill , , p. And he turned back, and looked on them, and cursed them in the name of the Lord. And there came forth two she bears out of the wood, and tare forty and two children of them. Smith, Spinoza's book of life: The Jewish Chronicle Online.

    A Theologico-Political Treatise and A Political Treatise

    The New York Times. Retrieved 14 July De Witt, to sally forth at night, and put up somewhere, near the place of the massacre, a paper with the words Ultimi barbarorum [ultimate barbarity]. But his host had shut the house to prevent his going out, for he would have run the risk of being torn to pieces. Thomas Constable and Company, A commentary on Descartes' work, Principles of Cartesian Philosophy, only work published under his own name, brought him on an invitation to teach philosophy at the University of Heidelberg.

    Spinoza, however, refused, thinking that it might be demanded the renouncement of his freedom of thought, for the invite stipulated that all care should be taken to "not insult the principles of the established religion. Retrieved 8 September Stuart 21 February The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 21 February — via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 21 February Ethics , in Spinoza: Complete Works , trans. Hackett Publishing, , see Part I, Proposition Retrieved 11 November Smith regarded as the most dangerous enemy of Christianity, and as he announced his conviction that it had gained the control of the schools, press and pulpit of the Old World [Europe], and was rapidly gaining the same control of the New [United States], his alarm and indignation sometimes rose to the eloquence of genuine passion.

    The Life and Times Ronald W. Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 24 December P Blavatsky's Collected Writings, Volume 13, pp. Parts One and Two: Charles Scribner's Sons, — MIT Press, — Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original on 8 June Archived from the original on 22 May Ecology, community and lifestyle. Book review The Philosophy of Spinoza. By Henry Austryn Wolfson". A Life in Writing. Licata, "Spinoza e la cognitio universalis dell'ebraico. Demistificazione e speculazione grammaticale nel Compendio di grammatica ebraica", Giornale di Metafisica, 3 , pp.

    A Theologico-Political Treatise and A Political Treatise

    Albiac, Gabriel , Spinoza et la politique "Spinoza and politics" Paris: A Study of Spinoza's Ethics. A Bibliography from the Seventeenth Century to the Present. Eighteenth and Nineteenth-Century Discussions. Spinoza" Martin Joughin New York: Martin Joughin New York: Representation and the Mind-Body Problem in Spinoza. The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. Gatens, Moira, and Lloyd, Genevieve, Spinoza, past and present.


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    A Life of Spinoza. Preface, in French, by Gilles Deleuze, available here: Archived from the original on 11 June Israel, Jonathan , In the unfinished Political Treatise , Spinoza develops a theory of government founded on common consent. This volume is part of Dover's Philosophical Classics series, a collection of the major works in Western and Eastern philosophy that ranges from ancient Greece to modern times.

    Its low-priced, high-quality, unabridged editions are ideal for teachers and students as well as for other readers. Two important works by one of philosophy's most original and penetrating thinkers appear in this volume. Spinoza's "Theologico-Political Treatise" presents an eloquent plea for religious liberty, demonstrating that true religion consists of the practice of simple piety, independent of philosophical speculation.

    He examines the Bible at length to show that freedom of thought and of speech are consistent with the religious life. In the unfinished "Political Treatise," the author develops a theory of government founded on common consent. Harry Potter Boxset Books by J. Rowling Paperback, More Beautiful Than Before: Where Did the Towers Go?