Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent.
Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic credit, that is achieved through false claims of authorship. Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's audience for example, a reader, listener, or teacher. Plagiarism is also considered a moral offense against anyone who has provided the plagiarist with a benefit in exchange for what is specifically supposed to be original content for example, the plagiarist's publisher, employer, or teacher.
In such cases, acts of plagiarism may sometimes also form part of a claim for breach of the plagiarist's contract, or, if done knowingly, for a civil wrong. Within academia , plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion. Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientations, required writing courses, and clearly articulated honor codes [ citation needed ].
Indeed, there is a virtually uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong [ citation needed ]. An extreme form of plagiarism, known as contract cheating involves students paying someone else, such as an essay mill , to do their work for them. In journalism , plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics , and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment [ citation needed ].
Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet , where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. For professors and researchers, plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and perceived integrity.
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No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists  ; however, this section provides several definitions to exemplify the most common characteristics of academic plagiarism. According to Bela Gipp  academic plagiarism encompasses:. The definition by B. Gipp is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman's definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic of plagiarism.
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Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone:. Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher learning and universities:. According to a survey of teachers and professors by Turnitin  there are 10 main forms of plagiarism that students commit:. In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution [ citation needed ].
Generally, the punishment increases as a person enters higher institutions of learning [ citation needed ]. The seriousness with which academic institutions address student plagiarism may be tempered by a recognition that students may not fully understand what plagiarism is.
A study showed that students who were new to university study did not have a good understanding of even the basic requirements of how to attribute sources in written academic work, yet students were very confident that they understood what referencing and plagiarism are. For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism e.
There has been historic concern about inconsistencies in penalties administered for university student plagiarism, and a plagiarism tariff was devised in for UK higher education institutions in an attempt to encourage some standardization of approaches. However, to impose sanctions, plagiarism needs to be detected. Strategies faculty members use to detect plagiarism include carefully reading students work and making note of inconsistencies in student writing, citation errors and providing plagiarism prevention education to students. There are allegations that some diploma mills [ discuss ] take students' money for essays, then produce a low standard essay or close their websites without providing the purchased essay.
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Students then have little time to provide an essay before a deadline. Also diploma mills have allegedly blackmailed students demanding more money than was originally agreed and threatening to reveal plagiarism to the university unless more money is paid. There are calls for diploma mills to be made illegal in the United Kingdom, in New Zealand and some juristictions in the United States they are already illegal. Given the serious consequences that plagiarism has for students, there has been a call for a greater emphasis on learning in order to help students avoid committing plagiarism.
Several studies investigated factors that influence the decision to plagiarize. For example, a panel study with students from German universities found that academic procrastination predicts the frequency plagiarism conducted within six months followed the measurement of academic procrastination. Another study found that plagiarism is more frequent if students perceive plagiarism as beneficial and if they have the opportunity to plagiarize. Since journalism relies on the public trust, a reporter's failure to honestly acknowledge their sources undercuts a newspaper or television news show's integrity and undermines its credibility.
Journalists accused of plagiarism are often suspended from their reporting tasks while the charges are being investigated by the news organization. The reuse of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one's own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or citing the original work is sometimes described as "self-plagiarism"; the term "recycling fraud" has also been used to describe this practice.
In addition there can be a copyright issue if copyright of the prior work has been transferred to another entity. Self-plagiarism is considered a serious ethical issue in settings where someone asserts that a publication consists of new material, such as in publishing or factual documentation. In academic fields, self-plagiarism occurs when an author reuses portions of their own published and copyrighted work in subsequent publications, but without attributing the previous publication.
Miguel Roig has written at length about the topic of self-plagiarism     and his definition of self-plagiarism as using previously disseminated work is widely accepted among scholars of the topic. However, the "self-plagiarism" has been challenged as being self-contradictory, an oxymoron ,  and on other grounds.
For example, Stephanie J. Bird  argues that self-plagiarism is a misnomer, since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others' material. Bird identifies the ethical issues of "self-plagiarism" as those of "dual or redundant publication. Resnik clarifies, "Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but not intellectual theft. According to Patrick M.
Roig offers a useful classification system including four types of self-plagiarism: Some academic journals have codes of ethics that specifically refer to self-plagiarism. For example, the Journal of International Business Studies. The organization published a code of ethics that describes plagiarism as " It does say that when a thesis or dissertation is published "in whole or in part", the author is "not ordinarily under an ethical obligation to acknowledge its origins.
Pamela Samuelson , in , identified several factors she says excuse reuse of one's previously published work, that make it not self-plagiarism. Among other factors that may excuse reuse of previously published material Samuelson lists the following:. Samuelson states she has relied on the "different audience" rationale when attempting to bridge interdisciplinary communities.
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She refers to writing for different legal and technical communities, saying: And, in truth, I lift them. Samuelson describes misrepresentation as the basis of self-plagiarism. Plagiarism is presumably not an issue when organizations issue collective unsigned works since they do not assign credit for originality to particular people. For example, the American Historical Association 's "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" regarding textbooks and reference books states that, since textbooks and encyclopedias are summaries of other scholars' work, they are not bound by the same exacting standards of attribution as original research and may be allowed a greater "extent of dependence" on other works.
Through all of the history of literature and of the arts in general, works of art are for a large part repetitions of the tradition ; to the entire history of artistic creativity belong plagiarism, literary theft, appropriation , incorporation, retelling, rewriting, recapitulation, revision, reprise, thematic variation , ironic retake, parody , imitation, stylistic theft, pastiches , collages , and deliberate assemblages.
Ruth Graham quotes T. Eliot —"Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal.
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Bad poets deface what they take. A passage of Laurence Sterne 's Tristram Shandy condemns plagiarism by resorting to plagiarism. Sterne's Writings, in which it is clearly shewn, that he, whose manner and style were so long thought original, was, in fact, the most unhesitating plagiarist who ever cribbed from his predecessors in order to garnish his own pages. It must be owned, at the same time, that Sterne selects the materials of his mosaic work with so much art, places them so well, and polishes them so highly, that in most cases we are disposed to pardon the want of originality, in consideration of the exquisite talent with which the borrowed materials are wrought up into the new form.
Free online tools are becoming available to help identify plagiarism,   and there are a range of approaches that attempt to limit online copying, such as disabling right clicking and placing warning banners regarding copyrights on web pages. Instances of plagiarism that involve copyright violation may be addressed by the rightful content owners sending a DMCA removal notice to the offending site-owner, or to the ISP that is hosting the offending site. The term "content scraping" has arisen to describe the copying and pasting of information from websites  and blogs.
The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc. Each of the types of repetition that we have examined is not limited to the mass media but belongs by right to the entire history of artistic creativity; plagiarism, quotation, parody, the ironic retake are typical of the entire artistic-literary tradition. Much art has been and is repetitive. The concept of absolute originality is a contemporary one, born with Romanticism; classical art was in vast measure serial, and the "modern" avant-garde at the beginning of this century challenged the Romantic idea of "creation from nothingness," with its techniques of collage, mustachios on the Mona Lisa, art about art, and so on.
The verbal signs in the original message or statement are modified by one of a multitude of means or by a combination of means. These include paraphrase , graphic illustration, pastiche, imitation, thematic variation, parody, citation in a supporting or undermining context, false attribution accidental or deliberate , plagiarism, collage, and many others. This zone of partial transformation, of derivation, of alternate restatement determines much of our sensibility and literacy. It is, quite simply, the matrix of culture. I have suggested that this sequence is the main axis of a literate culture, that a culture advances, spiralwise, via translations of its own canonic past.
Plagiarism was not a single concept or category across time, media, and genre. Instead, it appeared in a constellation of practices sharing fundamental traits that closely map onto modern notions of plagiarism. Plagiarism in ancient Rome occurred in oral and written form from oral and written sources.
A plagiarist could steal an earlier text in its entirety or with just minimal changes, or he could steal some section or lines of an earlier text. In the latter localized cases, accusations of plagiarism were often mechanical. Yet they were grounded in particular ideas, whether stated or implied, of what constituted the offense.
One was that plagiarism had an aesthetic dimension and was a matter of staying too close to a model. While an author usually modified his source material in such instances, he was still subject to plagiarism charges based on the similarities that remained, which his accuser s deemed excessive and culpable. At the same time, intentions typically played a decisive role in determining if someone plagiarized.
The question was whether the person deliberately set out to deceive an audience into giving him authorial credit for what he, in fact, took from someone else. Access to the complete content on Oxford Classical Dictionary requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. If you are a student or academic complete our librarian recommendation form to recommend the Oxford Research Encyclopedias to your librarians for an institutional free trial.
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