Julie Hutchinson marked it as to-read Sep 01, Diana Senn marked it as to-read Sep 01, Lyn Midden marked it as to-read Sep 01, Rhonda marked it as to-read Sep 01, Teresa Lavender marked it as to-read Sep 01, Kayt18 marked it as to-read Sep 01, Courtney Edson marked it as to-read Sep 01, Lori marked it as to-read Sep 01, Claire marked it as to-read Sep 01, Emilie Titchen marked it as to-read Sep 01, Kim Coomey marked it as to-read Sep 01, Bernadette marked it as to-read Sep 01, Hazel marked it as to-read Sep 01, Julie Fischer marked it as to-read Sep 01, Erica marked it as to-read Sep 01, Barbara Zitsch marked it as to-read Sep 01, Pam marked it as to-read Sep 02, Anne marked it as to-read Sep 02, Dawn marked it as to-read Sep 02, Cindy Gates marked it as to-read Sep 02, Wen Budro marked it as to-read Sep 02, Zofia G marked it as to-read Sep 02, Rosanna marked it as to-read Sep 02, Diane marked it as to-read Sep 02, In the first multi-party election in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in November , votes were cast largely according to ethnicity, leading to the success of the Bosniak Party of Democratic Action , the Serbian Democratic Party and the Croatian Democratic Union.
Parties divided power along ethnic lines so that the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a Bosniak, the president of the Parliament was a Serb and the prime minister a Croat. Separatist nationalist parties attained power in other republics, including Croatia and Slovenia. Numerous meetings were held in early between the leaders of the six Yugoslav republics and the two autonomous regions to discuss the ongoing crisis in Yugoslavia.
Shortly after that, he changed his position and opted for a sovereign Bosnia as a prerequisite for such a federation. On 25 June , both Slovenia and Croatia declared independence , which led to a short armed conflict in Slovenia called the Ten-Day War , and an all-out war in Croatia in the Croatian War of Independence in areas with a substantial ethnic Serb population. In the second half of , the war was intensifying in Croatia.
The agreement was denounced by Croat political parties. In September , the European Economic Community hosted a conference [ which? On 25 September , the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution , imposing an arms embargo on all of the former Yugoslav territories. The embargo hurt the Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina the most because the Republic of Serbia inherited the lion's share of the Yugoslav People Army's arsenal and the Croatian Army could smuggle weapons through its coast.
In response, local Croats and Bosniaks set up barricades and machine-gun posts. They halted a column of 60 JNA tanks but were dispersed by force the following day. More than 1, people had to flee the area. This action, nearly seven months before the start of the Bosnian War, caused the first casualties of the Yugoslav Wars in Bosnia. Five days later, the JNA attacked the Croat village of Ravno in eastern Herzegovina on their way to attack Dubrovnik , and in the first days of October it leveled it, killing eight Croat civilians. The objectives of the nationalists in Croatia were shared by Croat nationalists in Bosnia and, especially, western Herzegovina.
This coincided with the peak of the Croatian War of Independence.
Let those who want it have it. We do not want that war'. Until now we did not have problems with the Army, and we will not have problems later. The plan was meant to prepare the framework for a third Yugoslavia in which all Serbs with their territories would live together in the same state.
Journalist Giuseppe Zaccaria summarised a meeting of Serb army officers in Belgrade in , reporting that they had adopted an explicit policy to target women and children as the most vulnerable portion of the Muslim religious and social structure. The existence and possible implementation of it alarmed the Bosnian government. The Memorandum was debated anyway, leading to a boycott of the parliament by the Bosnian Serbs, and during the boycott the legislation was passed. The Croat leadership organised autonomous communities in areas with a Croat majority.
It covered eight municipalities in northern Bosnia. Mate Boban was chosen as its president.
Bosnian War - Wikipedia
On 25 January , an hour after the session of parliament was adjourned, the parliament called for a referendum on independence on 29 February and 1 March. Agreement was denounced by the Bosniak leadership on 25 February. The Bosnian Serb assembly members advised Serbs to boycott the referendums held on 29 February and 1 March The turnout to the referendums was reported as Independence was formally declared by the Bosnian parliament on 3 March During the referendum on 1 March, Sarajevo was quiet except for a shooting on a Serbian wedding.
Arrest warrants were issued against him and another suspected assailant. Barricades appeared in the following early morning at key transit points across the city and were manned by armed and masked SDS supporters. On 18 March , all three sides signed the Lisbon Agreement: What was said and by whom remains unclear. Zimmerman denies that he told Izetbegovic that if he withdrew his signature, the United States would grant recognition to Bosnia as an independent state.
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What is indisputable is that Izetbegovic, that same day, withdrew his signature and renounced the agreement. In late March , there was fighting between Serbs and combined Croat and Bosniak forces in and near Bosanski Brod ,  resulting in the killing of Serb villagers in Sijekovac. The three ethnic groups predominantly supported their respective ethnic or national faction. There were foreign volunteers in each faction. Forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina were divided into five Corps.
The Bosnian government forces were poorly equipped and unprepared for war. The Bosnian government lobbied to have the arms embargo lifted, but that was opposed by the United Kingdom, France and Russia. The US congress passed two resolutions calling for the embargo to be lifted but both were vetoed by President Bill Clinton for fear of creating a rift between the US and the aforementioned countries.
Nonetheless, the United States used both " black " C transports and back channels , including Islamist groups, to smuggle weapons to Bosnian-Muslim forces, as well as allowed Iranian-supplied arms to transit through Croatia to Bosnia. Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence also played an active role during — and secretly supplied the Muslim fighters with arms, ammunition and guided anti tank missiles to give them a fighting chance against the Serbs.
Pakistan defied the UN 's ban on supply of arms to Bosnian Muslims and General Javed Nasir later claimed that Pakistan's intelligence agency, ISI , had airlifted anti-tank guided missiles to Bosnia which ultimately turned the tide in favour of Bosnian Muslims and forced the Serbs to lift the siege.
In his book The Clinton Tapes: President Bill Clinton , made public more than 70 recorded sessions with the president during his presidency from through They justified their opposition on plausible humanitarian grounds, arguing that more arms would only fuel the bloodshed, but privately, said the president, key allies objected that an independent Bosnia would be "unnatural" as the only Muslim nation in Europe.
He said they favored the embargo precisely because it locked in Bosnia's disadvantage.
Against Britain and France, he said, German chancellor Helmut Kohl among others had supported moves to reconsider the United Nations arms embargo, failing in part because Germany did not hold a seat on the U. The Croats started organizing their military forces in late At the beginning of the war, the Croatian government helped arm both the Croat and Bosniak forces.
Serbia provided logistical support, money and supplies to the VRS. Various paramilitary units were operated during the Bosnian War: The Serb and Croat paramilitaries involved volunteers from Serbia and Croatia, and were supported by nationalist political parties in those countries. The war attracted foreign fighters and mercenaries from various countries. Volunteers came to fight for a variety of reasons including religious or ethnic loyalties and in some cases for money. As a general rule, Bosniaks received support from Islamic countries, Serbs from Eastern Orthodox countries, and Croats from Catholic countries.
The presence of foreign fighters is well documented, however none of these groups comprised more than 5 percent of any of the respective armies' total manpower strength. The Bosnian Serbs received support from Christian Slavic fighters from various countries in Eastern Europe,   including volunteers from other Orthodox Christian countries. These included hundreds of Russians,  around Greeks,  and some Ukrainians and Romanians. Later he confessed he committed war crimes on Bosnian Muslim civilians in the Heliodrom and Dretelj camps as a member of Croatian forces.
The Bosnians received support from Muslim groups. Pakistan supported Bosnia while providing technical and military support. Executed and supervised by Pakistani General Javed Nasir , the program provided logistics and ammunition supplies to various groups of Bosnian mujahideen during the war. During the war in Croatia, arms had been pouring into the country. The war in Bosnia escalated in April. Outside of Sarajevo, the combatants' successes varied greatly during this year. An agreement was made with the Bosnian government that JNA units will be allowed until 19 May to leave Bosnia peacefully.
It was used to detain Bosnian Serb prisoners of war arrested during military operations that were intended to de-block routes to Sarajevo and Mostar in May that had earlier been blocked by Serb forces. Of these prisoners, 13 died while in captivity. Certain prisoners were shot and killed or beaten to death. By June , the number of refugees and internally displaced persons had reached 2.
By September , Croatia had accepted , refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly Bosniak civilians excluding men of drafting age. Ambassador to Croatia, Peter Galbraith , tried to put the number of Muslim refugees in Croatia into a proper perspective in an interview on 8 November He said the situation would be the equivalent of the United States taking in 30,, refugees.
The reported deaths of twelve newborn babies in Banja Luka hospital due to a shortage of bottled oxygen for incubators was cited as an immediate cause for the action,  but the veracity of these deaths has since been questioned. The operation was a complete success for the VRS. ARBiH suffered heavy losses. The VRS repelled the attack, but failed to take Hrasnica in a decisive counterattack. By November , square miles of eastern Bosnia was under Muslim control. The Croat—Bosniak alliance, formed at the beginning of the war, was often not harmonious.
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Despite these attempts, tensions steadily increased throughout the 2nd half of On 18 October, a dispute over a gas station near Novi Travnik that was shared by both armies escalated into an armed one in the town center. The Bosniak forces used the Srebrenica safe zone where no military was allowed to carry out attacks on Serb villages including Kravica, and then flee back into the safe zone before the VRS could catch them.
However, this could not be independently verified during the ICTY trials, which concluded that many homes were already previously destroyed and that the siege of Srebrenica caused hunger, forcing Bosniaks to attack nearby Serb villages to acquire food and weapons to survive. It envisioned Bosnia and Herzegovina as a decentralised state with ten autonomous provinces. On 22 February , the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution that decided "that an international tribunal shall be established for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law".
Much of was dominated by the Croat—Bosniak War. The beginning of April was marked by a series of minor incidents in central Bosnia between Bosniak and Croat civilians and soldiers, including assaults, murders and armed confrontations. The outnumbered HVO in the Zenica municipality was quickly defeated, followed by a large exodus of Croat civilians.
After the attacking units breached the ARBiH lines and entered the village, groups of irregular HVO units went from house to house, burning them and killing civilians. The rest of the captured civilians were taken to the Poljanice camp. The HVO responded with capturing three villages northeast of Jablanica. The Battle of Mostar began on 9 May when both the east and west parts of the city came under artillery fire. After three days of street fighting the outnumbered HVO forces were defeated, with thousands of Croat civilians and soldiers fleeing to nearby Serb-held territory as they were cut off from HVO held positions.
A similar development took place in Novi Travnik. The battle continued into July with only minor changes on the front lines. It was one of their largest offensives in The forced deportations of Bosniaks from Serb-held territories and the resulting refugee crisis continued to escalate. Thousands of people were being bused out of Bosnia each month, threatened on religious grounds. In turn, in mid, Croatia was strained by , refugees, and the Croatian authorities forbade entry to a group of refugees fleeing northern Bosnia, and forcing UNPROFOR to improvise shelter for them.
On 5 February Sarajevo suffered its deadliest single attack during the entire siege with the first Markale massacre , when a millimeter mortar shell landed in the centre of the crowded marketplace, killing 68 people and wounding another NATO also issued an ultimatum to the Bosnian Serbs demanding the removal of heavy weapons around Sarajevo by midnight of 20—21 February, or face air strikes.
On 12 February, Sarajevo enjoyed its first casualty free day since April ;  the war is widely considered to have begun on 6 April The agreement went into effect on 25 February.
The agreement was signed on 18 March in Washington. After a month of fighting, Croat forces had taken around square kilometres 77 square miles of VRS-held territory and directly threatened the main supply route between Republika Srpska and Knin , the capital of Republic of Serbian Krajina. On 20 March an aid convoy with medical supplies and doctors reached Maglaj , a city of , people, which had been under siege since May and had been surviving off food supplies dropped by US aircraft. A second convoy on 23 March was hijacked and looted. Bob Dole to unilaterally lift the arms embargo against the Bosnians, but it was repudiated by President Clinton.
On 12—13 November, the US unilaterally lifted the arms embargo against the government of Bosnia. On 23 November, after attacks launched from a surface-to-air missile site south of Otoka north-west Bosnia and Herzegovina on two NATO aircraft, air strikes were conducted against air defence radars in that area. The VRS then shelled all safe areas, including Tuzla. Approximately 70 civilians were killed and were injured. In , Croatian authorities began investigating allegations of war crimes committed during this operation, specifically the killing of 40 civilians in the Bosanska Dubica area by troops of the 1st Battalion of the 2nd Guards Brigade.
This 80, strong unit, heavily armed and mandated to fire at will when necessary for the successful implementation of the operation, was deployed in order to enforce the peace, as well as other tasks such as providing support for humanitarian and political aid, reconstruction, providing support for displaced civilians to return to their homes, collection of arms, and mine and unexploded ordnance uxo clearing of the affected areas.
Calculating the number of deaths resulting from the conflict has been subject to considerable, highly politicised debate sometimes "fused with narratives about victimhood", from the political elites of various groups. The variations are partly the result of the use of inconsistent definitions of who can be considered victims of the war, as some research calculated only direct casualties of military activity while other research included those who died from hunger, cold, disease or other war conditions. Early overcounts were also the result of many victims being entered in both civilian and military lists because little systematic coordination of those lists took place in wartime conditions.
The death toll was originally estimated in at around , by Cherif Bassiouni , head of the UN expert commission investigating war crimes. Shoup, writing in , observed about early high figures:. The figure of , or more dead, injured, and missing was frequently cited in media reports on the war in Bosnia as late as The October bulletin of the Bosnian Institute for Public Health of the Republic Committee for Health and Social Welfare gave the numbers as , killed, and , wounded on the territory under the control of the Bosnian army.
Mustafa Imamovic gave a figure of , perished including those who died from hunger or exposure , mainly Muslims. The Red Cross and the UNHCR have not, to the best of our knowledge, produced data on the number of persons killed and injured in the course of the war. A November unclassified CIA memorandum estimated , civilian deaths in the country all but 10, of them in Muslim- or Croat-held territories , not including the 8, to 10, then still missing from Srebrenica and Zepa enclaves.
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This figure for civilian deaths far exceeded the estimate in the same report of 81, troops killed 45, Bosnian government; 6, Bosnian Croat; and 30, Bosnian Serb. In June , the Sarajevo-based Research and Documentation Center published extensive research on Bosnia-Herzegovina's war deaths, also called The Bosnian Book of the Dead , a database that initially revealed a minimum of 97, names of Bosnia and Herzegovina's citizens confirmed as killed or missing during the — war.
The RDC figures stated that these were confirmed figures and that several thousand cases were still being examined. All of the RDC figures are believed to be a slight undercount as their methodology is dependent on a family member having survived to report the missing relative, though the undercount is not thought to be statistically significant. The RDC published periodic updates of its figures until June , when it published its final report. Civilian deaths were established as 38,, which represented Bosniaks accounted for Both the RDC and the ICTY 's demographic unit applied statistical techniques to identify possible duplication caused by a given victim being recorded in multiple primary lists, the original documents being then hand-checked to assess duplication.
Some 30 categories of information existed within the database for each individual record, apart from basic personal information, these included place and date of death and in the case of soldiers , the military unit to which the individual belonged. The information category intended to describe which military formation caused the death of each victim, was the most incomplete and was deemed unusable. These figures were not based solely on 'battle deaths', but included accidental deaths taking place in battle conditions and acts of mass violence.
Specifically excluded were "non-violent mortality increases" and "criminal and unorganised violence increases". Similarly 'military deaths' included both combat and non-combat deaths. There are no statistics dealing specifically with the casualties of the Croat-Bosniak conflict along ethnic lines. However, according to The RDC's data on human losses in the regions, in Central Bosnia 62 percent of the 10, documented deaths were Bosniaks, while Croats constituted 24 percent and Serbs 13 percent. The municipalities of Gornji Vakuf and Bugojno are geographically located in Central Bosnia known as Gornje Povrbasje region , but the 1, region's documented deaths are included in Vrbas regional statistics.
Approximately 70—80 percent of the casualties from Gornje Povrbasje were Bosniaks. In season one, producers settled with the fortress city of Mdina in Malta never mind the fact that it's miles from the sea. Scotland can consider what might have been - Doune Castle was used for the pilot episode but never returned. Instead, filmmakers set up shop at locations across Northern Ireland and in Belfast's Titanic Studios. Those frozen wastes beyond are all about Iceland. Ballintoy, also in Northern Ireland, is transformed into the capital, Pyke. Other scenes are shot nearby. Filmmakers made do with Northern Ireland the rest of the time.
Warmer locations were required for this corner of Essos. We've not seen much of it since Khal Drogo met his maker, but is certain to change in season six. Bardenas Reales is one of the most notable new locations - read more about it here. We've not seen all of the nine free cities, but an array of locations portrayed those we have Pentos, Volantis and Braavos. There are recognisable locations galore in the heart of the crowded Old City, including St Dominika Street, used for numerous market scenes, Stradun, along which Cersei Lannister takes her walk of penance, Minceta Tower, the highest point in Dubrovnik, and Fort St.