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Views of an Historian by Douglas Breeden A sequence of articles that research the information of the writer on philosophy and history. Furlong First released in Philosophical Writings Beauvoir Series Courting from her years as a philosophy scholar on the Sorbonne, this is often the diary of the teen who could develop into the well-known French thinker, writer, and feminist, Simone de Beauvoir. Antonio Gramsci and the Question of Religion: Previous Post Previous Post: Cuidando do Ser Inteiro Portuguese. Next Post Next Post: Wright University of Windsor. No information is available about the Pacific Division session at this time.

See the Recent Books section of this Bulletin for details. Michael Gill received his PhD. Alex Neill has moved to Scotland. Robison's new book Decisions in Doubt: The award is granted by the Rockefeller Institute at Dartmouth College.


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Beginning this fall, she'll be an assistant professor of philosophy at Ohio State University--and hence no longer so easily confused with Claudia Schmidt, the other Humean at Iowa. Submitted papers are welcome. Submit abstracts by January 5, The conference proposes a survey of the three highlights in the history of utilitarianism: The Southeastern Seminar is an informal group, designed to foster interaction among scholars of 17th- and 18th-century philosophy.

Its meetings are open to all with an interest in this area. Doug Jesseph, Philosophy Dept. Thomas Cook, Philosophy Dept. University of Sydney, April The main themes of the conference will be Descartes' account of physiology, optics, mathematics, harmonic theory, mechanics, cosmology, cognition and the nature of the mind. Professor and the late Mrs. The next deadline for submitting papers is November 1, Submissions on any aspect of Berkeley's philosophy are welcome. Essays should be new and unpublished and should be written in English and not exceed 5, words in length.

Submissions will be judged by members of a review board selected by the Department of Philosophy at the University of Rochester. Submissions should be sent to: Canongate has since folded, and the volume will be published by Tuckwell Press. Those interested in any aspects of Pascal's work are invited to become members of the Blaise Pascal Society. For membership information, please contact Keith Arnold karnold aix1. The Philosopher on a Swing , NY: This study is an original approach to the notion of "golden mean" in eighteenth-century culture.

It bravely combines intellectual history and material history, spanning the fields of philosophy, aesthetics, painting, sociology, optics, music, theater and garden history in an effort to cross the borders of academic writing, in the stylistic treatment of the subject. Giancarlo Carabelli examines the "golden mean" both in one of the highlights of Enlightenment philosophy -- David Hume's essays and his discussion of the middle station of life and of the standard of taste -- and in a modest artifact, "intermediate structure" par excellance: University of Toronto Press, , pp.

Ever since the publication of his Critique of Pure Reason in , Immanuel Kant has occupied a central position in the philosophical world. In Kant's Intuitionism , Lorne Falkenstein focuses on one aspect of Kant's Transcendental Aesthetic, namely, his position on how we manage to intuit the properties and relations of objects as they exist in space and time. It is a major problem not only in philosophy, but in cognitive science in general, to decide how much structure sensory input has of itself and how much we give it through processing.

How much do our faculties do to structure our knowledge of objects and to give them their spatial and temporal existence? Recent interpretations of Kant's doctrine of intuition have emphasized the constructivist answer to this question, stressing that sensations have no structure of their own and that we must impose a structure through synthetic processes of the imagination and understanding, in order for the objects of our experience to have any spatial or temporal structure at all.

Rehabilitating an interpretation of Kant outlined in the nineteenth century, Falkenstein argues that our knowledge of objects in space and time is not grounded in concepts but in the quasi-physiological constitution of our senses. Falkenstein begins with a careful critque of both historical and contemporary approaches to this problem and goes on to develop a cogent and stimulating argument for his position. The dialectic that results advances the discussion into controversial new realms, revitalizing the debate about the implications of Kant's Transcendental Aesthetic.

Edinburgh , Oxford: Oxford University Press, This comprehensive study of Edinburgh during a century of social transformation offers unparalleled detail on the ways in which urban life was transformed. Chapters on social relationships, the use of space, the place of the poor, religious values, riot and popular protest, and political economy build up to a powerful argument about social change.

Houston's broader contribution is to explain how changes in social attitudes and values took root in a century that witnessed dramatic political, economic, and intellectual developments. An excellent complement to the standard works in early modern philosophy, this new volume introduces an important selection from the largely unknown writings of women philosophers of the early modern period. Included are letters to prominent philosophers, philosophical tracts arguing a particular view, and comments on controversies of the day.

Each is prefaced by a headnote giving a biographical account of its author and setting the piece in historical context. Atherton's introduction provides a solid framework for assessing these works and their place in modern philosophy. Intelex Corporation, the leading publisher of electronic texts in philosophy, has released a new edition of Hume's works, the only electronic edition of Hume's complete works.

Sunlight falling on an object is reflected from its surface in a way that maps the surface features color, texture, etc. The reflected light reaches the human eye, passes through the cornea, is focused by the lens onto the retina where it forms an image similar to that formed by light passing through a pinhole into a camera obscura. The retinal cells send impulses through the optic nerve and then they form a mapping in the brain of the visual features of the object. The interior mapping is not the exterior object, and our belief that there is a meaningful relationship between the object and the mapping in the brain depends on a chain of reasoning that is not fully grounded.

But the uncertainty aroused by these considerations, by optical illusions, misperceptions, delusions, etc. Kant saw that the mind could not function as an empty container that simply receives data from outside. Something must be giving order to the incoming data. Images of external objects must be kept in the same sequence in which they were received.

This ordering occurs through the mind's intuition of time. The same considerations apply to the mind's function of constituting space for ordering mappings of visual and tactile signals arriving via the already described chains of physical causation. It is often claimed that Kant was a late developer, that he only became an important philosopher in his mids after rejecting his earlier views. While it is true that Kant wrote his greatest works relatively late in life, there is a tendency to underestimate the value of his earlier works. Recent Kant scholarship has devoted more attention to these "pre-critical" writings and has recognized a degree of continuity with his mature work.

At age 46, Kant was an established scholar and an increasingly influential philosopher, and much was expected of him. In correspondence with his ex-student and friend Markus Herz , Kant admitted that, in the inaugural dissertation, he had failed to account for the relation between our sensible and intellectual faculties. He needed to explain how we combine what is known as sensory knowledge with the other type of knowledge—i. Kant also credited David Hume with awakening him from a "dogmatic slumber".

Ideas such as "cause", goodness, or objects were not evident in experience, so why do we believe in the reality of these? Kant felt that reason could remove this skepticism, and he set himself to solving these problems. He did not publish any work in philosophy for the next 11 years. Although fond of company and conversation with others, Kant isolated himself, and resisted friends' attempts to bring him out of his isolation. It has been noted that in , in response to one of these offers by a former pupil, Kant wrote:. Any change makes me apprehensive, even if it offers the greatest promise of improving my condition, and I am persuaded by this natural instinct of mine that I must take heed if I wish that the threads which the Fates spin so thin and weak in my case to be spun to any length.

My great thanks, to my well-wishers and friends, who think so kindly of me as to undertake my welfare, but at the same time a most humble request to protect me in my current condition from any disturbance.

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When Kant emerged from his silence in , the result was the Critique of Pure Reason. Although now uniformly recognized as one of the greatest works in the history of philosophy, this Critique was largely ignored upon its initial publication. The book was long, over pages in the original German edition, and written in a convoluted style. It received few reviews, and these granted it no significance. Kant's former student, Johann Gottfried Herder criticized it for placing reason as an entity worthy of criticism instead of considering the process of reasoning within the context of language and one's entire personality.

Additionally, Garve and Feder also faulted Kant's Critique for not explaining differences in perception of sensations. These well-received and readable tracts include one on the earthquake in Lisbon that was so popular that it was sold by the page. Recognizing the need to clarify the original treatise, Kant wrote the Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics in as a summary of its main views. Kant's reputation gradually rose through the latter portion of the s, sparked by a series of important works: But Kant's fame ultimately arrived from an unexpected source. In , Karl Leonhard Reinhold published a series of public letters on Kantian philosophy.

In these letters, Reinhold framed Kant's philosophy as a response to the central intellectual controversy of the era: Friedrich Jacobi had accused the recently deceased Gotthold Ephraim Lessing a distinguished dramatist and philosophical essayist of Spinozism. Such a charge, tantamount to atheism, was vigorously denied by Lessing's friend Moses Mendelssohn , leading to a bitter public dispute among partisans.

The controversy gradually escalated into a debate about the values of the Enlightenment and the value of reason. Reinhold maintained in his letters that Kant's Critique of Pure Reason could settle this dispute by defending the authority and bounds of reason.

Bibliographie

Reinhold's letters were widely read and made Kant the most famous philosopher of his era. Kant published a second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason Kritik der reinen Vernunft in , heavily revising the first parts of the book. Most of his subsequent work focused on other areas of philosophy. He continued to develop his moral philosophy, notably in 's Critique of Practical Reason known as the second Critique and 's Metaphysics of Morals.

The Critique of Judgment the third Critique applied the Kantian system to aesthetics and teleology. It was in this critique where Kant wrote one of his most popular statements, "it is absurd to hope that another Newton will arise in the future who will make comprehensible to us the production of a blade of grass according to natural laws".

In , Kant's attempt to publish the Second of the four Pieces of Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason , in the journal Berlinische Monatsschrift , met with opposition from the King's censorship commission, which had been established that same year in the context of the French Revolution. He also wrote a number of semi-popular essays on history, religion, politics and other topics. These works were well received by Kant's contemporaries and confirmed his preeminent status in 18th-century philosophy.

There were several journals devoted solely to defending and criticizing Kantian philosophy. Despite his success, philosophical trends were moving in another direction. Many of Kant's most important disciples and followers including Reinhold , Beck and Fichte transformed the Kantian position into increasingly radical forms of idealism. The progressive stages of revision of Kant's teachings marked the emergence of German Idealism.

Kant opposed these developments and publicly denounced Fichte in an open letter in The Logik has been considered of fundamental importance to Kant's philosophy, and the understanding of it. The great 19th-century logician Charles Sanders Peirce remarked, in an incomplete review of Thomas Kingsmill Abbott 's English translation of the introduction to Logik , that "Kant's whole philosophy turns upon his logic.

Kant wrote a book discussing his theory of virtue in terms of independence which he believed was "a viable modern alternative to more familiar Greek views about virtue". This book is often criticized for its hostile tone and for not articulating his thoughts about autocracy comprehensibly. In the self-governance model of Aristotelian virtue, the non-rational part of the soul can be made to listen to reason through training. Although Kantian self-governance appears to involve "a rational crackdown on appetites and emotions" with lack of harmony between reason and emotion, Kantian virtue denies requiring "self-conquest, self-suppression, or self-silencing".

Hume "Natürliche Religion"

They dispute that "the self-mastery constitutive of virtue is ultimately mastery over our tendency of will to give priority to appetite or emotion unregulated by duty, it does not require extirpating, suppressing, or silencing sensibility in general". In Kant's essay " Answering the Question: Kant maintained that one ought to think autonomously, free of the dictates of external authority. His work reconciled many of the differences between the rationalist and empiricist traditions of the 18th century.

He had a decisive impact on the Romantic and German Idealist philosophies of the 19th century. His work has also been a starting point for many 20th century philosophers. Kant asserted that, because of the limitations of argumentation in the absence of irrefutable evidence , no one could really know whether there is a God and an afterlife or not. For the sake of morality and as a ground for reason, Kant asserted, people are justified in believing in God, even though they could never know God's presence empirically.

All the preparations of reason, therefore, in what may be called pure philosophy, are in reality directed to those three problems only [God, the soul, and freedom]. However, these three elements in themselves still hold independent, proportional, objective weight individually. Moreover, in a collective relational context; namely, to know what ought to be done: As this concerns our actions with reference to the highest aims of life, we see that the ultimate intention of nature in her wise provision was really, in the constitution of our reason, directed to moral interests only.

The sense of an enlightened approach and the critical method required that "If one cannot prove that a thing is, he may try to prove that it is not. If he fails to do either as often occurs , he may still ask whether it is in his interest to accept one or the other of the alternatives hypothetically, from the theoretical or the practical point of view. Hence the question no longer is as to whether perpetual peace is a real thing or not a real thing, or as to whether we may not be deceiving ourselves when we adopt the former alternative, but we must act on the supposition of its being real.

This, however, is possible in an intelligible world only under a wise author and ruler. Reason compels us to admit such a ruler, together with life in such a world, which we must consider as future life, or else all moral laws are to be considered as idle dreams Kant drew a parallel between the Copernican revolution and the epistemology of his new transcendental philosophy. He never used the "Copernican revolution" phrase about himself, but it has often been applied to his work by others. Kant's Copernican revolution involved two interconnected foundations of his " critical philosophy ":.

These teachings placed the active, rational human subject at the center of the cognitive and moral worlds. Kant argued that the rational order of the world as known by science was not just the accidental accumulation of sense perceptions. Conceptual unification and integration is carried out by the mind through concepts or the "categories of the understanding " operating on the perceptual manifold within space and time.

The latter are not concepts, [74] but are forms of sensibility that are a priori necessary conditions for any possible experience. Thus the objective order of nature and the causal necessity that operates within it depend on the mind's processes, the product of the rule-based activity that Kant called, " synthesis. The 'two-world' interpretation regards Kant's position as a statement of epistemological limitation, that we are not able to transcend the bounds of our own mind, meaning that we cannot access the " thing-in-itself ".

However, Kant also speaks of the thing in itself or transcendental object as a product of the human understanding as it attempts to conceive of objects in abstraction from the conditions of sensibility. The notion of the " thing in itself " was much discussed by philosophers after Kant. It was argued that because the "thing in itself" was unknowable, its existence must not be assumed. Rather than arbitrarily switching to an account that was ungrounded in anything supposed to be the "real," as did the German Idealists, another group arose to ask how our presumably reliable accounts of a coherent and rule-abiding universe were actually grounded.

This new kind of philosophy became known as Phenomenology , and its founder was Edmund Husserl. With regard to morality , Kant argued that the source of the good lies not in anything outside the human subject, either in nature or given by God , but rather is only the good will itself. A good will is one that acts from duty in accordance with the universal moral law that the autonomous human being freely gives itself. This necessitates practical self-reflection in which we universalize our reasons. These ideas have largely framed or influenced all subsequent philosophical discussion and analysis.

The specifics of Kant's account generated immediate and lasting controversy. Kant defines his theory of perception in his influential work the Critique of Pure Reason , which has often been cited as the most significant volume of metaphysics and epistemology in modern philosophy. Kant maintains that our understanding of the external world had its foundations not merely in experience, but in both experience and a priori concepts , thus offering a non-empiricist critique of rationalist philosophy , which is what has been referred to as his Copernican revolution.

Firstly, Kant distinguishes between analytic and synthetic propositions:. An analytic proposition is true by nature of the meaning of the words in the sentence — we require no further knowledge than a grasp of the language to understand this proposition. On the other hand, a synthetic statement is one that tells us something about the world.

The truth or falsehood of synthetic statements derives from something outside their linguistic content. In this instance, weight is not a necessary predicate of the body; until we are told the heaviness of the body we do not know that it has weight. In this case, experience of the body is required before its heaviness becomes clear. Before Kant's first Critique, empiricists cf. Hume and rationalists cf.

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Leibniz assumed that all synthetic statements required experience to be known. Kant contests this assumption by claiming that elementary mathematics, like arithmetic, is synthetic a priori , in that its statements provide new knowledge not derived from experience. This becomes part of his over-all argument for transcendental idealism. That is, he argues that the possibility of experience depends on certain necessary conditions — which he calls a priori forms — and that these conditions structure and hold true of the world of experience.

His main claims in the " Transcendental Aesthetic " are that mathematic judgments are synthetic a priori and that space and time are not derived from experience but rather are its preconditions. It is self-evident, and undeniably a priori , but at the same time it is synthetic. Thus Kant proved that a proposition can be synthetic and a priori.

Kant asserts that experience is based on the perception of external objects and a priori knowledge. But our mind processes this information and gives it order, allowing us to comprehend it. Our mind supplies the conditions of space and time to experience objects. According to the "transcendental unity of apperception", the concepts of the mind Understanding and perceptions or intuitions that garner information from phenomena Sensibility are synthesized by comprehension. Without concepts, perceptions are nondescript; without perceptions, concepts are meaningless — thus the famous statement, "Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions perceptions without concepts are blind.

Kant also claims that an external environment is necessary for the establishment of the self. Although Kant would want to argue that there is no empirical way of observing the self, we can see the logical necessity of the self when we observe that we can have different perceptions of the external environment over time. By uniting these general representations into one global representation, we can see how a transcendental self emerges. Kant deemed it obvious that we have some objective knowledge of the world, such as, say, Newtonian physics. But this knowledge relies on synthetic , a priori laws of nature, like causality and substance.

Immanuel Kant

How is this possible? Kant's solution was that the subject must supply laws that make experience of objects possible, and that these laws are synthetic, a priori laws of nature that apply to all objects before we experience them. To deduce all these laws, Kant examined experience in general, dissecting in it what is supplied by the mind from what is supplied by the given intuitions. This is commonly called a transcendental deduction. To begin with, Kant's distinction between the a posteriori being contingent and particular knowledge, and the a priori being universal and necessary knowledge, must be kept in mind.

If we merely connect two intuitions together in a perceiving subject, the knowledge is always subjective because it is derived a posteriori, when what is desired is for the knowledge to be objective, that is, for the two intuitions to refer to the object and hold good of it for anyone at any time, not just the perceiving subject in its current condition. What else is equivalent to objective knowledge besides the a priori, universal and necessary knowledge? Before knowledge can be objective, it must be incorporated under an a priori category of understanding.

For example, if a subject says, "The sun shines on the stone; the stone grows warm," all he perceives are phenomena. His judgment is contingent and holds no necessity. But if he says, "The sunshine causes the stone to warm," he subsumes the perception under the category of causality, which is not found in the perception, and necessarily synthesizes the concept sunshine with the concept heat, producing a necessarily universally true judgment.

To explain the categories in more detail, they are the preconditions of the construction of objects in the mind. Indeed, to even think of the sun and stone presupposes the category of subsistence, that is, substance. For the categories synthesize the random data of the sensory manifold into intelligible objects.


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This means that the categories are also the most abstract things one can say of any object whatsoever, and hence one can have an a priori cognition of the totality of all objects of experience if one can list all of them. To do so, Kant formulates another transcendental deduction. Judgments are, for Kant, the preconditions of any thought. Man thinks via judgments, so all possible judgments must be listed and the perceptions connected within them put aside, so as to make it possible to examine the moments when the understanding is engaged in constructing judgments.

For the categories are equivalent to these moments, in that they are concepts of intuitions in general, so far as they are determined by these moments universally and necessarily. Thus by listing all the moments, one can deduce from them all of the categories. One may now ask: How many possible judgments are there?

Kant believed that all the possible propositions within Aristotle's syllogistic logic are equivalent to all possible judgments, and that all the logical operators within the propositions are equivalent to the moments of the understanding within judgments. Thus he listed Aristotle's system in four groups of three: The parallelism with Kant's categories is obvious: The fundamental building blocks of experience, i. First there is the sensibility, which supplies the mind with intuitions, and then there is the understanding, which produces judgments of these intuitions and can subsume them under categories.

These categories lift the intuitions up out of the subject's current state of consciousness and place them within consciousness in general, producing universally necessary knowledge. For the categories are innate in any rational being, so any intuition thought within a category in one mind is necessarily subsumed and understood identically in any mind.

In other words, we filter what we see and hear. Kant ran into a problem with his theory that the mind plays a part in producing objective knowledge. Intuitions and categories are entirely disparate, so how can they interact? Kant's solution is the transcendental schema: All the principles are temporally bound, for if a concept is purely a priori, as the categories are, then they must apply for all times.

Hence there are principles such as substance is that which endures through time , and the cause must always be prior to the effect.

A Bibliography of Hume's Writings and Early Responses | James Fieser - ywukakyzin.ml

Kant developed his moral philosophy in three works: In Groundwork , Kant' tries to convert our everyday, obvious, rational [82] knowledge of morality into philosophical knowledge. The latter two works used "practical reason", which is based only on things about which reason can tell us, and not deriving any principles from experience, to reach conclusions which can be applied to the world of experience in the second part of The Metaphysic of Morals.

Kant is known for his theory that there is a single moral obligation , which he called the " Categorical Imperative ", and is derived from the concept of duty. Kant defines the demands of moral law as "categorical imperatives". Categorical imperatives are principles that are intrinsically valid; they are good in and of themselves; they must be obeyed in all situations and circumstances, if our behavior is to observe the moral law. The Categorical Imperative provides a test against which moral statements can be assessed. Kant also stated that the moral means and ends can be applied to the categorical imperative, that rational beings can pursue certain "ends" using the appropriate "means".

Ends based on physical needs or wants create hypothetical imperatives. The categorical imperative can only be based on something that is an "end in itself", that is, an end that is not a means to some other need, desire, or purpose. Unlike a hypothetical imperative, a categorical imperative is an unconditional obligation; it has the force of an obligation regardless of our will or desires [86] In Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals Kant enumerated three formulations of the categorical imperative that he believed to be roughly equivalent.

According to Kant, one cannot make exceptions for oneself. The philosophical maxim on which one acts should always be considered to be a universal law without exception. One cannot allow oneself to do a particular action unless one thinks it appropriate that the reason for the action should become a universal law. For example, one should not steal, however dire the circumstances—because, by permitting oneself to steal, one makes stealing a universally acceptable act.

This is the first formulation of the categorical imperative, often known as the universalizability principle. Kant believed that, if an action is not done with the motive of duty, then it is without moral value. He thought that every action should have pure intention behind it; otherwise, it is meaningless. The final result is not the most important aspect of an action; rather, how the person feels while carrying out the action is the time when value is attached to the result.

In Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals , Kant also posited the "counter- utilitarian idea that there is a difference between preferences and values, and that considerations of individual rights temper calculations of aggregate utility", a concept that is an axiom in economics: Everything has either a price or a dignity. Whatever has a price can be replaced by something else as its equivalent; on the other hand, whatever is above all price, and therefore admits of no equivalent, has a dignity.

But that which constitutes the condition under which alone something can be an end in itself does not have mere relative worth, i. A phrase quoted by Kant, which is used to summarize the counter-utilitarian nature of his moral philosophy, is Fiat justitia, pereat mundus , "Let justice be done, though the world perish" , which he translates loosely as "Let justice reign even if all the rascals in the world should perish from it".

This appears in his Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch " Zum ewigen Frieden. Ein philosophischer Entwurf " , Appendix 1. The first formulation Formula of Universal Law of the moral imperative "requires that the maxims be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature ". One interpretation of the first formulation is called the "universalizability test". For a modern parallel, see John Rawls ' hypothetical situation, the original position. The second formulation or Formula of the End in Itself holds that "the rational being, as by its nature an end and thus as an end in itself, must serve in every maxim as the condition restricting all merely relative and arbitrary ends".

The third formulation i. Formula of Autonomy is a synthesis of the first two and is the basis for the "complete determination of all maxims". It states "that all maxims which stem from autonomous legislation ought to harmonize with a possible realm of ends as with a realm of nature". In principle, "So act as if your maxims should serve at the same time as the universal law of all rational beings ", meaning that we should so act that we may think of ourselves as "a member in the universal realm of ends", legislating universal laws through our maxims that is, a universal code of conduct , in a "possible realm of ends".

Commentators, starting in the 20th century, have tended to see Kant as having a strained relationship with religion, though this was not the prevalent view in the 19th century. Karl Leonhard Reinhold , whose letters first made Kant famous, wrote "I believe that I may infer without reservation that the interest of religion, and of Christianity in particular, accords completely with the result of the Critique of Reason.

Do not the divinity and beneficence of the latter become all the more evident? Spinozism was widely seen as the cause of the Pantheism controversy , and as a form of sophisticated pantheism or even atheism. As Kant's philosophy disregarded the possibility of arguing for God through pure reason alone, for the same reasons it also disregarded the possibility of arguing against God through pure reason alone. This, coupled with his moral philosophy his argument that the existence of morality is a rational reason why God and an afterlife do and must exist , was the reason he was seen by many, at least through the end of the 19th century, as a great defender of religion in general and Christianity in particular.

Kant articulates his strongest criticisms of the organization and practices of religious organizations to those that encourage what he sees as a religion of counterfeit service to God. He sees these as efforts to make oneself pleasing to God in ways other than conscientious adherence to the principle of moral rightness in choosing and acting upon one's maxims.

Kant's criticisms on these matters, along with his rejection of certain theoretical proofs grounded in pure reason particularly the ontological argument for the existence of God and his philosophical commentary on some Christian doctrines, have resulted in interpretations that see Kant as hostile to religion in general and Christianity in particular e. Nevertheless, other interpreters consider that Kant was trying to mark off defensible from indefensible Christian belief.

Wood [] and Merold Westphal. In the Critique of Pure Reason , [] Kant distinguishes between the transcendental idea of freedom, which as a psychological concept is "mainly empirical" and refers to "the question whether we must admit a power of spontaneously beginning a series of successive things or states" as a real ground of necessity in regard to causality, [] and the practical concept of freedom as the independence of our will from the "coercion" or "necessitation through sensuous impulses".

Kant finds it a source of difficulty that the practical idea of freedom is founded on the transcendental idea of freedom, [] but for the sake of practical interests uses the practical meaning, taking "no account of Kant calls practical "everything that is possible through freedom", and the pure practical laws that are never given through sensuous conditions but are held analogously with the universal law of causality are moral laws. Reason can give us only the "pragmatic laws of free action through the senses", but pure practical laws given by reason a priori [] dictate " what ought to be done ".

In the Critique of Practical Reason , at the end of the second Main Part of the Analytics , [] Kant introduces the categories of freedom, in analogy with the categories of understanding their practical counterparts. Kant's categories of freedom apparently function primarily as conditions for the possibility for actions i to be free, ii to be understood as free and iii to be morally evaluated.

For Kant, although actions as theoretical objects are constituted by means of the theoretical categories, actions as practical objects objects of practical use of reason, and which can be good or bad are constituted by means of the categories of freedom. Only in this way can actions, as phenomena, be a consequence of freedom, and be understood and evaluated as such. Kant discusses the subjective nature of aesthetic qualities and experiences in Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime Kant's contribution to aesthetic theory is developed in the Critique of Judgment where he investigates the possibility and logical status of "judgments of taste.

Walsh, differs from its modern sense. Baumgarten , who wrote Aesthetica —58 , [] Kant was one of the first philosophers to develop and integrate aesthetic theory into a unified and comprehensive philosophical system, utilizing ideas that played an integral role throughout his philosophy. In the chapter "Analytic of the Beautiful" in the Critique of Judgment , Kant states that beauty is not a property of an artwork or natural phenomenon, but is instead consciousness of the pleasure that attends the 'free play' of the imagination and the understanding.

A pure judgement of taste is subjective since it refers to the emotional response of the subject and is based upon nothing but esteem for an object itself: