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These appear to me to have been the graves of the slain in some skirmish which the Welsh had with the English, about the year ; when Llewelyn ap Gryffyd, collecting all his power, recovered the inland part of North Wales, and all Merioneddshire, from the usurpation of Henry III. THE church is built in form of a cross. Within is the tomb of one of its vicars, Jorwerth Sulien. The whole is a very elegant piece of engraving, upon the coffin-lid, I fear not old enough to make it the tomb of St.

Julien, archbishop of St. ON the south side of the church wall is cut a very rude cross, which is shewn to strangers as the sword of Owen Glyndwr. A most singular cross in the church-yard merits attention: The vast Berwyn mountains are the eastern boundary of this beautiful vale. On the first is a great heap of stones, brought from some distant part, with great toil, up the steep ascent; and in their middle is an erect pillar. Of him, whose ambition climbed this height for a monument, we are left in ignorance.

They are frequently used for the making of tarts; and the Swedes and Norwegians reckon the berries to be excellent antiscorbutics, and preserve great quantities in autumn, to make tarts. I have seen them in the Highlands of Scotland, brought to table as a desert. REACH Cynwyd, a small village, formerly noted for the courts kept here by the great men of the neighborhood, to settle the boundaries of their several clames on the wastes and commons, and to take cognizances of the encroachment; but they have been long discontinued, and the records destroyed.

The water of the river Trystion bursts from the sides of the hill, through deep and narrow chasms, from rock to rock, which are overgrown with wood. The rude and antient stocks, that hang in many parts over the precipices, add much to this picturesque scene; which is still improved by the little mill, and its inhabitants, in this sequestered bottom.

Go by the little church of Llangar. My fellow-traveller, the reverend Mr. Lloyd, informed me, that in another tour he had ascended a hill, above this place, called Y Foel, on whose summit was a circular coronet, of rude pebbly stones, none above three feet in height; with an entrance to the east, or rising sun. The diameter of the circle is ten yards. The whole of this formed a place of worship among the antient Britons, and probably was surrounded with a grove. It is seated on the torrent Keidio, at the mouth of a great glen, which extends upwards of two miles, embosomed in the Berwyn mountains, and leads to the noted pass through them, called Milter Gerrig, into the county of Montgomery.

AT about a mile distance from Llandrillo, I again crossed the Dee, at Pont Gilan, a bridge of two arches, over a deep and black water. The valley here contracts greatly: The growth of the oak, in forcing its root downward, frequently rends thse vast strata, whose fragments often appear scattered at the base, of most amazing sizes.

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The Welsh had a prophecy, that it should set a whole forest on fire. Whether to complete it, or whether to take away from the people the cause of idolatry, I cannot say; but it was brought to London in the year , and was used as part of the fuel which consumed poor frier Forest to ashes, in Smithfield, for denying the king's supremacy. Now is he come with spere and sheld, In harnes to burne in Smithfeld, For in Wales he may not dwel. And Foreest the freer. That obstinate lyer, That wylfully shal be dead. Forest thought fit to deny that Henry was head of the church; and Latimer would force that honor upon Mary, who chose to cede it to the Pope.

Let the event of the day be what it-will: THE house and estate of Rhiwaedog is now owned by Mr. Dolben, descended by his mother from the Llwyds, the very antient possessors. In the house are the portraits of some of the family: REACH Bala, a small town in the parish of Llanyekil, noted for its vast trade in woollen stockings, and its great markets every Saturday morning, when from two to five hundred pounds worth are sold each day, according to the demand.

From the summit is a fine view of Llyn-tegid, and the adjacent mountains. On the right appear the two Arennigs, Vawr and Vach; beyond the farther end, soar the lofty Arans, with their two heads, Aran Mowddwy and Penllyn; and beyond all, the great Cader Idris closes the view. THIS mount appears to have been Roman, and placed here, with a castelet on its summit, to secure the pass towards the sea, and keep our mountaneers in subjection.

The Welsh, in after time, took advantage of this, as well as other works of the same nature. THE town is of a very regular form: I will not deny, but that its origin might have been Roman. THE mounts form a chain. Bala takes its name from its vicinity to the place where a river discharges itself from a lake. I know little of its antient history, any more than it seems to have been dependent on the castle of Harlech; and that, in the reign of Edward II.

I may add incidentally, that Edward I. In stormy weather, its billows run very high, and incroach greatly on the north-east end, where, within memory of man, numbers of acres have been lost. Pike have been caught here of twenty-five pounds weight, a trout of twenty-two, a perch of ten, and a gwyniaid of five. Mary, and the monks of that house, of a certain water in Penthlinn, called Thlintegit, or Pembelmore, and all the pasture of the said land of Penthlinn. This was witnessed by Reiner who was bishop of St.

They seem inconsiderable in respect to the size of the streams which feed the lake; for the Dee does not make in dry seasons the figure I expected. Salmon come in plenty to this place, but neither do they trespass into the lake, and the gwyniaids very rarely into the river. But, in fact, the Dee does not assume its name, till it quits its parent. NEAR the west side, close to the bridge, and just opposite to Tommen y Bala, stood another castelet; not so high, but of a more extensive form than that mount.

The mount, or keep, was on the lower, immediately above the river; and the vestiges of a wall are still evident. This was subservient to the same purposes as the others; for there must have been, from the nature of the ground, a travellable road on both sides of the lake. Most countries had one, which they held in peculiar veneration. The Thessalians paid divine honors to their Paeneus, on account of its beauty: Salve fons ignote ortu, sacer, alme, perennis Vitree, glauce, profunde, sonore, opace. Giraldus, who travelled through our country in , gives the first account of the prophetic quality of the Dee; and the notion was continued to many ages after his.

Again Dee 's holiness began By his contracted front and sterner waves to show, That he had things to speak that profit them to know: IT was long before we got clear of these superstitions. They were very prevalent in the time of Gildas, in the sixth century, when our ancestors strongly retained the idolatry of the Druids among their Christian rites: After a dreary ride, I found myself disappointed; these sacred reliques having been profanely carried away, and converted into a wall. THE largest was a fine specimen of the British Kist vaen, or stone chest. It consisted of one stone at top, placed inclining to the north, and was, when measured by Mr.

Under one end was a stone, three feet long; at the other, one of the length of two feet. The antient natives of our isle did not always burn their dead. Skeletons have been discovered in similar Kist vaens, at full length: This monument went by the name of Karchar Kynric Rwth; not that it ever was used for that purpose originally; but there is a tradition, that in aftertimes, a little tyrant of that name, in the neighborhood, was wont to cram those who offended him, into the hollow of these stones; which might serve for the purposes of torment as well as the little ease in the tower of London, or the iron cages of the Bastille.

THE other Kist vaen was nearly similar to the first; but no mention is made of the circle of stones: Llwyd visited the place. Beneath flows Avon Gwawr, the only feed of the lake on that side. It probably was Roman, for multitudes of coins have been found in different parts of the neighborhood; and it is certain, that it had been a fortress to defend this pass, for which it is well adapted, both by situation, and form of the hill. Two sides of the rock are precipitous. In the front of the castle is cut a deep foss: This had been very considerable; was built with mortar, made of gravel and sea shells; and was faced with free-stone, squared, and well cut.

In the last is the figure of an armed man, with a conic helmet, and mail muffler round his chin and neck: The first are the arms of Ririd Vlaidd; the others of Kynedda Wledig, or, The Warlike, a Cumbrian prince, whose sons after their father had been defeated by the Saxons, in the sixth century retired, and possessed themselves of these parts of Wales: Ririd was lord of Pen-Llyn, which signifies the head of the lake, and forms one of the hundreds of Meirionithshire. It had also its castle, which probably was that of Corndochon. Around the margin of the tomb is a mutilated inscription, which, as far as I could discover, run thus: The last rises from two springs, and falls into the former.

Those who chuse to derive the Dee from its double origin, may fix on these: His dwelling is low in valley green, Under the foot of Rauran mossie hore, From whence the river Dee, as silver clean, His tumbling billows rolls, with gentle rore: Woods, especially of birch, vary the scene.

The height is gained by going up an exceeding steep and narrow zig-zag path: The descent on the other side, is much greater, and very tedious, into the long and narrow vale of Mowddwy. Its boundaries are vast hills, generally very verdant, and fine sheep walks; but one on the left exhibits a horrible front, being so steep, as to balance between precipice and slope: THERE is a beauty in this vale, which is not frequent in others of these mountanous countries.

The inclosures are all divided by excellent quickset hedges, and run far up the sides of the hills, in places so steep, that the common traveller would scarcely find footing. Numbers of little groves are interspersed; and the hills above them shew a fine turf to the top, where the bog and heath commence, which give shelter to multitudes of red grous, and a few black.

The turberies are placed very remote from their dwellings; and the turf, or peat, is gotten with great difficulty. Malgwyn Gwynedd, then a youth, took offence at the saint, and seized his oxen; but wild stags were seen the next day, performing their office, and a grey wolf harrowing after them. Legend says, that it was to endure for a hundred ages; but, blind to futurity! This place was also exempted from all fighting, burning, and killing; nor was it permitted to affront any of the inhabitants, without making the most ample reparation.

THE lands of Tydecho were also freed from mortuaries, clames, oppression, and that great duty, which most places were subject to, the Gobr Merched, the penalty of incontinence; which the saint, in tenderness to the possible frailty of his flock, wisely took care to get it exempted from. The foot of this eminence is watered by the Kerris and the Dyfi. The last, which retains its name till lost in the sea at Aberdyfi, rises at the bottom of the rude rock Craig Llyn Dyfi, under Aran Mowddwy.

It is likewise the capital of an extensive lordship, under the rule of my worthy cousin, John Mytton, esquire. His son, Sir John, left four daughters, married into the houses of Newport, Leighton, Lingen, and Mytton; Alianor, the fourth daughter, having given her hand, and this seignory, to Thomas Mytton, ancestor of the present lord. I WAS accommodated with entertainment at the manor-house, from whence I took a delightful walk of about two miles, along the vale, on the banks of the Dyvi.

The valley expands, and the hills sink in height, towards the west. ONE of the beautiful yew trees in the church-yard, is extremely well worth notice. And of the branches, so blessed, it was customary to stick some in the fields, in rogation week, or at the times of processions. To put a stop to their ravages, a commission was granted to John Wynn ap Meredydd, of Gwedyr, and this gentleman, in order to settle the peace of the country, and to punish all offenders against its government.

Revenge was determined by the surviving villains. After this, they attacked him with bills and javelins, and left him slain, with above thirty wounds. His son-in-law, John Llwyd, of Ceisgwyn, defended him to the last; but his cowardly attendants fled on the first onset. His death gave peace to the country; for most rigorous justice ensued; and the whole nest of banditti was extirpated, many by the hand of justice; and the rest fled, never to return. THE traditions of the country respecting these banditti, are still extremely strong.

I was told that they were so feared, that travellers did not dare to go the common road to Shrewsbury, but passed over the summits of the mountains, to avoid their haunts. The inhabitants placed scythes in the chimneys of their houses, to prevent the felons coming down to surprize them in the night; some of which are to be seen to this day.

An old proverb of the three things which Mowddwy wishes to send out of the country, shews their long knowlege of it. This whole country abounds in sheep and cattle; and the wool is manufactured in all parts into flannel and stockings. Before us is a vast extent of dreary slope, bounded by vast rocky mountains; among which, Cader Idris soars pre-eminent.

This, perhaps, was occasioned by the merciless laws enacted against the Welsh by Henry IV. Every one was to have his goods, or land, which had been forced from him, restored without law-suit; and any goods detained after this, were to be deemed as stolen: If the refractory person was hanged, or died a natural death, the demand lay good against the wife, heirs, or executors: The code concludes with valuation of several goods and chattels, for which satisfaction was to be made.

For example, a horse and mare, on the oath of the owner and two neighbors, were valued at ten shillings; a foal at twenty pence; an ox at a mark; a cow at ten shillings; the hire of an ox, and the milk of a cow, were also valued; an ewe was esteemed at sixteen pence, her wool at four pence, her milk at two pence, and her lamb at eight pence. As a proof of the high value of arms, and that we had few manufactures of that kind, a two-handed sword was valued at ten shillings, a one-handed at six shillings and eight pence, and a steel buckler at two shillings and eight pence: The town takes its name from its being placed in a dale abundant in hazels.

On gaining the brow of the hill, I found it to be a very extensive pasture of coarse grass, mixed with a little bog. The hill slopes from hence upwards: I met with, on my ascent, quantities of pumice, of the same cellular kind with the toadstone of Derbyshire, but of a green color. The day proved so wet and misty, that I lost the enjoyment of the great view from the summit. On the other side, at a nearer distance, I saw Craig Cay, a great rock, with a lake beneath, lodged in a deep hollow; possibly the crater of an antient Vulcano. IN descending from the Cader; I kept on the edge of the greater precipice, till I came near the Cyfrwy, another peak.

The whole space, for a considerable way, was covered with loose stones, in the form of a stream, sloping from the precipitous side. AFTER recovering the fatigue of this journey, I began another, in order to encircle the vast base of the mountain. I took the same road as I did before; and continued my ride beneath Tyrrau Mawr, one of the points of Cader Idris, the highest rock I ever rode under.

Beyond, on the right, are the two pools called Llynian Cregenan; and not far distant, are some remains of circles of upright stones, with many carns; a vast stone, raised erect on the top of a neighboring rock; and several maeni hirion, or rude upright columns. The reliques are about thirty yards square: I MUST not lead the reader into a belief, that every habitation, of these early times, were equal in magnificence to that of Ednowain ap Bradwen.

The fare was simple; the meal did not consist of an elegant variety, but of numbers of things put together in a large dish: The family waited on the guests, and never touched any thing till they had done, when it took up with what was left. Music, and the free conversation of the young women, formed the amusements of the time; for jealousy was unknown among us. SOME vein of the antient minstrelsie is still to be met with in these mountanous countries.

A person conversant in this art, will produce a pennyll apposite to the last which was sung: They will continue singing without intermission, and never repeat the same stanza; for that would occasion the loss of the honor of being held first of the song. Quit the narrow pass, and go along a good road, formed on the sides of the hills, with a fine slope from it to the sea, at this time strangely mottled with black and green, varied by the light through the broken clouds.

The road now passes between verdant and smooth hills, the great sheep walks of the country; they are round at their tops, and covered with flocks, which yield the materials for the neighboring manufactures. Another column, marked likewise with a cross, but inscribed with letters of a different form, is drawn in the same collection, from one in the church-yard of Llanvihangel y Traetheu, in this county.

At the foot is a prodigious stream of stones, which extend some hundreds of yards from the bottom of the rock, and is formed by the continual lapse of fragments from it. Here the Towyn is contracted into a fertile vale, which extends about two miles further. Near its end is a long and high rock, narrow on the top. The most complete apartment was thirty-six feet broad, and was cut out of the rock on two sides; for much of it is hollowed.

It lies in the parish of Llan vi hangel y Pennant, and is said to have been once defended by a Coch o'r Pennant, or The Red, of that place. This seems to have been likewise the same which was committed by Edward I. It is fit to mention this, as there was another strong fortress in Cardiganshire, of a similar name. Went by Llyn y Myngil, a beautiful lake, about a mile long, which so far fills the valley, as to leave only a narrow road on one side.

Its termination is very picturesque; for it contracts gradually into the form of a river, and rushes through a good stone arch into a narrow pass, having on one side the church, on the other a few cottages, mixed with trees. Within a yard of the coffin, were found two other skeletons, of the same dimensions with the former, layed on the bare clay; and within two roods of them, a grave, with a skeleton of the usual size.

The high preservation of these rods, and the toughness of the bones, were owing to the bituminous quality of the turbery in which they were deposited. The rods were placed for some superstitious purpose, perhaps to avert the power of witchcraft, since a double hazel-nut, in some parts of the Highlands of Scotland, is to this day supposed to have that virtue. A FEW miles beyond Tal y Llyn church, the hills almost meet at their bottoms, and change their aspect.

No verdure now is to be seen, but a general appearance of rude and savage nature. Another is styled Llam y Lladron, or The Thieves Leap, from a tradition that thieves were brought there, and thrown down. These, say the peasants, were the three grains which had fallen into the shoe of the great Idris, which he threw out here, as soon as he felt them hurting his foot.

The way to it is a continual ascent of two miles; so perhaps it is the highest situation of any gentleman's house in Britain. The estate is covered with fine timber, which clothe all the sides of the dingles for many miles. The name is very classical, Derwen Ceubren yr Ellyll, the hollow oak, the haunt of daemons. How often has not warm fancy seen the fairy tribe revel round its trunk! This had been a British post, the station, perhaps, of some tyrant, it being called Moel Orthrwm, or the hill of oppression.

THE park of Nanney is remarkable for its very small, but very excellent venison. RETURN through Dolgelleu; and about a mile beyond, on a rising spot, have a beautiful view of three vales, finely bounded by hills, and embellished with gentlemen's houses; finely watered by the junction of the Onion and the Maw, or Mowdach. Let me add, that the consideration of ending this little excursion at the hospitable house of Mr.

Garnons, of Rhiw Goch was another spur to my design. The tide flows within a small distance of this place; and on the banks I saw a small sloop, ready to be launched. On the left is the church of Llan-Elltyd: At the east end are three lofty, but very narrow windows, pointed at top; and over them three lesser, mantled in a great and gloomy thicket of ivy. The great hall, and part of the abbot's lodgings, now form a farm-house. This charter is most ample, over rivers, lakes, and sea; birds, and wild beasts and tame; over all mountains, woods, things moveable and immoveable; and over all things under and over the lands so granted; and gives liberty of digging for metals and hidden treasures: The valley grows soon very contracted; the sides of the hills finely covered with wood, almost to the top; and the river assumes the form of a torrent, rolling over a rocky channel.

A noble birch, placed above, finely finishes this picturesque scene. Not far from thence, the junction of the Maw and Eden forms another fine scene. BEGIN a considerable ascent, and find on the top some groves of handsome oaks: Descend, through some steep fields, to another set of wooded dingles, that wind along the bottoms, and join with the former. In various parts, Cader Idris appears in full majesty over these sloping forests, and gives a magnificent finishing to the prospect.

From the situation I was in, it formed a vast fall, bounded on one side by broken ledges of rocks, on the other by a lofty precipice, with trees here and there growing out of its mural front. On the summit of each part, oaks and birch form distinct little groves, and give it a sort of character distinct from our other cataracts.

After the water reaches the bottom of the deep concavity, it rushes in a narrow rocky chasm, of a very great depth, over which is an admirable wooden Alpine bridge; and the whole, for a considerable way, awefully canopied by trees. This is called Pistill y Kain, or the spout of the river Kain. At no great distance from it, is another for nature is here profuse in her beauties of this kind.

The water tumbles down a series of ledges, of different heights, into a very black and sullen pool, from which it re-assumes its violence, and is lost among the far extending woods. After emerging from these romantic depths, I reach a long extent of woodless tract, the vast parish of Trawsfynnydd, walled in on all sides by lofty rugged mountains, of various forms.

On a flat stone over it, is the following inscription, copied somewhat differently by Mr. NOT far from it, in another field, is a great upright stone, called Llech Idris. THIS road is now entirely covered with turf; but, by the rising of it, is in most parts very visible: There are tumuli near it, in various places, it being very usual for the Romans to inter near their highways. Close to the part in question is one, in which were found five urns: Notwithstanding this, the castelet is probably Roman; for multitudes of coins and urns are found about it. The name explains the cause of the want of lime in the walls, Castell Prysor signifying a castle made in baste, so that there was not time to prepare the usual cement.

Around its base are the foundations of several buildings, which were placed there to enjoy the protection of the place. The same are found at Fablun, in Sweden. It is surrounded with a ditch and bank, on the last of which are the vestiges of a wall: This camp is called Tomnen y Mur, or the mount within the wall. Coins and urns are as frequent about this place as the former. The branches are numerous: The town is seated very near to the sea, at the mouth of the Maw, or Mawddoch; and takes its name of Barmouth, i.

Aber Maw, or Mawddoch, from that circumstance. At high water, the tide forms here a bay, about a mile over, but the entrance hazardous, on account of the many sand-banks. Many of the webs are sold into Spain, and from thence sent to South America. I took boat, had a most pleasant passage up the harbour, charmed with the beauty of the shores, intermixed with woods, verdant pastures, and corn fields.

I landed, and, after a short walk, found, in a farm called Tydden Bach, the object of my excursion, Mary Thomas, who was boarded here, and kept with great humanity and neatness. ON examining her, she informed me, that at the age of seven, she had some eruptions like the measles, which grew confluent and universal; and she became so fore, that she could not bear the left touch: She thought she had slept but a night, and asked her mother whether she had given her any thing the day before, for she found herself very hungry.

Meat was brought to her; but so far from being able to take any thing solid, she could scarcely swallow a spoonful of thin whey. From this, she continued seven years and a half without any food or liquid, excepting sufficient of the latter to moisten her lips. About this time, she requested to receive the sacrament; which she did, by having a crum of bread steeped in the wine. She sleeps very indifferently: THIS instance of the influence of disease for such only can it be called strange as it is, is not without parallel.

THE first is the case of a lady, a patient of the late doctor Gower, of Chelmsford, who was confined to her bed for ten years, during which time she had an extreme and constant aversion to all kinds of solid nourishment. She drank a pint of tea daily; and once in three or four days chewed, without swallowing, a few raisins of the sun and blanched almonds, about four or half a dozen of each: This was the noted astrologer, and ill-favored knave, Arise Evans, a character and species of impostor frequent in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I.

He was a deep student in the black art; and Lilly assures us, that he had most piercing judgement naturally upon a figure of theft, and many other questions, he ever met withal; was well versed in the nature of spirits; and had many times used the circular way of invocating. He then tells how his friend Evans, by means of the angel Salmon, brought to him a deed, which one of his customers had been wronged of, at the same time blowing down part of the house of the person in whose custody it was: These ridiculous impostures were the fashionable credulity of the times; and the greatest men were the dupes of these pretenders to occult science.

ON my return to Barmouth, I proceeded for some time along the coast, among shifting sands. There is no tradition of the place it was removed from. The woods near his house are extensive, but affected by the west winds in a very surprizing manner: The whole is on the steep extremity of the hill, near to which is a pass into the country.

Llyn Cwm Howel is another lake in this neighborhood, noted for a race of trouts which I have seen with most deformed heads, thick, flatted, and toad shaped; and which, probably, might give rise to the fabled accounts of the monstrous species recorded by Giraldus. On the flat appear two circles. About thirty yards from this, is a lesser, with several upright stones among the smaller, but placed with less regularity. Design, not chance, certainly directed the founders of these circles in the disposition of the columnar stones; but I fear, when I come to speak more fully of them, the cause must remain unaccounted for, by reason of the remoteness of the time, and the mystery of the antient priesthood.

About eight yards from this, is the upper stone of a Cromleh, lying flat on the carnedd, without the appearance of any other support. It is now converted into a retreat for a shepherd, who has placed stone seats within, and formed a chimney through the loose stones above. In the same carnedd, a little farther on, is another magnificent Cromleh, whose incumbent stone is twelve feet by nine; four vast columns, or maen hirion, three now fallen, and a third erect.

The columns are from the height of ten feet four, to that of twelve feet eight; and each between four and five feet broad. This, and Castell Craig y Dinas, were doubtlessly formed as defences to the sacred ground, the subject of the above description. THIS neighborhood also abounds with Cromlechs of very great size. It lay about two feet above the ground, supported by small stones, and was surrounded with a circle of loose stones. Most of the Cromlechs of these parts lie very near to the ground, and in that respect differ from those of other places.

They lie likewife horizontally, which shews that their object was different, whatsoever it was. THIS country is in the hundred of Ardudwy. I was tempted to visit this noted pass, and found the horror of it far exceeding the most gloomy idea that could be conceived of it. FROM some of the adjacent heights of this ride, I had a full view beneath me it being low water of the long range of sand and gravel, which runs from this coast twenty-two miles into the sea.

This shoal is dry at the ebb of spring-tides, and marked in storms by horrible breakers. The canons of St. FROM Corsegedol, I pursued my journey towards Harlech; but, on the road, was tempted, by my constant fellow-traveller, the reverend Mr. John Lloyd, to make a small deviation to the right, to visit a near relation of his, who lived a few miles to our right, in his antient territories of Cwm Bychan. We approached it through Glyn Artro, a little valley, watered by a river of the same name, and prettily wooded.

After a short ride, high above a lake of the same name, descend, and reach the house of the venerable Evan Llwyd, who, with his ancestors, boast. This, and the fortified pass of Drws Ardudwy, were most probably occupied by the sons of Cadwgan, in their contests with the sons of Uchtryd ap Edwyn, whom they at last expelled the country. The following, as it is the true descent of Mr.

Evan Llwyd, and my fellow-traveller, who, being brother's children, are eighteenth in descent from Blyddyn ap Cynvyn, so it is a genuine copy of the form of a British pedegree:. I WAS introduced to the worthy representative of this long line, who gave me the most hospitable reception, and in the style of an antient Briton. The family lay in their whole store of winter provisions, being inaccessible a great part of the season, by reason of snow.

Purport of Sir JOHN PRYCE'S Letter to Mrs. BRIDGET BOSTOCK. 1748.

THE territories dependent on the mansion, extend about four miles each way, and consist of a small tract of meadow, a pretty lake swarming with trout, a little wood, and very much rock; but the whole forms a most august scenery. The meadows are divided by a small stream, and are bounded on one side by the lake; on the other, by his woods, which skirt the foot of the rocks, and through which the river runs, and beyond them tumbles from the heights, in a series of cataracts.

He keeps his whole territory in his own hands; but distributes his hinds among the Havadwys, or summer dairy-houses, for the conveniency of attending his herds and flocks: He found on one side a stratum of fine white earth, about half a yard thick, which I knew was what mineralogists dignify with the name of Lac Lunae, and Agaricus Mineralis.

Llwyd found one, with the marks of fire on it, which he used to repair the Tyddyn y Traian, or jointure-house of his family; an ancient customary appendage to most of the Welsh houses of any note. Nor have they long been extinct; a person of the last generation informed my host, that he had seen eighteen at once, grazing in the meadow. Yr Arth, the bear; y Dringhedydd, climbing animals, I suppose wild cats, martins, and squirrels; and Ceiliog Coed, or cock of the wood.

And the last division was, y Llwynog, the fox; Ysgyfarnog, the hare; and yr Ywrch, the roe. THE three first were Helfa Gyffredyn, or the common hunt. The bird mentioned here, is the cock of the wood, whose nature it is to sit perched on a bough, where they will gaze till they are shot, as they were, in old times, by the bow, or cross-bow. The method of hunting was either with hounds, or grehounds, which they let slip at the animals, holding the dogs in leashes.

No one was to slip his grehound when the hounds were in chace, unless he had a hound in the pack, on penalty of having the grehound ham-strung: When several grehounds, the property of different persons, were slipt at any animal, the person whose dog was nearest the beast, when last in sight, clamed the skin. A bitch was excepted, unless it was proved she was pregnant by a dog which had before won a skin. THE antient Welsh held the flesh of the stag, hare, wild boar, and the bear, to be the greatest delicacies among the beasts of chace.

THE prince had his Pencynwydd, or chief huntsman. He was the tenth officer of the court. He had for his own supper one dish of meat; and after it, three horns of mead, one from the king, another from the queen, the third from the steward of the houshold. He was never to swear, but by his horn and his leash. He had the third of the fines and heriots of all the other huntsmen; and likewise the same share of the amobr, on the marriage of any of their daughters.

At a certain time of the year, he was to hunt for the king only: His horn was that of an ox, of a pound value. He had in winter an ox's hide, to make leashes; in summer, a cow's, to cut into spatterdashes. THE king had liberty of hunting wheresoever he pleased; but if a beast was hunted and killed on any gentleman's estate, and not followed and clamed by the huntsman that night, the owner of the land might convert it to his own use, but was to take good care of the dogs, and preserve the skin.

He resided some time in a square tower in the antient fortress, whose remains are very apparent; as are part of the old walls, which the more modern, in certain places are seen to rest on. THE present castle was the work of Edward I. It was completed before the year The present constable is Evan Lloyd Vaughan, esq with a salary of fifty pounds a year, payable out of the revenues of North Wales. It was impregnable on the side next to the sea: Famine probably subdued him: The king at first refused his request; when Herbert told him plainly, that his highness might take his life, instead of that of the Welch captain; or that he would assuredly replace Dafydd in the castle, and the king might send whom he pleased to take him out again.

Margaret of Anjou, the faithful and spirited queen of the meek Henry VI. It was well defended by major Hugh Pennant, till he was deserted by his, men. It was finally taken, in March , by general Mytton, when Mr. It had the honor of surrendering on articles, and of being the last in North Wales which held out for the king. It is well described in Cambden, as a wreathed rod of gold, about four feet long, with three spiral furrows, with sharp intervening ridges running its whole length to the ends, which are plain truncated, and turn back like pot-hooks.

The use was that of a baldric, to suspend gracefully the quiver of men of rank, which hung behind by means of the hook, and the golden wreath crossed the breast, and passed over the shoulder. Virgil, in his beautiful description of the exercises of the Trojan youth, expresses the manner in these frequently misconstrued lines: Cornea bina ferunt praefixo hastilia ferro: Pars laeves numero pharetras, it pectore summo, Flexilis obtorti per collum circulus auri.

Each brandishing aloft a cornel spear. THE Torch, or Torques, worn by the Gauls and Britons, was a very different affair, a collar of gold, or other metal, worn round the neck. They probably were made in several ways: I have seen a very beautiful one I think at present in possession of the reverend Mr. Prescot, of Cambridge composed of several links of silver wire, most elegantly twisted together: THE custom of wearing the Torques was continued from the more remote periods of Britain, to later times.

FROM Harlech I ascended a very steep hill, and on my way observe several maen hirion, and circles formed of large common pebble-stones, and of different diameters; sometimes appears circle within circle; in other places, they intersect each other. Clusters of circles were not peculiar to our island: Some columnar stones, or maen hirion, appear in the ranges of stones composing the circles. THE tumulus is called that of king Ingo: This had been the residence of the antient family of the Wynnes, from whom it passed to the Owens, by the marriage of Sir Robert with the heiress of the place, in the last century.

The narrow path we rode on, impends over it, and is cut out of a hill, whose sides are composed of shivering slate, starting out at an immense height above, threatening destruction: FROM one of the heights, a vast Alpine prospect appears in view. The last are particularly barren, and appear quite naked, excepting where varied by a mossy verdure, or whitened by the lichen tartaricus.

From thence, the mountains gradually lower, to Lleyn, which stretches in view far to the west, and terminates on the point of Aberdaron. AFTER a short ride, reach the village and chapel of Maen Twrog, dependent on the church of Festiniog, Near one end is a great upright stone, from which it takes the name. This stone is taken into the Welsh calendar, canonized by the name of St. THE river hereabouts widens into a good salmon fishery; and, after some space, falls into an arm of the sea, called Traeth Bach, or the little sands.

Below, is a magnificent columnar rock, rising out of the torrent, and called Pulpit Hugh Llwyd Cynfael. Hugh lived in the time of James I. ABOUT a mile from the Cynfael, is another comfortable inn, which has often received me, after my toilsome expeditions. In my visit to it, I descended through woods, along a steep road, into a very deep, but narrow valley, which I crossed, and began a very hazardous and fatiguing ascent up the rocky front of a losty mountain: The mountains which inclose it, are the Moel-wyn yr Hydd, and the Moel-wyn Gwyn, and others equally rude. But in our descent we met with such narrowness of path, such short turnings, and horrible precipices, that our poor beasts, with much reason, trembled in every limb; and, in fact, had a wonderful escape in getting safe to the bottom.

The traveller who chuses to follow our steps, will find a narrow grassy bottom in Cwm Croesor, with a few tenements: IN this journey, I went from Festiniog on a less hazardous way. These graves were about six feet long, marked at each end by two upright stones; but most of the stones are now removed.

The tradition relating to these monuments, is classical; nearly parallel with the rape of the Sabines. The men of Ardudwy, to populate their country, made an inroad into the vale of Clwyd, and layed violent hands on the fair ladies of the land: It is placed the highest of any large piece of water I have met with in these parts.

In it are three islands, one of which is the haunt of the black-back Gulls, during the breeding season. The water issues out of the end of the lake, in form of a little rill; but in the course of a few miles, before it reaches Llanrwst, becomes a most: John of Jerusalem; so styled from its having formed, in the then inhospitable country, an asylum and guard for travellers, under the protection of the knights who held the manor, and made its precincts a sanctuary.

IN the church are three alabaster figures. The next is an ecclesiastic, his son, Robert ap Rhys, cross-bearer and chaplain to cardinal Wolsey: Llwyd confesses the inscription to be very obscure. TURN back, and again reach the river Conway. The rocks which bound it are of a vast height, and approach very near to each other, and want the pleasing accompaniment of trees, attendant on most of our cascades.

When down, I found myself environed with naked precipices, faced with angular columnar rocks, pointing in a sloping direction towards the river, adding to the strangeness of the scenery. They seem to have been the chief finery and luxury of the days of Hoel Dda. THE vale gradually expands from this end, and extends about twenty miles, terminating at the town of Conway.

It soon widens to about a mile in breadth, and improves in beauty, especially in the neighborhood of Llanrwst, where it is divided into the most beautiful meadows. The sides of the hills finely cultivated: The eastern consists of low and broken hills, chequered with rich pasturage, corn fields, and groves. He is in armour, recumbent, with this inscription: These rocks are precipitous, and in high floods exhibit to the passenger most awful cataracts below the bridge. The scenery beyond, of rocky mountains, fringed wich woods, is very striking.

THIS bridge was built on the following occasion: One Howel, a mason from Penllyn, having occasion, about the year , to attend the Merionethshire assizes, then held at Conway, had his passage over the Lleder obstructed by floods. This determined him to remove to the spot, where he built a bridge, at his own expence, and received no other gratuity than what resulted from the spontaneous generosity of passengers. The boundaries are rude and barren mountains; and, among others, the great bending mountain Scabod, often conspicuous from most distant places.

The castle is placed on a high rock, precipitous on one side, and insulated: The castle-yard lay between the towers. THIS had been founded by some of our princes; but we are ignorant of its origin. There were very few castles in North Wales, before its conquest by the English. Our herds and flocks were the frequent resource of the English, and brought large sums into Wales. Witness the large sums of money we too frequently were obliged to pay, as purchasers of disgraceful peace.

Before that time, Hoel as Evan ap Rhys Gethin, a noted outlaw, resided here. I had rather fight with outlaws and thieves, than with my own blood and kindred: The feuds among the gentry in Evionedd, occasioned perpetual murders; and Nant-Conwy was filled with banditti. THIS gentleman soon reformed the country: He removed the church, which before lay in a thicket, to a more open place, by way of security; for he never dared to quit his house, without leaving in it a strong guard; and another of twenty tall archers to attend him, whenever he went to church; besides a watchman, on a rock called Carreg y Big, to give notice of the approach of the banditti.

The river runs along a strait stony channel, for a considerable way, amidst narrow meadows, bounded by majestic Alpine scenery; then falls into an amazing hollow. The bottom is difficult of access; but when arrived at, exhibits a wonderful scene of mountain and precipice, shaded with trees, which fringe the top, and start even from the fissures of the sides. THE antient house of Gwedir stands near the foot of this rock. Over the gate-way is the date, , with I. This shews , the supposed time of the death of the former, to be a mistake. Sir John Wynne himself even mentions a date of , on a window at Dolwyddelan, which is long before the building of Gwedir.

But the following lines of a poet, who flourished some centuries before, is still a stronger proof of the antiquity of glass in our country: They see me through the glass windows. ON a rock, high above the Lower Gwedir, stood another, called The Upper, seemingly built for the enjoyment of the beautiful view it commands of the rich meadows watered by the Conwy, and their elegant boundaries. It was a sort of Diaeta, or summer-house, erected by Sir John Wynne, in , who had a classical taste. The walls were covered with inscriptions; and the situation well deserved the panegyric bestowed on it in the following Welsh lines, placed over the entrance: Bryn Gwedir gwelir goleu adeilad Uwch dolydd a chaurau Bryn gwiech adail yn ail ne; Bron wen Henllys bren hinlle.

THIS has been of late demolished; but the family chapel, which stands near the site of the old house, is still preserved, and service performed in it four times in the year. SIR John was sent to London in , to study the law; was a man of abilities, and particularly attentive to the antiquities of his country and family. His consequence made him to be taken notice of by the court; for he was made a baronet in June THIS place continued in the family till the year , when it passed into that of the late duke of Ancaster, by marriage of Mary, daughter and heiress of Sir Richard Wynne, with Robert marquess of Lindsey; and is now possessed by Peter Burrell, esq in right of his wife Priscilla, baroness Willoughby, eldest sister to Robert, late duke of Ancaster.

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The town lies in Denbighshire, on the opposite bank. The approach is over the bridge, the boasted plan of Inigo Jones. I wish I could do more honor to my country, than suppose him to have been a descendant of this neighborhood: He was patronized by the earl of Arundel, and William earl of Pembroke; and by one or other sent into Italy. His real christian name was Ynyr, which he there changed into Inigo, or Ignatius. It is in vain to give the life of a man, which has been so amply written by one of the ablest pens in the fine arts.

Let it suffice to say, that the first Sir Richard Wynne procured from Jones the plan of this bridge, of which he was founder, in ; determined to do his country all possible honor, by the beauty of the design, invented by an architect to which Wales had at lest a near relation sec;. THERE is one circumstance attending this great genius, which deserves mention, as it bears some relation to the country from whence he may have derived his origin.

He did it with such success, as to excite the envy of the poet, Ben Jonson; for the scenes were more admired than the entertainment, which might very well be: The tide does not flow nearer than Llyn y Graig, a mile and half below the bridge, where, in spring tides, boats of twelve tons may come. Rystyd, or Restitutus, archbishop of London in , present at the council of Arles in Some curious carving, said to have been brought from the neighboring abby, graces the inside. The Gwedir chapel, founded in , by the above-mentioned Sir Richard Wynne, from a design of Inigo, would be another ornament, if not so shamefully neglected.

On the wall is a ruinous marble monument, elegantly ornamented with trophies: The country people have a tradition, that he was a great oppressor; and accordingly have sent his perturbed spirit to reside in the neighboring cataract of Rhaiader y Wenol. These were the work of Sylvanus Crew. He left behind him an excellent account of the journey, which was published by Mr. He died the 19th of July , and was interred distant from his country, in the church of Wimbledon. A fine head of him, by Jansen, is preserved at Wynn-Stay; and the charming print from it, by that inimitable artist, Mr.

A VERY plain stone records the death of his eldest brother, Sir John Wynne, knight, who died at Lucca, on his travels, in , and was buried there, in the parish of St. I have seen numbers of his letters, which shew him to have been a very observant man; some of which may, in the Appendix, be an amusement to the reader. IN this church is preserved the stone coffin of Llewelyn the Great, with the sides curiously cut into quatre-foils. That prince was enterred in Conwy abby; but at the dissolution, the coffin was removed to this place. The abby was granted, in the fifth of queen Elizabeth, to Elizeus Wynne; and it is still possessed by his descendant, lady Wynne, widow of the late Sir John Wynne, of Glynllivon.

A large old house, built from the materials of the abby, still remains. It is said that Llewelyn the Great had near this place a palace; and, as a proof, several hewen stones have been found, in ploughing a field called Gardd y Neuodd. FROM hence I went back as far as Gwedir, and ascend a very steep hill, leaving the park belonging to the house on the left.

Some lead-mines have been discovered in these parts, but none of any consequence. It is called Bwrli, or the emetic plant; and Gnwyrddling, or green plant. Our countrymen use it as a yellow dye. They lay branches of it upon and under their beds, to keep off fleas and moths; and also give it in powder or infusion, and apply it to the abdomen as a vermifuge.

It is besides sometimes used as a succedancum for hops. THE Sorbus Aucuparia, or mountain ash, is frequent in these parts. The history of our famous bard begins like that of Moses; for he was found exposed on the water, wrapped in a leathern bag, in a wear which had been granted to Elphin, son of Gwyddno, for his support.

The young prince, reduced by his extravagance, burst into tears, at finding, as he imagined, so unprofitable a booty. He took pity on the infant, and caused proper care to be taken of him. Go through a narrow pass, high above a raging torrent, falling in broken cascades from rock to rock. At a small distance from hence, enter Dyffryn Mymbyr, a valley in which woods, and even trees, disappear.

The boundaries of this vale are, on one side, the base of the crooked mountain, Moel Siabod; on the other, that of the Gludar Bach, and several other hills of lesser note. The bottom is meadowy; at this time enlivened with the busy work of hay harvest, and filled with drags, horses, and even men and women, loaden with hay.

The middle is varied with two small lakes, along whose sides we rode; and at some distance beyond them, near Pont y Gwryd, quitted our horses, to visit the summit of the Glyder, noted for the report the editor of Cambden had made, of the singular disposition of the rocks. We directed our servants to go on to Llanberis, with our steeds. OUR pains were fully repaid, on attaining the summit. The tops are frequently crowned in the strangest manner with other stones, lying on them horizontally. One was about twenty-five feet long, and six broad: I climbed up, and, on stamping it with my foot, felt a strong tremulous motion from end to end.

MANY of the stones had, bedded in them, shells; and in their neighborhood I found several pieces of lava. I would therefore rather consider this mountain to have been a sort of wreck of nature, formed and flung up by some mighty internal convulsion, which has given these vast groupes of stones fortuitously such a strange disposition; for had they been the settled strata, bared of their earth by a long series of rains, they would have retained the regular appearance, as we observe in all other beds of similar matter.

ONE side of this mountain is formed into a gap, berissce, I may call it, with sharp rocks, pointing upwards, one above the other, to a great height. A precipice, from whose summit I surveyed the strange scene, forbad my approach to examine the nature of its composition; and whether it might not have been suspected of being formed at the same time with the phoenomena on the top of its neighbor Glyder: On one side, in a deep hollow, formed under fallen rocks, was once the hiding place of Rys Goch o'r Eryri, or Rhys the Red, of Snowdon; a mountain bard, patronised by Robert Meredydd, a partizan of Glyndwr, an outlawed chieftain, of whose fortunes he partook.

The waters of five lakes dart down the precipice of the middle of the Benglog, and form the torrent of the Ogwen, which falls into the sea a few miles lower. It was a fit place to inspire murderous thoughts, environed with horrible precipices, shading a lake, lodged in its bottom. The shepherds fable, that it is the haunt of Daemons; and that no bird dare fly over its damned water, fatal as that of Avernus.

NEAR this place is a quarry, noted for excellent hones, of which quantities are sent annually to London. In some distant age, the ruins of a rocky mountain formed a road by a mighty lapse. A stream of stones, each of monstrous size, points towards the Cwm; and are to be clambered over by those only, who possess a degree of bodily activity, as well as strength of head to bear the sight of the dreadful hollows frequent beneath them.

Its neighborhood is of great note among botanists for rare plants, among which may be reckoned the Saxifraga Nivalis, Bulbocodium, and the Lichen Islandicus, The last is of singular use to the Icelanders. THE prospect from this mountain is very noble. The plain which forms the top is strangely covered with loose stones like the beach of the sea; in many places crossing one another, in all directions, and entirely naked. Numbers of groupes of stones are placed almost erect, sharp pointed, and in sheafs: The elements seemed to have warred against this mountain: The shepherds make it the residence of storms, and style a part of it Carnedd y Gwynt, or The Eminence of Tempests.

From thence descend by Oleu Fawr. At present, there is not a fish in it to disprove the relation. To make amends, the botanist will find in it the Lobelia Dortmanna, Sabularia Aquatica, and Isoetis Lacustris; and not far from it, the Juncus Triglumis, common to this, and some of the Highland mountains.

It is strait, and of nearly an equal breadth, filled by some meadows, and two magnificent lakes, which communicate to each other by means of a river. The venerable oaks, spoken of by Leland, are no more. Among the numberless errors of this performance, I fear the word is cloathed with trees, must be supplied by the traveller with WAS.

And then he commended to my conduct into England, a noble man of his, called Andrew Sauin, as his Ambassadour, for the better confirmation of his priuileges granted, and other negotiations with her Maiesty. And thus being dispatched with full contentment, the sayd Ambassadour and my selfe departed, and imbarked at S. Nicholas about the end of Iuly, and arriued safely at London in the moneth of September following. One God euerlasting and without and before the beginning, the Father, the Sonne, and the holy Ghost, the blessed Trinitie, our onely God, maker and preseruer of all things, replenisher of all things euery where, who by thy goodnesse doest cause all men to loue the giuer of wisedome our onely Mediatour, and leader of vs all vnto blessed knowledge by the onely Sonne his word, our Lord Iesus Christ, holy and euerlasting Spirit, and now in these our dayes teachest vs to keepe Christianitie, and sufferest vs to enioy our kingdome to the happy commodity of our land, and wealth of our people, in despight of our enemies, and to our fame with our friends.

Whereas our sister Elizabeth by the grace of God Queene of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, hath written vnto vs her letters for her merchants, who hath made sute that we should grant our goodnesse to the merchants which are of one company, and giue them free leaue to come to traffike in our kingdome to Colmogro, and to the countrey of Dwina, and to our great citie of Moscouia, and to all the cities in our dominions, and thorow our countrey to Boghar, to Persia, Casbin, and Chardy, and to all other countreys.

Iohn Mersh Esquire, Geofrey Ducket, Francis Robinson, Matthew Field, and all the rest of their company and fellowship, and to their successours and deputies, to come with ships and other vessels into our countery at Colmogorod, and Dwina, and to all the North parts now being ours, or that hereafter shall at any time be in our possession, by sea, riuer or land, euen to our great Citie of Mosco, in all the townes of our Countrey, to Cazan and Astracan, to Nouogorod the great, to Plesko and Leifland, Vriagorod, to Narue, and all other townes of Leifland.

And wheresoeuer they come there to be and abide freely, and to barter and bargaine freely all wares of sale, without custome of all people, and Marchants strangers whatsoeuer. And if so be they bring any fine wares out of Englande, or any other Countrey from Boghar, Persia, Casbin, or from any other place, and those their wares that come by the way of Narue, or any other part into our Dominion, to bring the same wares into our treasure, and our Treasurers to view the same wares, and to take into our Treasurie of the same such as shalbe needful for vs.

And all such wares as we shal not need, our Chancellour to redeliuer the same: And after the view of our Chancellours, to barter it freely to whom they will, not selling any of their wares needful for vs, before our Chancellour haue seene the same. And all other grosse and heauy wares that shall be needful to our vse not being brought to Mosco, to declare and tell our Chancellour of the same wares: And to giue a note thereof by name, and how much they leaue there, not brought to Mosco; and then if we neede not the said wares, the English Marchants, their seruants and Factors, to conuey their wares the neerest way to Vstiug the great, and so to Colmogorod, or elsewhere at their pleasure, there to barter and sell the same.

But those wares that shalbe needfull for our Treasurie, they shall not hide from vs in any case. And when our Chancellours shall send our aduenture, with the said Marchants or their Factors, they to take our aduentures with them, and to sell, and to barter for such wares as shalbe meete for our Treasurie, and to returne it into our Treasurie. And when we shall sende any aduenture into England then our Chancellour to giue them a yeeres warning, that their ships may be prouided thereafter, that by taking in of our wares, they leaue not their owne behind them.

Neither shall the English marchants receiue or colour any of our peoples goods, nor barter nor sell it in any wise: And when we shal send no adueture with them, yet to suffer them freely to passe, not viewing their wares, nor taking any kinde of custome. And whatsoeuer English marchant will bargaine with our Marchants or Factors ware for ware to barter the same at their pleasure. And whatsoeuer their Marchant or Factors will sell their wares at their house at Mosco, which house I granted them at S. Maxims at the Mosco, they to sell the ware to our people, either strangers as they may best vtter it, keeping within their house, arshines, measures, and waights vnder seales.

Maxims in the halfe free, and without standing rent, as heretofore we did grant it the said English Marchants, sir Wil. Garrard, and the Company, maintayning in the said house one housekeeper a Russe, and two Russe seruants, or some of their owne countrey men, and none other Russes besides the aforesayde. And the said housekeepers that shall liue at their house with the English marchants neither to buy nor sel any wares for them, but that the said marchants themselues or their factors, shall buy, sell, and barter their owne wares: And of all wares aswell of other countreis as of Russia, no officer or other to take any custome, neither in any place to stay them in any wise, neither take any kinde of toll of them for their wares whatsoeuer.

The said Russe not to returne those wares vpon the marchants hands againe, but to giue ready money for the said wares, otherwise they to craue the Iustice to giue right, and to execute the lawe vpon the same with all expedition. And when the English marchants or factors shal trauaile from Moscouie after the dispatch of their wares and businesse, then to shew themselues vnto our Chancellours, whatsoeuer wares of theirs shall goe from Mosco, they not to shew the same wares to any our officers, nor pay no custome nor toll in any place.

And if there happen none of the English merchants, factors, seruants, or deputies to be in our Countreis at such time, then we wil all the said goods to be sought out and bestowed in some conuenient place, and when any of the Company aforewritten, bringing these our letters, shall come for their goods, we to command their goods to be restored vnto them.

And they to keepe at the said house one housekeeper, a Russe, and two or three men to keepe their wares at the said houses, making sale thereof to whom they will, they, their Factors or deputies: Maximes in the Zenopski, and other their houses in the towne of Zenopski, made for the better assurance of their goods, and all such as they shall set vp hereafter shal be of the Opressini Or chosen side. And where they shal happily find it, there to set vp houses for the making of the same yron: And where they shall cut the sayde wood, not to set vp any village or farme there, bringing the artificers for making of their yron, out of their owne Countrey, and to learne our people that arte, and so freely occupying the said yron in these our Dominions, transporting also of the same home into Englande, allowing for euery pound one dingo, or halfe penie.

And when the said English Merchants or Factors shal send their owne people out of our Realme into their Countrey, ouer land through any Countrey whatsoeuer, freely to send the same with our words. Also we of our goodness haue graunted, that if any man misuse the said English, the Factors or seruants, or the saide English Merchants; their Factors or seruants abuse any other at Moscouie, or any other out townes whatsoeuer within our Dominions in trade of Marchandise or otherwise, then they to haue vpright iustice in all such matters of our counsaile the Opressini without all let or delay: But if our Iustice may not agree the parties, then lots to be made, and to whose lotte it shall fall, to him the right to be giuen, and that only our counsaile at Moscouie, and none of our Captaines, or authorised people, or officers in any other our townes, giue iudgement vpon the said English Merchants for any thing.

And none to deale therein, saue our Counsaile of the Opressini. That the said English Merchants, factors and seruant, sustaine thereby no hinderance or damage. And if any Englishman be endebted, we will the Creditor not to cast him in prison, or to deliuer him to the Sergeant, lest the officer lose him, but to take ware in pawne of the debt.

Moreouer, besides and with the company of English merchants, we permit all strangers, to trade to our towne of Narue, Iuanogorod, and other our townes of Liefland, as they haue done beforetime. Giuen from the beginning of the world , in the moneth of Iune 20, Indiction 12, the yere of our lordship and reign 35, and of our Empire of Rusland Cazan 17, Astracan Other speciall grants by his Maiesties priuate letters at the sute of M.

Releasement out of prison of Fitzherbert, that was accused for writing of letters against the Emperour. Liberty giuen to Thomas Greene that was accused and troubled vpon suspition of his dealing with the Ambassadour, and licence giuen to him to trafficke as he was accustomed. Andrew Atherton and his sureties released at the Narue and his seruant at the Mosco, that were in trouble for sending the merchants letters into England.

A letter granted to Thomas Southam to the Councell, for iustice against them that stole the pearles. His Maiesties fauor promised to the Artificers, and liuings to be appointed them as they can best deserue. A letter to the merchants that went into Persia, to passe freely without impeachment in his dominions, as also letters of fauour to the great Shaugh of Persia. A grant vnto the company that at what time soeuer they send to the discouery of Cataya, they shalbe licenced to repaire vnto this countrey, and haue such conducts and guides, mariners, vessels, men and victuals as they shall stand in need of.

It is also promised by Knez Alfanas, and Peter Gregoriwich in the Emperours name, that if Benet Butler or any English man complaine, deface, hinder in way of traffike or otherwise go about to discredit the worshipfull company, and their doings, that therein they shall not be heard, and the doers to be punished, as in such cases they shalbe iudged to haue deserued. Certaine persons granted to be sent home into England that serued the company, and were practisers against them in that countrey. The first of August. In primis, when your barke with all furniture is ready, you shall at the beginning of the yere assoone as you possibly may make your repaire to the Easterne part of the riuer Pechora, where is an Island called Dolgoieue, and from thence you shall passe to the Eastwards alongst by the Sea coast of Hugorie, or the maine land of Pechora, and sailing alongst by the same coast, you shall passe within seuen leagues of the Island Vaigats, which is in the straight, almost halfe way from the coast of Heugorie, vnto the cast of Noua Zembla, which Island Vaigats and Noua Zembla you shall finde noted in your plat , therefore you shall not need to discouer it: There is a Bay betweene the sayd Vaigats, and the riuer Obba, that doth bite to the Southwards, into the land of Hugory, in which Bay are two small riuers, the one called Cara Reca , the other Naramsy , as in the paper of notes which are giuen to you herewith may appeare: And when you are at the Easterne part of Obba Reca, you shall from thence passe to the Eastwards, alongst by the border of the sayd coast, describing the same in such perfect order as you can best do it.

You shall not leaue the sayd coast or border of the land, but pass alongst by it, at least in sight of the same, vntil you haue sailed by it so farre to the Eastwards and the time of the yeere so farre spent, that you doe thinke it time for you to returne with your barke to Winter, which trauell may well be or leagues to the Eastwards of the Ob, if the Sea doe reach so farre as our hope is it doth: For our hope is that the said border of land and sea doth in short space after you passe the Ob, incline East, and so the Southwards.

And therefore we would haue no part of the land of your starreboord side, as you proceed in your discouery, to be left vndiscouered. But and if the said Border of land do not incline so to the Eastwards as we presuppose it, but that it doe proue to incline and trend to the Northwards, and so ioyne with Noua Zembla, making the sea from Vaigats to the Eastwards but a bay: And if it doe so proue to be a bay, and that you haue passed round about the same, and so by the trending of the land come backe vnto that part of Noua Zembla that is against Vaigats whereas you may from that see the said Island Vaigats, if the time of the yeere will permit you, you shall from thence passe alongst by the said border and coast of Noua Zembla to the Westwards, and so to search whether that part of Noua Zembla doe ioyne with the land that Sir Hugh Willoughbie discouered in anno 53, and is in 72 degrees, and from that part of Noua Zembla leagues to the Westwards, as your plat doeth shew it vnto you: Note you, it was the 20 of August, 56 yer the Serchthrift began to returne backe from her discouerie, to Winter in Russia, and then she came from the Island Vaigats, being forcibly driuen from thence with an Easterly winde and yce, and so she came into the riuer Dwina, and arriued at Colmogro the 11 of September, If the yce had not bene so much that yere as it was in the Streights, on both sides of the Island Vaigats, they in the said pinnesse would that yere haue discouered the parts that you are now sent to seek: Which discouerie, if it may be made by you, it shall not only proue profitable vnto you, but it will also purchase perpetuall fame and renowme both to you and our country.

And thus not doubting of your willing desires, and forwardnesse towards the same, we pray God to blesse you with a lucky beginning, fortunate successe, and happily to end the same. When your barke with all furniture and necessaries shall be in readinesse for you to depart to the sea if it be that you take your barke at S. Nicholas, or any part of Dwina Reca you shall from thence, euen as timely in the spring as the yce will permit you, saile, and make all expedition that may be, vnto the mouth of the riuer Pechora as your commission doth leade you and as you passe by the coast all alongst notwithstanding the plat that sheweth you the description of the said coast, from Dwina vnto Vaigats yet you shall seeke by all the meanes that you can, to amend the same plat, vsing as many obseruations, as you possibly can do: And in the sea after you set off from your port, you shall orderly at the end of euery foure glasses sound, and if you finde ground, note the depth and what ground, but if you can finde no ground, you shall also note in what depth you could find no ground.

But withall you may not forget to note as many things as you can learne and vnderstand by the report of any people whatsoeuer they be, so that it appertaine any way to our desires. And thus the Lord God prosper your voyage, Amen. Randolph, her Maiesties Ambassadour to the Emperour , to certeine friends of his in London, describing the maners of the Countrey and people. But chiefly two, one called Kuas, whereby the Mousiket liues. Vnlesse it be Nichola Bough that hangs against the wall.

The fourth voyage into Persia, made by M. Their arriuall at Bilbil the May it please you to vnderstand that your Agent M. Arthur Edwards and we departed from Yeraslaue in Iuly Our goods brought vpon land, we were compelled to open and sel as they would set the price, or otherwise it would haue bene worse for vs. Being so satisfied to their contentment, we were speedily aided with camels by the prince Erasbec Sultan his appointment, to carry our goods to Shamaki, to which place we attained the first of September, finding it so throughly furnished with maner of commodities by occasion of our late comming, and by such as came before vs, that no man would aske to buy any one piece of karsie of vs, and lying then the space of one whole moneth before your Agent Arthur Edwards would disperse vs abroade with the goods, such as came out of Russia afterwardes, had brought their goods to that and other places, and spoyled those sayles wee might haue made, being sent abroad in time conuenient, being no little hinderance to the worshipfull, as also great griefe vnto vs to see.

To conclude, through our dayly calling vpon him, he bent himselfe for Casbin, taking with him the greatest summe of the goods, and two of the worshipfuls seruants, to witte, Iohn Sparke and my selfe, to helpe and procure the better sale for the same: Christopher Faucet and Richard Pingle. And being vpon our way, at a certaine towne called Ardouil, we chanced to barter nine pieces of karsies with those merchants for fourescore and foure batemans of cynamom, selling the karsies at one hundred and fiftie shawghs the piece.

And being at that present not farre from Teueris, called the principal place in this countrey for vttering of cloth or karsies, by much intreatie I perswaded your Agent to send thither to prooue what might be done, and receiuing from him foure and fiftie pieces of karsies, as also his commission for the sale of the same, I proceeded on that voyage my selfe, and one Tolmach in company with me, finding in that place great store of broad cloth and karsies brought thither, some part by the Turkes who be resident there, some by the Armenians, who fetch them at Aleppo, and some by the townesmen, who trauell vnto Venice and there buy them, so that no man offered me one penie more then a hundred and fourtie shawghs for a karsie: Warre against the Portingals at Ormuz.

The gouernour of Grozin his Merchant. It chanced me in that place to meet with the gouernours merchant of Grozin, who was not a litle desirous to bargen with me for a hundred pieces of karsies for his master called Leuontie, and offering me so good bands for the paiment of the money or silke to the merchants contentment vpon the deliuery of them, as in any place within all this countrey is to be had: The generall inconsistencie in the merchants and dealers of those parts.

At whose arriuall there, as I do perceiue, the Captaine would not accomplish his bargen to take them, but saith, hee hath no need of them; such is the constancie of all men in the countrey, with whomsoeuer you shal bargen. If the ware be bought, and they doe mislike it afterwards, they will bring it againe, and compel you to deliuer the money for it againe, regarding the Shawghs letters, which manifesteth the contrary, as a straw in the winde: I am informed by all the brokers in Teueris, that the way once open to Ormuz, from whence commeth no such store of spices as the worshipfull doeth looke for, that here will bee put a way in Teueris, some for money, and other some for barter, to the number of three hundred or foure hundred pieces of karsies, being in coulers and goodnesse to the examples here sent you, the rest of the karsies to make them vp a thousand, and broad clothes to the summe of a hundred, bee as many as will be put away yeerely in this countrey, so farre as yet I can perceiue.

The trade between the Venetians and the Armenians not easily to be broken. To breake the trade betwixt the Venetians and the whole company of the Armenians it is not possible, vnlesse the worshipful will finde some meanes to receiue of them yerely to the number of At Amadia sixe dayes iourney from Teueris, grow abundance of galles, which are brought vp yerely by the Venetians, and be solde there for two bistes the Teueris bateman, which as your Agent here saith, maketh sixe pound English weight, but I doubt it wil not so be proued.

Neuerthelesse it is supposed much good will bee done by buying of them: Touching drugges, I finde many as well at Teueris, as also in Casbin, but the goodnesse nothing like to such as be brought into England out of other places: At my comming to Casbin I found no maner of sales of any commoditie made, but all lying there whole, and newes giuen out as your Agent saith that the Shaugh would buy all such commodities as he had, and giue him silke and spices for the same: Babylon 15 days iourney from Casbin. Babylon is from hence fifteene dayes tourney, whereas by true report be great store of Dates, and sold for a bisse the batman, the commoditie fit for England, and the place so neere vnto vs might easily haue bene knowen, if hee, whose deeds and sayings differ much, had bene willing to the same.

A tour in Wales. MDCCLXX: [pt.2]

Casan also is but seuen dayes iourney from hence, and a place by report, where most store of spices be at all times to be had, ouer and aboue any place in this countrey: To trauell in this countrey is not onely miserable and vncomfortable for lacke of townes and villages to harbour in when night commeth, and to refresh men with wholesome victuals in time of need, but also such scarsitie of water, that sometime in three dayes iourney together, is not to be found any drop fit for man or beast to drinke, besides the great danger we stand in for robbing by these infidels, who doe account it remission of sinnes to wash their hands in the blood of one of vs.

Better it is therefore in mine opinion to continue a beggar in England during life, then to remaine a rich Merchant seuen yeeres in this Countrey, as some shall well find at their comming hither. His voyage to Gilan. By commandement of the Agent also I went to Gilan, as well to see what harbor was there for your ship, as also to vnderstand what commoditie is there best sold, and for what quantitie. I found the way from hence so dangerous and troublesome, that with my pen I am not able to note it vnto you: The towne of Laighon, which was the chiefest place in all that land, haue I seen, and Langro and Rosar also, which be now ouerrun by the Shaugh and his power, and be so spoiled, and the people so robbed, that not one of them is able to buy one karsie.

The best commoditie there to bee bought, is raw silke, and is sold in the Summer time for The malice of the Turkish merchants. In these partes be many Turkie merchants resident, which giue an outward shew, as though they were glad of our comming hither, but secretly they be our mortall enemies, searching by all meanes to hinder our sales, because we should the sooner giue ouer our trade thither, which in processe of time I hope will growe to better perfection.

They wish vs to go to Hallape with the rest of our commodities vnsold, where they say we shall haue good intertainment in spight of the great number of Venetians which be there resident, and the custome but two in the hundred, and our karsies to be sold presently, had we neuer so many, for twelue duckets, which maketh of this money The price of spices. The price of spices be these, at this present enhansed by reason the way is shut to Ormus, which when God shall send open, I purpose God willing to see, and at my returne to aduertise the worshipfull what benefit is there to be had in all points, so neere as I can learne: And the best sort of rawe silke is sold for Thus for want of further matter to inlarge, I ende for this time, beseeching God to preserue you in continuall health.

Notes concerning this fourth voyage into Persia, begun in the moneth of Iuly When he came first to the Sophies presence, at his court in Casbin, bringing his interpreter with him, and standing farre off, the Sophie sitting in a seat roiall with a great number of his noble men about him bad him come neere, and that thrise, vntill he came so neere him that he might haue touched him with his hand.

Then the first demand that he asked him was, from what countrey he came: Then asked hee of his noble men, who knew any such countrey? But when Edwards saw that none of them had any intelligence of that name, he named Inghilterra, as the Italians call England. Then one of the noble men said Londro, meaning thereby London, which name is better knowen in far countries out of Christendom, then is the name of England.

When Edwards heard him name Londro, he said that that was the name of the chiefe citie of England, as was Teueris of the chiefe city of Persia. He asked him many things more, as of the realme of England, maruelling that it should be an Island of so great riches and power, as Edwards declared vnto him: He demanded also many thinges of the Queenes maiestie, and of the customes and lawes of the realme: He asked also many things of King Philip, and of his wars against the Turke at Malta.

Then he demanded of him what was the chiefe cause of his resort into his realme. And being certified that it was for the trade of merchandize he asked what kind of merchandize he could bring thither. Such sayd hee as the Venetian merchants do, which dwelling in our country in the city of Londro send to Venice, and from thence into Turkie by Halepo and Tripoli in Syria, from whence, as by the second and third hands, with great charges of many customs and other things thereunto pertaining, they are at the length brought into your countrey and cities of Persia.

What merchandize are those? Edwards answered, that they were great abundance of fine karsies, of broad clothes of all sorts and colours, as skariets, violets, and other of the finest cloth of all the world. The Venetians traffike in England. Also, that the Venetians brought out of England not onely such clothes ready made, but furthermore great plenty of fine wooll to mingle with their wools, of which they could not otherwise make fine cloth: The Sophie then asked him by what means such merchandize might be brought into Persia.

Right wel sir said he by the way of Moscouia, with more safetie and in much shorter time then the Venetians can bring them: And therefore if it shall please your maiestie to grant vs free passage into all your dominions, with such priuiledges as may appertaine to the safegard of our liues, goods and merchandize, we will furnish your countries with all such merchandize and other commodities, in shorter time, and better cheape then you may haue the same at the Turks hands. This talke and much more was between the Sophie and Edwards for the space of two houres: The lord keeper was named Coche Califay, who sayd that when the Shaugh that is the king or prince did sit to seale any letters, that last priuiledge should be sealed and deliuered to Laurence Chapman.

In this priuiledge is one principall article for seruants or merchants: That if the Agent do perceiue that vpon their naughtie doings, they would become Bursormen, that then the Agent wheresoeuer he shall find any such seruant or seruants, to take them and put them in prison, and no person to keepe them or maintaine them.

This article was granted in respect of a custome among the Persians, being Mahumetans, whose maner is friendly to receiue and wel entertaine, both with gifts and liuing, all such Christians, as forsaking their religion, wil become of the religion of the Persians. Insomuch that before this priuiledge was granted, there was great occasion of naughty seruants to deceiue and rob their masters, that vnder the colour of professing that religion, they might liue among them in such safetie, that you might haue no lawe agaynst them, either to punish them or to recouer your goods at their hands, or elsewhere.

For before the Sophie whom they say to be a maruelous wise and gracious prince seemed to fauour our nation, and to grant them such priuiledges, the people abused them very much, and so hated them, that they would not touch them, but reuiled them, calling them Cafars and Gawars, which is, infidels or misbeleeuers. But after they saw how greatly the prince fauoured them, they had them afterward in great reuerence, and would kisse their hands and vse them very friendly. For before they tooke it for no wrong to rob them, defraud them, beare false witnesse against them, and such merchandizes as they had bought or sold, make them take it againe, and change it as often as them listed.

And if any stranger by chance had killed one of them, they would haue the life, of two for one slaine, and for the debts of any stranger would take the goods of any other of the same nation, with many other such like abuses, in maner vnknowen to the prince, before the complaints of our men made vnto him for reformation of such abuses: The Articles of the second priuiledge deliuered to Laurence Chapman, which are to be annexed vnto the former priuiledge.

And the said owners of the camels to bee bound to answere them such goods as they shal receiue at their hands, and the camel-men to stand to the losses of their camels or horses. And no person to molest or trouble them, and to stand in any Carauan where they will, or shal thinke good. The commodities which the merchants may haue by this trade into Persia are thought to bee great, and may in time perhaps be greater then the Portugals trade into the East Indies, forasmuch as by the way of Persia into England, the returne may be made euery yeere once: The merchandises which he had out of Persia for the returne of wares are silke of all sortes of colours, both raw and wrought.

Also all maner of spices and drugs, pearles, and precious stones, likewise carpets of diuers sortes, with diuers other rich merchandises. It was told me of them that came last from Persia, that here is more silke brought into some one city of Persia, then is of cloth brought into the city of London.

Also that one village of Armenia named Gilgat doeth carie yeerely fiue hundred, and sometime a thousand mules laden with silke to Halepo in Soria of Turkie, being 4. I haue here noted before that if any Christian wil become a Busornan, that is, one that hath forsaken his faith, and be a Mahometan of their religion, they giue him many gifts and sometimes also a liuing.

The maner is, that when the deuill is entred into his heart to forsake his faith, he resorteth to the Soltan or gouenour of the towne, to whom hee maketh protestation of his diuelish purpose. The gouernour appointeth him a horse, and one to ride before him on another horse, bearing a sword in his hand, and the Busorman bearing an arrow in his hand, and rideth in the citie, cursing his father and mother: A yong man, a seruant of one of our merchants, because he would not abide the correction of his master for his faults, was minded to forsake his faith.

But as God would he fell suddenly sicke and died, before he gaue himself to the deuill. If he had become a Busorman, he had greatly troubled the merchants: In Persia in diuers places oxen and kine beare the tents and houshold stuffe of the poore men of the countrey, which haue neither camels nor horses. In Persia is great abundance of Bombasin cotton, and very fine: The seeds of these trees are as big as peason, and are blacke, and somewhat flat, and not round; they sowe them in plowed ground, where they grow in the fields in great abundance in many countries in Persia, and diuers other regions.

Arthur Edwards shewed me a letter of the Sophie, written in their letters backward, subsigned with the hands both of the Sophy and his Secretarie. The Sophies subscription was onely one word his name I suppose was Shaugh written in golden letters vpon red paper. The whole letter was also written on the same piece of red paper, being long and narow, about the length of a foote, and not past three inches broad.

The priuate signet of the Sophie was a round printed marke about the bignes of a roial, onely printed vpon the same paper without any waxe or other seale, the letters seem so mishapen and disordered, that a man would thinke it were somewhat scribled in maner at aduentures. Yet they say that almost euery letter with his pricke or circumflexe signifieth a whole word.

Insomuch that in a piece of paper as big as a mans hand their writing doeth containe as much as doeth ours almost in a sheet of paper. The fift voiage into Persia made by M. Thomas Banister, and master Geofrey Ducket, Agents for the Moscouie companie, began from England in the yeere , and continuing to the yeere following.

English men more, in a Barke called the Thomas Bonauenture of the burden of It fell out in the way, before they came to Astracan by They for their parts, although they could haue wished a quiet voyage and iourney without blowes and violence, yet not willing to be spoiled with such Barbarians as they were, began to defend themselues against their assault, by meanes whereof a very terrible and fierce fight folowed and continued hot and sharpe for two houres, wherein our men so wel plaied their parts with their caliuers, that they forced the Tartars to flee with the losse of of them, as they were afterwards enformed by a Russe prisoner, which escaped from the Nagaians, and came to them to Astracan, at which towne they arriued the Astracan besieged by Turks and Tartars.

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In this towne of Astracan they were somewhat hindered of their iourney, and staied the space of sixe weekes by reason of a great army of Turkes and Tartars which came thither vpon the instigation of the great Turke, hoping either to haue surprised it suddenly or by continuance of siege to win the same. But in the end by reason that the winter approched, as also, because they had receiued newes of a great expedition, which the Emperour of Russia was in prouiding for the defence of the said place, they were constrained to raise their siege, and to leaue the town as they found it.

Vpon their departure our men had opportunitie to proceed on their voyage, and vsing the occasion, they left Astracan, and came to Bilbil towards the end of October: Hauing staied here some three or foure daies in prouiding of cariages and other necessaries for their iourney, they departed thence and came to Shamaky, which is foure dayes iourney from the aforesayd Shauaran. In this towne of Shamaky their whole company spent out the Winter, and from thence in April folowing they tooke their iourney towards Ardouil a place of great account and much esteemed, by reason of the sepulchres of the Emperours of Persia, which for the most part lie there buried, and so is growen to bee a place of their superstitious deuotion.

In this towne of Ardouil they soiourned the space of 5. The difference of religion bred great broiles in this towne whiles they remained there: And he being further desirous to see their maner of fight, or rather somewhat more curious to behold, then mistrustful of their blowes, was like to haue borne a share in their bloodie tragedie, being twise wounded with their shot and arrowes, although not to the death. At this towne the Shah Thomas sent a messenger for our men to come to his presence at Casbin, to whom Thomas Banister failed not to goe, although master Ducket lay very sicke at Ardouil, and in such case that they almost despaired of his recouerie.

Hee being come to the Shaugh was receiued and entertained of him with great fauour and speciall countenance, and had the most part of all his requests granted him, this onely excepted, that whereas he entreated a priuiledge or sufferance to transport and cary through his dominions certaine horses into India, the Shaugh seemed both to yeeld thereunto, and yet did not altogether denie it, but referred it to some further time. As for the point of traffique, he could not make that motion or request that was not so soone granted as it was preferred: One thing somewhat strange I thought good in this place to remember, that whereas hee purposed to send a great summe of money to Mecca in Arabia, for an offering to Mahomet their prophet, hee would not send any money or coyne of his owne, but sent to the English merchants to exchange his coyne for theirs, according to the value of it, yeelding this reason for the same, that the money of the merchants was gotten by good meanes, and with good consciences, and was therefore woorthie to be made for an oblation to their holy prophet, but his owne money was rather gotten by fraud, oppression and vnhonest meanes, and therefore was not fit to serue for so holie a vse.

After sixe moneths spent in Casbin the sayde Thomas Banister departed towards the great citie of Taruis, where being arriued, he found M. Ducket well recouered of his sicknesse, whom he had left ill at Ardouil. At this Citie the foresayd Master Ducket made sales of the English commodities, remaining there to that purpose the space of two yeeres and a halfe. And besides other kindes of merchandises of that countrey, he bought great stores of gals which grow in great abundance at a place within one dayes iourney of the aforesayd Taruis. After this Thomas Banister departed from Tauris, and went to Shamaky to giue order for the transporting of those commodities which were bought for England.

And hauing dispatched them away, he went there hence to Arrash, a towne foure dayes iourney with camels from Shamaky for the buying of rawe silke. The death of Thomas Banister and Laurence Chapman. But there by reason of the vnwholesomnesse of the aire, and corruption of the waters in the hole time of the yeere, he with Lawrence Chapman and some other English men vnhappily died: Ducket, he immediately came from Taruis to Arrash, to take possession of the goods, for otherwise by the custome of the countrey, if there had bene no merchant or other friend of his to enter vpon that which he left, all had fallen into the Shaughs hands, which goods notwithstanding could not bee recouered from the officers, which had seized and sealed vp the same, vntill M.

Ducket had bene in person with the Shaugh, and had procured his order for the deliuerie thereof. Humfrey Greensell burnt at Ormus. Lionel Plumtree, in the meane time that M. Ducket was at Casbin in sute for goods, vpon the perswasion of certaine Bogharians, made prouision for a iourney to Cathaia, with cariages and commodities, and hauing all things ready, departed secretly with a Carauan: Ducket returned from Casbin to Shamaky againe, and immediately made preparation for a iourney to Cassan, being about foure dayes iourney from Shamaky, and caried with him foure mules laden with mony.

In the way of his trauel he passed through Persepolis, sometime the roiall seate of the Emperors of Persia, but now ruined and defaced, whereof remaine to be seene at this day two gates onely that are distant one from the other the space of 12 miles, and some few pinnacles in the mountains and conueiances for fresh water. The foresaid Cassan is a towne that consisteth altogether of merchandise, and the best trade of all the land is there, being greatly frequented by the merchants of India.

Here our men bought great store of al maner of wrought silkes, and some spices, and good store of Turkie stones. The towne is much to be commended for the ciuil and good gouernment that is there vsed. An idle person is not suffred to liue amongst them. The child that is but fine yeeres old is set to some labour. No ill rule, disorder or riote by gaming or otherwise, is there permitted. Playing at Dice or Cards is by the law present death. At this Cashan they remained about the space of tenne weekes, and then came down againe to Shamaky, and after some time spent in diuers places of the countrey for buying of rawe silke and other commodities, they came at last to Shauaran againe, where their ship was in harbour and then they shipt all their goods and embarked themselues also, setting sayle the eight day of May, in the yeere By reason of the varietie of the windes and dangerous flats of the Caspian sea, they beat it vp and downe some Whereupon master Ducket, Lionell Plumtree, William Smith, the master, a man of singular valure, and Amos Riall being vnder the Spardecke did so well behaue themselues, that they skowred the hatches, and slew 14 of the Cassaks gunners, and hurt and wounded about 30 more; being of them al in number The English ship taken by the Cassaks.

Ducket notwithstanding and the rest aforesaid receiued diuers wounds from the enemie, and were so hurt, and withall so oppressed with the multitude and force of them, that they were at last constrained to make an agreement with the Cassaks by rendring the ship into their hands, hauing receiued first their othes sworne by their crucifixes, not to do any further harme to their persons.

Thus the shippe being taken, and all the English grieuously hurt, the Cassaks immediately discharged the ship of them, putting them all into the ship boate with two or three Persian targets full of horse flesh and swines flesh, without further victuals or reliefe: After which, 60 boats more were sent out to pursue them againe the second time: In the same place they found further diuers of the Cassaks which the Englishmen had slaine, buried in the earth, and wrapt some in fortie or fiftie yards of Sattin and Taffataes, and some in Turkie carpets cut and spoiled by those villanous Pirats, of whom afterwards as many as could be taken, by the Persians who entirely loued the English merchants, were put to most cruell torments in all places according to their deserts.

But our men being thus spoyled of their goods, and wounded in their bodies, remained about two moneths at Astracan for their better recouerie: Ice in the beginning of October. From Cazan they went towards Yeraslaue, but in the way the ice intercepted them about the beginning of October, where suddenly in the night they were taken with a cruell and vehement frost, and therewithall the waters so congeled, that their boates were crushed and cut in sunder with the ice, whereby they sustained both a further danger of life and losse of goods: But Master Ducket, Lionel Plumtree and Amos Riall went with some parcels to the Mosko, and there sold certaine quantities of it to the Emperour, who pitying the mightie losse that they had sustained by his owne rebellious people and subiects, bought himselfe as much as hee liked, and payed present money for the same.

So that Winter being spent out in Mosko, and such wares prouided by them as serued for England, they departed to Saint Nicholas, and there embarked in the moneth of August: Further obseruations concerning the state of Persia, taken in the foresayd fift voyage into those partes, and written by M. Geffery Ducket, one of the Agents emploied in the same. Shamaky is the fairest towne in all Media, and the chiefest commoditie of that countrey is rawe silke, and the greatest plentie thereof is at a towne three dayes iourney from Shamaky called Arash: The chief towne of that countrey is called Zegham, from whence is caried yeerely into Persia, an incredible quantitie of Hasell nuts, all of one sort and goodnesse, and as good and thin shaled as are our Filberds.

Of these are caried yeerely the quantitie of The king of Persia whom here, we call the great Sophy is not there so called, but is called the Shaugh. It were there dangerous to cal him by the name of Sophy, because that Sophy in the Persian tongue, is a begger, and it were as much as to call him. He lieth at a towne called Casbin, which is situate in a goodly fertile valley of 3. The towne is but euil builded, and for the most part all of bricke, not hardened with fire, but only dried at the sunne, as is the most part of the building of all Persia.

The king hath not come out of the compasse of his owne house in And to keepe him the more lusty, he hath 4. And if hee chance to take any mans wife, her husband is very glad thereof, and in recompense of her, oftentimes he giueth the husband one of his old store, whom he thankfully receiueth. How strangers are used.

If any stranger being a Christian shall come before him, he must put on a new paire of shooes made in that countrey, and from the place where be entreth, there is digged as it were a causey all the way, vntil he come to the place where he shal talke with the king who standeth alwayes aboue in a gallerie, when he talketh with any strangers: Their religion is all one with the Turkes, sauing that they differ who was the right successor of Mahumet.

The Turkes say that it was one Homer and his sonne Vsman. But the Persians say that it was one Mortus Ali, which they would prooue in this maner.

Hieroglyphics North of the Alps

They say there was a counsell called to decide the matter who should be the successor: A goodly and well grounded religion. This Mortus Ali was a valiant man and slew Homer the Turkes prophet. He had a sword that hee fought withall, with the which hee conquered all his enemies, and killed as many as he stroke.

When Mortus Ali died, there came a holy prophet, who gaue them warning that shortly there would come a white Camell, vpon the which he charged them to lay the body and sword of Mortus Ali, and to suffer the Camel to cary it whither he would. The which being performed, the said white camell caried the sword and body of Mortus Ali taken vp into heauen, for whose return they haue long looked in Persia.

And for this cause the king alwayes keepeth a horse ready sadled for him, and also of late kept for him one of his owne daughters to be his wife, but she died in the yere of our Lord, And they say furthermore, that if he come not shortly, they shalbe of our beliefe: The Shaugh or king of Persia is nothing in strength and power comparable vnto the Turke: Notwithstanding his eldest sonne Ismael about Their opinion of Christ.

Their opinion of Christ is, that he was an holy man and a great Prophet, but not like vnto Mahumet: To prooue that Christ was not Gods sonne, they say that God had neuer wife, and therefore could haue no sonne or children. They go on pilgrimage from the furthest part of Persia vnto Mecha in Arabia, and by the way they visite also the sepulchre of Christ at Ierusalem, which they now call Couch Kaly.

The Portingals touch at Ormus both in their voyage to East India and homeward againe, and from thence bring all such spices as are occupied in Persia and the regions thereabout: The Turkes oftentimes bring pepper from Mecha in Arabia, which they sell as good cheape as that which is brought from Ormus. Silkes are brought from no place, but are wrought all in their owne countrey. Ormus is within two miles of the maine land of Persia, and the Portingals fetch their fresh water there, for the which they pay tribute to the Shaugh or king of Persia.

Within Persia they haue neither gold nor siluer mines, yet haue they coined money both of gold and siluer, and also other small moneys of copper. There is brought into Persia an incredible summe of Dutch dollars, which for the most part are there imploied in raw silke. Their bookes and learning. They haue few bookes and lesse learning, and are for the most part very brutish in al kind of good sciences, sauing in some kind of silke works, and in such things as pertaine to the furniture of horses, in the which they are passing good.

Such was the law of the Macedonians for treason. Their lawes are as in their religion, wicked and detestable. And if any man offend the prince, he punisheth it extremely, not onely in the person that offendeth, but also in his children, and in as many as are of his kin. Theft and murther are often punished, yet none otherwise then pleaseth him that is ruler in the place where the offence is committed, and as the partie offending is able to make friends, or with money to redeeme his offence.

There is oftentimes great mutinie among the people in great Townes which of Mortus Ali his sonnes was greatest: I haue enquired why they leaue the tuft of haire vpon their heads. They answered that thereby they may easiler be carried vp into heauen when they are dead. Their priests and preaching. For their religion they haue certairie priests who are apparelled like vnto other men. They vse euery morning and afternoone to go vp to the tops of their churches, and tell there a great tale of Mahumet and Mortus Ali: Their Lent is after Christmas, not in abstinence from flesh onely, but from all meats and drinks, vntill the day be off the side, but then they eate somtimes the whole night.

And although it be against their religion to drinke wine, yet at night they will take great excesses thereof and be drunken. Their Lent beginneth at the new Moone, and they do not enter into it vntill they haue seene the same: Their saints and holy men. They haue among them certaine holy men whom they call Setes, counted holy for that they or any of their ancestors haue been on pilgrimage at Mecha in Arabia, for whosoeuer goeth thither on pilgrimage to visite the sepulchre of Mahumet, both he and all his posteritie are euer after called Setes, and counted for holy men, and haue no lesse opinion of themselues.

And if a man contrary one of these, he will say that he is a Saint, and therefore ought to be beleeued, and that hee cannot lie, although he lie neuer so shamefully. Thus a man may be too holy, and no pride is greater then spirituall pride of a mind puffed vp with his own opinion of holinesse. These Setes do vse to shaue their heads all ouer, sauing on the sides a litle aboue the temples, the which they leaue vnshauen, and vse to braid the same as women do their haire, and to weare it as long as it will grow.

Their praier and worshipping of God and Mahumet. Euery morning they vse to worship God, Mahumet, and Mortus Ali, and in praying turne themselues toward the South, because Mecha lieth that way from them. When they be in trauell on the way, many of them will as soone as the Sunne riseth light from their horses, turning themselues to the South, and will lay their gownes before them, with their swords and beads, and so standing vpright worship to the South: Washing and outward clenlinesse.

The men or women doe neuer goe to make water, but they vse to take with them a pot with a spout, and after they haue made water, they flash some water vpon their priuy parts, and thus doe the women as well as the men: When they earnestly affirme a matter, they will sweare by God, Mahumet, or Mortus Ali, and sometimes by all at ones: But if he will sweare by the Shaughs head, in saying Shaugham basshe, you may then beleeue him if you will. The Shaugh keepeth a great magnificence in his court: