Questions or concerns relating to the accessibility of the FCC's online public file system should be directed to the FCC at , TTY , or fccinfo fcc. Emily Hall - Ext. Charlottesville, VA Report finds suicide rates slowly increasing in Virginia. Your safety plan will remind you of reasons to live, connecting you with people and services who can help during difficult times, giving you perspective when you are feeling low.
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Work with a trusted family member or friend, or a professional to develop a suicide safety plan. Put your suicide safety plan in writing and keep it in a place where you can easily find it. Those who have recently purchased a firearm are found to be high risk for suicide within a week after their purchase.
A report by the National Academy of Sciences found an association between estimated household firearm ownership and gun suicide rates,   though a study by two Harvard researchers did not find a statistically significant association between household firearms and gun suicide rates,  except in the suicides of children aged 5— In the United States, states with stricter gun laws have lower overall suicide rates. The same study found no evidence of substitution to other methods. According to criminologist Gary Kleck , studies that try to link gun ownership to victimology often fail to account for the presence of guns owned by other people.
Webster's study also noted that Lott and Whitley's study was suspect because "their use of Tobit regression to estimate the laws' effects is vulnerable to bias when data are highly skewed and heteroskedastic, as is the case for state-level data on youth suicides. Suicide by hanging was the most common method in traditional Chinese culture ,  as it was believed that the rage involved in such a death permitted the victim's spirit to haunt and torment survivors.
When hanging one's self, the subject uses some type of ligature , as in a rope or a cord, to form a noose or loop around the throat, with the opposite end secured to some fixture. Depending on the placement of the noose and other factors, the subject strangles or suffers a broken neck. In the event of death, the actual cause often depends on the length of the drop; that is, the distance the subject falls before the rope goes taut.
In a "short drop", the victim may die from strangulation, in which the death may result from a lack of oxygen to the brain. The victim is likely to experience hypoxia , skin tingling, dizziness, vision narrowing, convulsions , shock , and acute respiratory acidosis. Hanging survivors typically have severe damage to the trachea and larynx, damage to the carotid arteries, damage to the spine, and brain damage due to cerebral anoxia. In a typical "long drop", the subject is likely to suffer one or more fractures of the cervical vertebrae , generally between the second and fifth, which may cause paralysis or death.
In extremely long drops, the hanging may result in complete decapitation. Hanging is the prevalent means of suicide in pre-industrial societies , and is more common in rural areas than in urban areas. This method involves tightening a ligature around the neck so as to compress the carotid arteries, preventing the supply of oxygen to the brain and resulting in unconsciousness and death.
The technique is also associated with certain types of judo holds and restraints, and auto-erotic asphyxiation. Another way of dying by suicide is deliberately placing oneself in the path of a large and fast-moving vehicle, resulting in fatal impact. Suicide is accomplished by positioning oneself on a railway track when a train approaches or in advance, or driving a car onto the tracks. Unlike on underground railways , in suicides involving above-ground railway lines, the victim will often simply stand or lie on the tracks, waiting for the arrival of the train.
This type of suicide may be traumatizing to the driver of the train and may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder. Suicides on tracks may take place through the person either jumping onto, walking, lying or sitting on the tracks. Lying on the tracks may result in decapitation. Accidents resulting from people jumping onto the tracks usually occur at daytime. Accidents including people walking, lying or sitting on the tracks usually occur at night when the driver's visibility is reduced, increasing the chance of completing suicide.
People who commit suicide in this manner usually stay at or around the place for the suicide for an extended period of time before the actual suicide. There is a low rate of direct death; one in two are failed attempts. The location of many suicides occur at or very close to stations, which is also uncharacteristic of suicides in other European countries.
The disruption to the rail system can be substantial.
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Trains on Japanese railroads cause a large number of suicides every year. Suicide by train is seen as something of a social problem, especially in the larger cities such as Tokyo or Nagoya , because it disrupts train schedules and if one occurs during the morning rush-hour, causes numerous commuters to arrive late for work. However, suicide by train persists despite a common policy among life insurance companies to deny payment to the beneficiary in the event of suicide by train payment is usually made in the event of most other forms of suicide.
Suicides involving the high-speed bullet-train, or Shinkansen are extremely rare, as the tracks are usually inaccessible to the public i. It has been argued this prevents possible suicide as the victim would want to spare the family not only the trauma of a lost family member but also being sued in court however there is insufficient evidence to back this up.
According to the Federal Railroad Administration , in the U. Methods to reduce the number of rail-related suicides include CCTV surveillance of stretches where suicides frequently occur, often with direct links to the local police or surveillance companies. This enables the police or guards to be on the scene within minutes after the trespassing was noted.
Public access to the tracks is also made more difficult by erecting fences. Trees and bushes are cut down around the tracks in order to increase driver visibility. In southern Sweden, where a suicide hotspot is located south of the university town Lund, CCTV cameras with direct links to the local police have been installed.
Similar packages will be installed on other hotspots throughout the nation. In the Netherlands, where several suicide hotspots are located by rail tracks next to mental wards, loud speakers and strong lights that activate when trespassing is noted, have been installed next to these hotspots. This is most likely because trains traveling on open tracks travel relatively quickly, whereas trains arriving at a subway station are decelerating so that they can stop and board passengers. Different methods have been used in order to decrease the number of suicide attempts in the underground: Separation of the passengers from the track by means of platform screen doors is being introduced in some stations, but is expensive.
Some suicides are the result of intended car crashes. This especially applies to single-occupant, single-vehicle accidents, "because of the frequency of its use, the generally accepted inherent hazards of driving, and the fact that it offers the individual an opportunity to imperil or end his life without consciously confronting himself with his suicidal intent. The real percentage of suicides among car accidents is not reliably known; studies by suicide researchers tell that "vehicular fatalities that are suicides vary from 1.
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Some researchers believe that suicides disguised as traffic accidents are far more prevalent than previously thought. One large-scale community survey in Australia among suicidal people provided the following numbers: Of all attempters, 8. Between and , 36 pilots died through suicide by aircraft in the United States. On 24 March , Germanwings co-pilot Andreas Lubitz deliberately crashed Germanwings Flight into the French Alps to commit suicide, killing people with him.
Suicide by pilot has also been proposed as a potential cause for the disappearance and following destruction of Malaysian Airlines Flight in ,  with supporting evidence being found in a flight simulator application used by the doomed flight's pilot. Suicide can be performed by using fast-acting poisons , such as hydrogen cyanide , or substances which are known for their high levels of toxicity to humans.
Poisoning through the means of toxic plants is usually slower and is relatively painful. When access to the chemical was restricted, other methods replaced it, leading researchers to conclude that restricting certain suicide methods does little to impact the overall suicide rate. Overdose is a method of suicide which involves taking medication in doses greater than the indicated levels, or in a combination that will interact either to cause harmful effects or increase the potency of one or other of the substances.
An overdose is often the expressed preferred method of dignified dying among members of right-to-die societies. Reliability of the drugs method highly depends on chosen drugs and additional measures such as the use of antiemetics to prevent vomiting. Average fatality rate for overdoses in the U. While barbiturates such as Seconal or Nembutal have long been an option for suicide, they are becoming increasingly difficult for potential suicide victims to acquire.
Dutch right-to-die society WOZZ proposed several safe alternatives to barbiturates for use in euthanasia. A typical drug overdose uses random prescription and over-the-counter substances. In this case, death is highly uncertain, and an attempt may leave a person alive but with severe organ damage, although that itself may in turn eventually prove fatal.
Drugs taken orally may also be vomited back out before being absorbed. Considering the very high doses needed, vomiting or losing consciousness before taking enough of the active agent is often a major problem for people attempting this. Analgesic overdose attempts are among the most common, due to easy availability of over-the-counter substances. This method may leave confusion over whether the death was a suicide or accidental, especially when alcohol or other judgment-impairing substances are also involved and no suicide note was left behind.
A particular type of poisoning involves inhalation of high levels of carbon monoxide. Death usually occurs through hypoxia. In most cases carbon monoxide CO is used because it is easily available as a product of incomplete combustion ; for example, it is released by cars and some types of heaters. A failed attempt can result in memory loss and other symptoms. Carbon monoxide is a colorless and odorless gas , so its presence cannot be detected by sight or smell.
It acts by binding preferentially to the hemoglobin in the victim's blood, displacing oxygen molecules and progressively deoxygenating the blood, eventually resulting in the failure of cellular respiration , and death. Carbon monoxide is extremely dangerous to bystanders and people who may discover the body, so " Right to Die " advocates like Philip Nitschke recommend the use of safer alternatives like nitrogen , for example in his EXIT euthanasia device.
In the past, before air quality regulations and catalytic converters , suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning would often be achieved by running a car's engine in a closed space such as a garage, or by redirecting a running car's exhaust back inside the cabin with a hose. The incidence of suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning through burning charcoal , such as a barbecue in a sealed room, appears to have risen.
This has been referred to by some as "death by hibachi ". Detergent-related suicide involves mixing household chemicals to produce hydrogen sulfide or other poisonous gases. At the end of the 19th century in Britain there were more suicides from carbolic acid than from any other poison because there was no restriction on its sale. Braxton Hicks and other coroners called for its sale to be prohibited.
Several creatures, such as spiders, snakes, and scorpions, carry venoms that can easily and quickly kill a person. These substances can be used to conduct suicide. For example, Cleopatra supposedly had an asp bite her when she heard of Marc Antony 's death. Immolation usually refers to suicide by fire. Self-immolation was also carried out as a ritual known as sati in certain parts of India , where a Hindu wife immolated herself in her dead husband's funeral pyre, either voluntarily or by coercion.
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The Latin root of "immolate" means "sacrifice", and is not restricted to the use of fire, though in common US media usage the term immolation refers to suicide by fire. This method of suicide is relatively rare due to the long and painful experience one has to go through before death sets in.
This is also contributed to by the ever-present risk that the fire is extinguished before death sets in, and in that way causes one to live with severe burnings , scar tissue, and the emotional impact of such injuries. Suicide by volcano involves jumping into molten lava in an active volcanic crater , fissure vent , lava flow or lava lake. The actual cause of death may be as a result of the fall see jumping from height , contact burns, radiant heat or asphyxiation from volcanic gases.
According to some ancient sources, philosopher Empedocles jumped into the Aetna trying to make everybody believe that he had disappeared from the Earth to become a god; this was frustrated when the volcano spat out one of his bronze sandals. Modern suicides have taken place in numerous volcanoes, but the most famous is Mount Mihara in Japan. In , Kiyoko Matsumoto died by suicide by jumping into the Mihara crater.
A trend of copycat suicides followed, as people jumped into the same crater over the following year. Ritual suicide is performed in a prescribed way, often as part of a religious or cultural practice. Seppuku "cut-belly", used in writing or hara-kiri "belly slitting", used when talking is a Japanese ritual method of suicide, practiced mostly in the medieval era, though some isolated cases appear in modern times. The ritual is part of bushido , the code of the samurai. As originally performed solely by an individual, it was an extremely painful method by which to die.