Such authors have thought that their ideas were confirmed by various kinds of crowds, one of these being the economic bubble.
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In Holland, during the tulip mania , the prices of tulip bulbs rose to astronomical heights. But to them a crowd is capable of any emotion, not only the negative ones of anger and fear.
A number of authors modify the common-sense notion of the crowd to include episodes during which the participants are not assembled in one place but are dispersed over a large area. Turner and Killian refer to such episodes as diffuse crowds, examples being Billy Graham 's revivals, panics about sexual perils, witch hunts and Red scares. Their expanded definition of the crowd is justified if propositions which hold true among compact crowds do so for diffuse crowds as well. Some psychologists have claimed that there are three fundamental human emotions: Neil Smelser, John Lofland, and others have proposed three corresponding forms of the crowd: Each of the three emotions can characterize either a compact or a diffuse crowd, the result being a scheme of six types of crowds.
Lofland has offered the most explicit discussion of these types.
Boom distinguishes the crowd , which expresses a common emotion , from a public , which discusses a single issue. Thus, a public is not equivalent to all of the members of a society. Obviously, this is not the usual use of the word, "public. A public comes into being when discussion of an issue begins, and ceases to be when it reaches a decision on it.
To the crowd and the public Blumer adds a third form of collective behavior, the mass. It differs from both the crowd and the public in that it is defined not by a form of interaction but by the efforts of those who use the mass media to address an audience. The first mass medium was printing. We change intellectual gears when we confront Blumer's final form of collective behavior, the social movement. He identifies several types of these, among which are active social movements such as the French Revolution and expressive ones such as Alcoholics Anonymous.
An active movement tries to change society; an expressive one tries to change its own members. The social movement is the form of collective behavior which satisfies least well the first definition of it which was offered at the beginning of this article. These episodes are less fluid than the other forms, and do not change as often as other forms do.
Furthermore, as can be seen in the history of the labor movement and many religious sects, a social movement may begin as collective behavior but over time become firmly established as a social institution. For this reason, social movements are often considered a separate field of sociology. The books and articles about them are far more numerous than the sum of studies of all the other forms of collective behavior put together.
Social movements are considered in many Wikipedia articles, and an article on the field of social movements as a whole would be much longer than this essay. The study of collective behavior spun its wheels for many years, but began to make progress with the appearance of Turner and Killian's "Collective Behavior" and Smelser's Theory of Collective Behavior Both books pushed the topic of collective behavior back into the consciousness of American sociologists and both theories contributed immensely to our understanding of collective behavior Locher , Miller Social disturbances in the U.
These studies presented a number of challenges to the armchair sociology of earlier students of collective behavior. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
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