Italian law makes an important distinction between "works of photographic art" and "simple photographs" Art. Photographs that are "intellectual work with creative characteristics" are protected for 70 years after the author's death Art. Lamb is often paired with pasta. Best-known is the extra virgin olive oil produced in the local farms on the hills of the region, marked by the quality level DOP and considered one of the best in the country. Another liqueur is genziana , a soft distillate of gentian roots. The best-known dish from Abruzzo is arrosticini , little pieces of castrated lamb on a wooden stick and cooked on coals.
The chitarra literally "guitar" is a fine stringed tool that pasta dough is pressed through for cutting. The popularity of saffron , grown in the province of L'Aquila , has waned in recent years. Pizzelle cookies are a common dessert, especially around Christmas.
The cuisine of Basilicata is mostly based on inexpensive ingredients and deeply anchored in rural traditions. Pork is an integral part of the regional cuisine, [ citation needed ] often made into sausages or roasted on a spit. Famous dry sausages from the region are lucanica and soppressata. Wild boar, mutton, and lamb are also popular. Pasta sauces are generally based on meats or vegetables. Spicy peperoncini is largely used, as well as the so-called peperoni cruschi "crunchy peppers". Basilicata is known for spaghetti -like pasta troccoli and capunti ,  a thick and short oval pasta whose shape is often compared to that of an open empty pea pod.
Capunti are usually served with a hearty vegetable tomato sauce or various meat sauces. Desserts include taralli dolci , made with sugar glaze and scented with anise and calzoncelli , fried pastries filled with a cream of chestnuts and chocolate. Basilicata is also known for its mineral waters which are sold widely in Italy. The springs are mostly located in the volcanic basin of the Vulture area.
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Seafood includes swordfish , shrimp , lobster , sea urchin , and squid. Macaroni -type pasta is widely used in regional dishes, often served with goat, beef, or pork sauce and salty ricotta. Melon and watermelon are traditionally served in a chilled fruit salad or wrapped in ham. Calabrese pizza has a Neapolitan-based structure with fresh tomato sauce and a cheese base, but is unique because of its spicy flavor.
Some of the ingredients included in a Calabrese pizza are thinly sliced hot soppressata , hot capicola, hot peppers, and fresh mozzarella.
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Campania extensively produces tomatoes, peppers, spring onions , potatoes, artichokes, fennel, lemons, and oranges which all take on the flavor of volcanic soil. The Gulf of Naples offers fish and seafood. Campania is one of the largest producers and consumers of pasta in Italy, especially spaghetti. In the regional cuisine, pasta is prepared in various styles that can feature tomato sauce, cheese, clams, and shellfish. Spaghetti alla puttanesca is a popular dish made with olives, tomatoes, anchovies, capers, chili peppers, and garlic.
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The region is well-known also for its mozzarella production especially from the milk of water buffalo that's used in a variety of dishes, including parmigiana shallow fried eggplant slices layered with cheese and tomato sauce, then baked. Originating in Neapolitan cuisine , pizza has become popular in many different parts of the world. Since the original pizza, several other types of pizzas have evolved. Since Naples was the capital of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies , its cuisine took much from the culinary traditions of all the Campania region, reaching a balance between dishes based on rural ingredients pasta, vegetables, cheese and seafood dishes fish, crustaceans, mollusks.
Emilia-Romagna is known for its egg and filled pasta made with soft wheat flour. The Romagna subregion is renowned for pasta dishes like cappelletti , garganelli , strozzapreti , sfoglia lorda, and tortelli alla lastra as well as cheeses such as squacquerone , Piadina snacks are also a specialty of the subregion. In the Emilia subregion, except Piacenza which is heavily influenced by the cuisines of Lombardy , rice is eaten to a lesser extent.
Polenta , a maize-based dish, is common in both Emilia and Romagna. Bologna and Modena are notable for pasta dishes like tortellini , lasagne , gramigna, and tagliatelle which are found also in many other parts of the region in different declinations. The celebrated balsamic vinegar is made only in the Emilian cities of Modena and Reggio Emilia , following legally binding traditional procedures.
Grana Padano cheese is produced in Piacenza.
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Although the Adriatic coast is a major fishing area well known for its eels and clams , the region is more famous for its meat products, especially pork-based, that include Parma's prosciutto , culatello , and Felino salami ; Piacenza's pancetta , coppa , and salami; Bologna's mortadella and salame rosa ; Modena's zampone , cotechino , and cappello del prete ; and Ferrara 's salama da sugo. Piacenza is also known for some dishes prepared with horse and donkey meat.
Regional desserts include zuppa inglese custard-based dessert made with sponge cake and Alchermes liqueur and panpepato Christmas cake made with pepper, chocolate, spices, and almonds. Friuli-Venezia Giulia conserved, in its cuisine, the historical links with Austria-Hungary. Udine and Pordenone , in the western part of Friuli, are known for their traditional San Daniele del Friuli ham , Montasio cheese, and Frico cheese. Other typical dishes are pitina meatballs made of smoked meats , game, and various types of gnocchi and polenta.
The majority of the eastern regional dishes are heavily influenced by Austrian, Hungarian, Slovene and Croatian cuisines: Pork can be spicy and is often prepared over an open hearth called a fogolar. Liguria is known for herbs and vegetables as well as seafood in its cuisine. Savory pies are popular, mixing greens and artichokes along with cheeses, milk curds, and eggs.
Onions and olive oil are used. Because of a lack of land suitable for wheat, the Ligurians use chickpeas in farinata and polenta-like panissa. The former is served plain or topped with onions, artichokes , sausage, cheese or young anchovies. Hilly districts use chestnuts as a source of carbohydrates. Ligurian pastas include corzetti from the Polcevera valley ; pansoti , a triangular shaped ravioli filled with vegetables; piccagge , pasta ribbons made with a small amount of egg and served with artichoke sauce or pesto sauce; trenette , made from whole wheat flour cut into long strips and served with pesto; boiled beans and potatoes; and trofie , a Ligurian gnocchi made from whole grain flour and boiled potatoes, made into a spiral shape and often tossed in pesto.
Pasta dishes based on the use of guanciale unsmoked bacon prepared with pig's jowl or cheeks are often found in Lazio , such as pasta alla carbonara and pasta all'amatriciana. Another pasta dish of the region is arrabbiata , with spicy tomato sauce. The regional cuisine widely use offal, resulting in dishes like the entrail-based rigatoni with pajata sauce and coda alla vaccinara. Iconic of Lazio is cheese made from ewes' milk Pecorino Romano , porchetta savory, fatty, and moist boneless pork roast and Frascati white wine. The influence of the ancient Jewish community can be noticed in the Roman cuisine's traditional carciofi alla giudia.
The regional cuisine of Lombardy is heavily based upon ingredients like maize, rice, beef, pork, butter, and lard. Rice dishes are very popular in this region, often found in soups as well as risotto. The best-known version is risotto alla milanese , flavoured with saffron and typically served with many typical Milanese main courses, such as ossobuco alla milanese cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth and cotoletta alla milanese a fried cutlet similar to Wiener schnitzel , but cooked "bone-in".
Regional cheeses include Robiola , Crescenza , Taleggio , Gorgonzola , and Grana Padano the plains of central and southern Lombardy allow intensive cattle farming. Polenta is common across the region. Regional desserts include the famous panettone Christmas cake sweet bread with candied orange, citron, and lemon zest, as well as raisins, which are added dry and not soaked. On the coast of Marche , fish and seafood are produced. Inland, wild and domestic pigs are used for sausages and hams.
These hams are not thinly sliced, but cut into bite-sized chunks. Suckling pig , chicken , and fish are often stuffed with rosemary or fennel fronds and garlic before being roasted or placed on the spit. Ascoli, Marche's southernmost province, is well known for olive all'ascolana , stoned olives stuffed with several minced meats, egg, and Parmesan, then fried. Between the Alps and the Po valley , featuring a large number of different ecosystems, the Piedmont region offers the most refined and varied cuisine of the Italian peninsula.
As a point of union between traditional Italian and French cuisine, Piedmont is the Italian region with the largest number of cheeses with protected geographical status and wines under DOC. It is also the region where both the Slow Food association and the most prestigious school of Italian cooking, the University of Gastronomic Sciences , were founded. Piedmont is a region where gathering nuts, mushrooms , and cardoons , as well as hunting and fishing are common place.
Truffles , garlic, seasonal vegetables, cheese, and rice featured in the cuisine. Wines from the Nebbiolo grape such as Barolo and Barbaresco are produced as well as wines from the Barbera grape, fine sparkling wines , and the sweet, lightly sparkling, Moscato d'Asti. The region is also famous for its Vermouth and Ratafia production.
Castelmagno is a prized cheese of the region.
The food most typical of the Piedmont tradition are the traditional agnolotti pasta folded over with roast beef and vegetable stuffing , panissa a typical dish of Vercelli , a kind of risotto with Arborio rice or Maratelli rice, the typical kind of Saluggia beans, onion, Barbera wine, lard, salami, salt, and pepper , taglierini thinner version of tagliatelle , bagna cauda sauce of garlic, anchovies, olive oil, and butter , and bicerin hot drink made of coffee, chocolate, and whole milk. Apulia is a massive food producer: Apulia is also the largest producer of olive oil in Italy.
The sea offers abundant fish and seafood that are extensively used in the regional cuisine, especially oysters, and mussels. Goat and lamb are occasionally used. Pasta with cherry tomatoes and arugula is also popular. Regional desserts include zeppola , doughnuts usually topped with powdered sugar and filled with custard, jelly, cannoli-style pastry cream, or a butter-and-honey mixture. For Christmas, Apulians make a very traditional rose-shaped pastry called cartellate.
These are fried and dipped in vin cotto , which is a either a wine or fig juice reduction. Suckling pig and wild boar are roasted on the spit or boiled in stews of beans and vegetables, thickened with bread. Herbs such as mint and myrtle are widely used in the regional cuisine. Sardinia also has many special types of bread, made dry, which keeps longer than high-moisture breads.
Also baked are carasau bread civraxiu , coccoi pinatus , a highly decorative bread, and pistoccu made with flour and water only, originally meant for herders, but often served at home with tomatoes, basil, oregano, garlic, and a strong cheese. Rock lobster , scampi , squid, tuna, and sardines are the predominant seafoods.
Casu marzu is a very strong cheese produced in Sardinia, but is of questionable legality due to hygiene concerns. Sicily shows traces of all the cultures which established themselves on the island over the last two millennia. Although its cuisine undoubtably has a predominantly Italian base, Sicilian food also has Spanish, Greek and Arab influences.
Dionysus is said to have introduced wine to the region: The ancient Romans introduced lavish dishes based on goose. The Byzantines favored sweet and sour flavors and the Arabs brought sugar , citrus , rice, spinach, and saffron. The Normans and Hohenstaufens had a fondness for meat dishes. The Spanish introduced items from the New World including chocolate, maize, turkey, and tomatoes.
Much of the island's cuisine encourages the use of fresh vegetables such as eggplant , peppers , and tomatoes, as well as fish such as tuna , sea bream , sea bass , cuttlefish , and swordfish. In Trapani , in the extreme western corner of the island, North African influences are clear in the use of various couscous based dishes, usually combined with fish. Traditional specialties from Sicily include arancini a form of deep-fried rice croquettes , pasta alla Norma , caponata , pani ca meusa , and a host of desserts and sweets such as cannoli , granita , and cassata.
Typical of Sicily is Marsala , a red, fortified wine similar to Port and largely exported. Before the Council of Trent in the middle of the 16th century, the region was known for the simplicity of its peasant cuisine. When the prelates of the Catholic Church established there, they brought the art of fine cooking with them.
Later, also influences from Venice and the Austrian Habsburg Empire came in. The Trentino subregion produces various types of sausages, polenta, yogurt, cheese, potato cake, funnel cake, and freshwater fish. The most renowned local product is traditional speck juniper-flavored ham which, as Speck Alto Adige , is regulated by the European Union under the protected geographical indication PGI status.
Simplicity is central to the Tuscan cuisine. Legumes, bread, cheese, vegetables, mushrooms, and fresh fruit are used. A good example of typical Tuscan food is ribollita , a notable soup whose name literally means "reboiled. Ribollita was originally made by reheating i. There are many variations but the main ingredients always include leftover bread, cannellini beans, and inexpensive vegetables such as carrot, cabbage, beans, silverbeet , cavolo nero Tuscan kale , onion, and olive oil.
A regional Tuscan pasta known as pici resembles thick, grainy-surfaced spaghetti, and is often rolled by hand. White truffles from San Miniato appear in October and November. High-quality beef, used for the traditional Florentine steak , come from the Chianina cattle breed of the Chiana Valley and the Maremmana from Maremma. Pork is also produced.
Regional desserts include panforte prepared with honey, fruits, and nuts , ricciarelli biscuits made using an almond base with sugar, honey, and egg white , and cavallucci cookies made with almonds, candied fruits, coriander, flour, and honey. Many Umbrian dishes are prepared by boiling or roasting with local olive oil and herbs. Vegetable dishes are popular in the spring and summer,  while fall and winter sees meat from hunting and black truffles from Norcia.
Meat dishes include the traditional wild boar sausages, pheasants , geese , pigeons , frogs , and snails. Castelluccio is known for its lentils. Spoleto and Monteleone are known for spelt. Freshwater fish include lasca , trout , freshwater perch , grayling , eel , barbel , whitefish , and tench. In the Aosta Valley , bread-thickened soups are customary as well as cheese fondue , chestnuts, potatoes, rice.
Polenta is a staple along with rye bread , smoked bacon , Motsetta cured chamois meat , and game from the mountains and forests. Butter and cream are important in stewed, roasted, and braised dishes. Venice and many surrounding parts of Veneto are known for risotto , a dish whose ingredients can highly vary upon different areas. Fish and seafood are added in regions closer to the coast while pumpkin , asparagus , radicchio , and frog legs appear farther away from the Adriatic Sea. Made from finely ground maize meal, polenta is a traditional, rural food typical of Veneto and most of Northern Italy.
It may be included in stirred dishes and baked dishes. Polenta can be served with various cheese, stockfish, or meat dishes. Some polenta dishes include porcini , rapini , or other vegetables or meats, such as small song-birds in the case of the Venetian and Lombard dish polenta e osei , or sausages. In some areas of Veneto it can be also made of a particular variety of cornmeal, named biancoperla , so that the color of polenta is white and not yellow the so-called polenta bianca.
Beans , peas , and other legumes are seen in these areas with pasta e fagioli beans and pasta and risi e bisi rice and peas. Venice features heavy dishes using exotic spices and sauces. Ingredients such as stockfish or simple marinated anchovies are found here as well. Less fish and more meat is eaten away from the coast. Other typical products are sausages such as Soppressa Vicentina , garlic salami, Piave cheese , and Asiago cheese.
High quality vegetables are prized, such as red radicchio from Treviso and white asparagus from Bassano del Grappa. Perhaps the most popular dish of Venice is fegato alla veneziana , thinly-sliced veal liver sauteed with onions. Squid and cuttlefish are common ingredients, as is squid ink, called nero di seppia. Traditionally, meals in Italy typically contained four or five courses.