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As a result, ex-bureaucrats played significant roles in the LDP, often being elected to the Diet and becoming important cabinet members. Ideologically, the LDP combined a strong commitment to economic growth with the desire to return Japan to world prominence. The party depended on the financial support of business and banking, but its voter base remained in rural Japan.

But individual LDP Diet members realized that in order to provide patronage for their constituents they needed the support of party leaders with access to the bureaucracy. Factions therefore formed around such leaders, who vied with one another for the premiership and sought to have members of their faction appointed to important cabinet posts. As the voice of the opposition, the JSP resisted rearmament, had a strong antinuclear stance, campaigned to rid Japan of the American bases and abrogate the Mutual Security Treaty, supported mainland China, and vigorously opposed all efforts to change the postwar constitution.

By the early s urban issues also attracted the JCP, which started to substitute practical matters for ideology and won a number of mayoral elections. On occasion, as in with the Kishi government and the proposed renewal of the U. S-Japan Mutual Security Treaty, the opposition could mount sufficient public support to bring down an LDP cabinet, but on the whole the era was one in which the LDP remained firmly in power. In the LDP had garnered two-thirds of the Diet seats, but by it controlled only slightly more than half.

The Japan that returned to the international community in was considerably reduced in territory and influence. Given the rise of the Cold War , international relations were not destined to be conducted on the pacifist lines envisioned by Article 9 of the constitution. The United States maintained its occupancy of Okinawa and the Ryukyus, while the Soviet Union occupied the entire Kuril chain and claimed southern Sakhalin.

The Korean War increased the urgency for a peace treaty. Details for such a treaty were worked out by the United States and its noncommunist allies during the command of General Matthew B. Ridgway, who succeeded MacArthur as supreme commander in April The San Francisco peace conference that convened in September thus ratified arrangements that had been worked out earlier.

In the peace treaty that ensued, Japan recognized the independence of Korea and renounced all rights to Taiwan , the Pescadores, the Kurils, and southern Sakhalin and gave up the rights to the Pacific islands earlier mandated to it by the League of Nations. The Soviet Union attended the conference but refused to sign the treaty. This enabled Japan to retain hope for regaining four islands of the Kurils closest to Hokkaido—territory that Japan had gained through negotiations, not war. Japan agreed not to grant similar rights to a third power without U.

Consequently, effective resumption of relations with the countries of Asia came only after treaties covering reparations had been worked out with them. These were signed with Burma now Myanmar in , the Philippines in , and Indonesia in In Japan restored diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union but without a formal peace treaty. With the Soviet Union no longer blocking the way, Japan was admitted to the United Nations in late and subsequently became active in United Nations meetings and specialized agencies.

Japan spearheaded the creation of the Asian Development Bank in — At the time of the peace treaty, Prime Minister Yoshida wanted to delay committing Japan to either of the two Chinas, but the U. Senate unless assurances were given that Japan would recognize the Republic of China. Thus, Tokyo soon negotiated a peace treaty with that regime, but one that would not prejudice subsequent negotiations with Beijing.

A lively trade developed with Taiwan , where Japan made considerable contributions to the economy.

Trade relationships with mainland China developed slowly in the absence of diplomatic ties. In an unofficial trade pact was signed between private Japanese groups and Chinese authorities. Japanese government leaders indicated a willingness to compromise ties with Taiwan in favour of a closer relationship with Beijing. In , a year after mainland China was admitted to the UN, Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei reached an agreement with Beijing on steps to normalize relations. Japan simultaneously severed its ties with Taiwan, replacing its embassy with a nonofficial office.

Part of the understanding that lay behind this treaty was that Japan would have access to the U. Tensions therefore mounted as the renewal date of the treaty scheduled for approached; both governments hoped to extend it for 10 years as the revised Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security. Kishi had been named, though not tried, as a war criminal by the occupation.

Added to this was the proposed visit to Japan by U. Eisenhowe r that was scheduled amid new tensions caused by the downing of a U. When the Kishi cabinet used its majority in the Diet to force through treaty revisions, opposition increased steadily. Gigantic public demonstrations, largely composed of students, shook Tokyo for days. The administration of U. Reischauer as ambassador further improved Japanese-American relations. But by the late s the unpopularity of the Vietnam War threatened to disturb the relationship once more.

Thus, by the U. While signs of change on the part of both countries could be found in their China policies, there was as yet little to indicate the mounting conflict over trade that subsequently emerged. These included significant advances in technology, the disappearance of ample rural labour for industry, and the decline in international competitiveness of heavy manufacturing industries such as shipbuilding, aluminum, fertilizers, and, later, steel. Outcries over urban congestion, pollution, and environmental degradation and dissatisfaction with ever-escalating land prices caused many middle-class Japanese to question the economic and political logic that linked growth with national success.

The foreign trading environment also was changing. In the United States devalued the U. Thus, by the mids many Japanese felt increasingly insecure about their place in the global economy. Japanese dependency on fuel and food—as demonstrated by the consternation caused in when the United States temporarily embargoed soybean exports to Japan—had become increasingly clear. Japan became a firm advocate of international free trade and tried to create at least a measure of energy self-sufficiency through the increased use of nuclear power.

The economic uncertainties of the s produced a reemergence of a defensive, nationalistic sentiment that pictured Japan in a struggle with outside forces aimed at depriving the Japanese of their hard-won postwar gains. Until the early s, international economic tensions were effectively used by the ruling LDP and the bureaucracy to contain and defuse important domestic economic and political issues.

Per capita income had surpassed that of the United States, and total gross national product stood at roughly one-tenth of world output. Prosperity, however, was increasingly linked to trade. Slow domestic growth was offset by booming exports. In the s exports were seen as vital to balance the deficits anticipated from rapidly rising oil prices.

But, as the Japanese economy successfully weathered the recessions induced by escalating oil prices in —74 and —81, the volume of exports accelerated. By the early s the Japanese were consuming considerably less than their American, British, or German counterparts. At the same time, consumer prices in Japan were considerably higher than the world average. Studies showed that consumption patterns were influenced by lagging wage increases, congested housing, traditional savings habits, and long working and commuting schedules that provided little time for leisure.

Mounting Japanese trade surpluses increased friction between Japan and its trading partners in Europe and the United States. Restrictions on many agricultural products—including, in the early s, rice—were lifted. Plans for such changes were further taken up in the so-called Structural Impediments Initiative SII in the late s. By the end of the decade it was generally acknowledged that formal barriers to trade had been largely dismantled, though areas such as construction bidding were still closed, and many cultural barriers remained.

In —93 this ushered in a deep recession, the severity of which postponed many of the earlier reform plans, further undercut Japanese consumer confidence , and inevitably exacerbated trade tensions.

Social change

Those export surpluses finally produced a rapid appreciation of the yen against the dollar in the mids. Contrary to American expectations, however, this had only marginal effects on the trade balance. At the same time, the stronger Japanese currency allowed Japanese firms and individuals to invest heavily abroad by buying foreign assets notably real estate at bargain prices. The Japanese economy continued to stagnate, teetering between economic recession and anemic growth as the country entered the 21st century.

Unemployment, still relatively low by Western standards, rose considerably and in surpassed 5 percent for the first time in the postwar era. A series of prime ministers in the s and early 21st century called for major economic reforms, particularly deregulation. Several leaders, including Koizumi Junichiro , who became prime minister in , felt stymied by the inability of the policy changes to produce economic growth.

The economy also faced other challenges, particularly from a rapidly aging population and rising income disparities. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article.

Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Economic transformation The Korean War marked the turn from economic depression to recovery for Japan. Social change Two major changes were visible in the social life of the Japanese from to Political developments With the restoration of sovereignty , politicians who had been purged by the occupation were allowed to return to public life. International relations The Japan that returned to the international community in was considerably reduced in territory and influence.

Previous page World War II and defeat. Page 27 of Next page Political developments. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: A complete Bible followed in These changing aspects of the game usually occur at much the same time, for strong players. In brief, the middlegame switches into the endgame when the concepts of strategy and influence need reassessment in terms of concrete final results on the board. Today, in China, it is known as weiqi simplified Chinese: In China, Go was considered one of the four cultivated arts of the Chinese scholar gentleman , along with calligraphy , painting and playing the musical instrument guqin.

Weiqi was introduced to Korea sometime between the 5th and 7th centuries CE, and was popular among the higher classes. In Korea, the game is called baduk hangul: Sunjang baduk became the main variant played in Korea until the end of the 19th century, when the current version was reintroduced from Japan.

History of Japan

In , Tokugawa Ieyasu re-established Japan's unified national government. Despite its widespread popularity in East Asia, Go has been slow to spread to the rest of the world. Although there are some mentions of the game in western literature from the 16th century forward, Go did not start to become popular in the West until the end of the 19th century, when German scientist Oskar Korschelt wrote a treatise on the ancient Han Chinese game. In , Edward Lasker learned the game while in Berlin. Two years later, in , the German Go Association was founded. World War II put a stop to most Go activity, since it was a game coming from Japan, but after the war, Go continued to spread.

In Go, rank indicates a player's skill in the game. Traditionally, ranks are measured using kyu and dan grades, [83] a system also adopted by many martial arts. More recently, mathematical rating systems similar to the Elo rating system have been introduced. Dan grades abbreviated d are considered master grades, and increase from 1st dan to 7th dan. First dan equals a black belt in eastern martial arts using this system.

The difference among each amateur rank is one handicap stone. For example, if a 5k plays a game with a 1k, the 5k would need a handicap of four stones to even the odds. Top-level amateur players sometimes defeat professionals in tournament play. These ranks are separate from amateur ranks. Tournament and match rules deal with factors that may influence the game but are not part of the actual rules of play. Such rules may differ between events. Rules that influence the game include: Rules that do not generally influence the game are: Common tournament systems used in Go include the McMahon system , [86] Swiss system , league systems and the knockout system.

Tournaments may combine multiple systems; many professional Go tournaments use a combination of the league and knockout systems. A game of Go may be timed using a game clock. Formal time controls were introduced into the professional game during the s and were controversial. Go tournaments use a number of different time control systems. All common systems envisage a single main period of time for each player for the game, but they vary on the protocols for continuation in overtime after a player has finished that time allowance.

The top professional Go matches have timekeepers so that the players do not have to press their own clocks. Two widely used variants of the byoyomi system are: Go games are recorded with a simple coordinate system. This is comparable to algebraic chess notation , except that Go stones do not move and thus require only one coordinate per turn. Coordinate systems include purely numerical point , hybrid K3 , and purely alphabetical. The Japanese word kifu is sometimes used to refer to a game record. In Unicode, Go stones are encoded in the block Miscellaneous Symbols:.

A Go professional is a professional player of the game of Go. There are six areas with professional go associations, these are: Although the game was developed in China, the establishment of the Four Go houses by Tokugawa Ieyasu at the start of the 17th century shifted the focus of the Go world to Japan.

State sponsorship, allowing players to dedicate themselves full-time to study of the game, and fierce competition between individual houses resulted in a significant increase in the level of play. During this period, the best player of his generation was given the prestigious title Meijin master and the post of Godokoro minister of Go. Of special note are the players who were dubbed Kisei Go Sage. After the end of the Tokugawa shogunate and the Meiji Restoration period, the Go houses slowly disappeared, and in , the Nihon Ki-in Japanese Go Association was formed. Top players from this period often played newspaper-sponsored matches of 2—10 games.

For much of the 20th century, Go continued to be dominated by players trained in Japan. After his return to Korea, the Hanguk Kiwon Korea Baduk Association was formed and caused the level of play in South Korea to rise significantly in the second half of the 20th century. With the advent of major international titles from onward, it became possible to compare the level of players from different countries more accurately. His disciple Lee Chang-ho was the dominant player in international Go competitions for more than a decade spanning much of s and early s; he is also credited with groundbreaking works on the endgame.

As of [update] , Japan lags behind in the international Go scene. Historically, as with most sports and games, more men than women have played Go. Special tournaments for women exist, but until recently, men and women did not compete together at the highest levels; however, the creation of new, open tournaments and the rise of strong female players, most notably Rui Naiwei , have in recent years highlighted the strength and competitiveness of emerging female players.

The level in other countries has traditionally been much lower, except for some players who had preparatory professional training in East Asia. A famous player of the s was Edward Lasker. In , Manfred Wimmer became the first Westerner to receive a professional player's certificate from an East Asian professional Go association. It is possible to play Go with a simple paper board and coins or plastic tokens for the stones.

More popular midrange equipment includes cardstock, a laminated particle board , or wood boards with stones of plastic or glass. More expensive traditional materials are still used by many players. The most expensive Go sets have black stones carved from slate and white stones carved from translucent white shells, played on boards carved in a single piece from the trunk of a tree.

Chinese boards are slightly larger, as a traditional Chinese Go stone is slightly larger to match. The board is not square; there is a The added length compensates for this. More recently, the related California Torreya Torreya californica has been prized for its light color and pale rings as well as its reduced expense and more readily available stock. The natural resources of Japan have been unable to keep up with the enormous demand for the slow-growing Kaya trees; both T.

Other, less expensive woods often used to make quality table boards in both Chinese and Japanese dimensions include Hiba Thujopsis dolabrata , Katsura Cercidiphyllum japonicum , Kauri Agathis , and Shin Kaya various varieties of spruce , commonly from Alaska, Siberia and China's Yunnan Province. Traditional Japanese stones are double-convex, and made of clamshell white and slate black. In China, the game is traditionally played with single-convex stones [] made of a composite called Yunzi. The material comes from Yunnan Province and is made by sintering a proprietary and trade-secret mixture of mineral compounds derived from the local stone.

This process dates to the Tang Dynasty and, after the knowledge was lost in the s during the Chinese Civil War , was rediscovered in the s by the now state-run Yunzi company. The term "yunzi" can also refer to a single-convex stone made of any material; however, most English-language Go suppliers specify Yunzi as a material and single-convex as a shape to avoid confusion, as stones made of Yunzi are also available in double-convex while synthetic stones can be either shape.

Traditional stones are made so that black stones are slightly larger in diameter than white; this is to compensate for the optical illusion created by contrasting colors that would make equal-sized white stones appear larger on the board than black stones. The bowls for the stones are shaped like a flattened sphere with a level underside. Chinese bowls are slightly larger, and a little more rounded, a style known generally as Go Seigen ; Japanese Kitani bowls tend to have a shape closer to that of the bowl of a snifter glass, such as for brandy.

The bowls are usually made of turned wood. Mulberry is the traditional material for Japanese bowls, but is very expensive; wood from the Chinese jujube date tree, which has a lighter color it is often stained and slightly more visible grain pattern, is a common substitute for rosewood, and traditional for Go Seigen-style bowls. Other traditional materials used for making Chinese bowls include lacquered wood, ceramics , stone and woven straw or rattan. The names of the bowl shapes, "Go Seigen" and "Kitani", were introduced in the last quarter of the 20th century by the professional player Janice Kim as homage to two 20th-century professional Go players by the same names, of Chinese and Japanese nationality, respectively, who are referred to as the "Fathers of modern Go".

The traditional way to place a Go stone is to first take one from the bowl, gripping it between the index and middle fingers, with the middle finger on top, and then placing it directly on the desired intersection. It is considered respectful towards White for Black to place the first stone of the game in the upper right-hand corner.

It is considered poor manners to run one's fingers through one's bowl of unplayed stones, as the sound, however soothing to the player doing this, can be disturbing to one's opponent. Similarly, "clacking" a stone against another stone, the board, or the table or floor is also discouraged. However, it is permissible to emphasize select moves by striking the board more firmly than normal, thus producing a sharp clack.

Additionally, hovering one's arm over the board usually when deciding where to play is also considered rude as it obstructs the opponent's view of the board. In combinatorial game theory terms, Go is a zero-sum , perfect-information , partisan , deterministic strategy game , putting it in the same class as chess, draughts checkers and Reversi Othello ; however it differs from these in its game play. Although the rules are simple, the practical strategy is extremely complex.

The game emphasizes the importance of balance on multiple levels and has internal tensions. To secure an area of the board, it is good to play moves close together; however, to cover the largest area, one needs to spread out, perhaps leaving weaknesses that can be exploited. Playing too low close to the edge secures insufficient territory and influence, yet playing too high far from the edge allows the opponent to invade. It has been claimed that Go is the most complex game in the world due to its vast number of variations in individual games.

Decisions in one part of the board may be influenced by an apparently unrelated situation in a distant part of the board. Plays made early in the game can shape the nature of conflict a hundred moves later.

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The game complexity of Go is such that describing even elementary strategy fills many introductory books. In fact, numerical estimates show that the number of possible games of Go far exceeds the number of atoms in the observable universe. Research of go endgame by John H. Conway led to the invention of the surreal numbers. Go long posed a daunting challenge to computer programmers , putting forward "difficult decision-making tasks; an intractable search space; and an optimal solution so complex it appears infeasible to directly approximate using a policy or value function".

Many in the field of artificial intelligence consider Go to require more elements that mimic human thought than chess. The reasons why computer programs had not played Go at the professional dan level prior to include: As an illustration, the greatest handicap normally given to a weaker opponent is 9 stones.

It was not until August that a computer won a game against a professional level player at this handicap. It was the Mogo program, which scored this first victory in an exhibition game played during the US Go Congress. In March , Google next challenged Lee Sedol , a 9 dan considered the top player in the world in the early 21st century, [] to a five-game match. Leading up to the game, Lee Sedol and other top professionals were confident that he would win; [] however, AlphaGo defeated Lee in four of the five games. In October , DeepMind announced a significantly stronger version called AlphaGo Zero which beat the previous version by games to 0.

An abundance of software is available to support players of the game. This includes programs that can be used to view or edit game records and diagrams, programs that allow the user to search for patterns in the games of strong players, and programs that allow users to play against each other over the Internet.

Some web servers [ citation needed ] provide graphical aids like maps, to aid learning during play. These graphical aids may suggest possible next moves, indicate areas of influence, highlight vital stones under attack and mark stones in atari or about to be captured. There are several file formats used to store game records, the most popular of which is SGF, short for Smart Game Format. Programs used for editing game records allow the user to record not only the moves, but also variations, commentary and further information on the game.

Electronic databases can be used to study life and death situations, joseki , fuseki and games by a particular player. Programs are available that give players pattern searching options, which allow players to research positions by searching for high-level games in which similar situations occur. Internet-based Go servers allow access to competition with players all over the world, for real-time and turn-based games. Other books have used Go as a theme or minor plot device. The manga Japanese comic book and anime series Hikaru no Go , released in Japan in , had a large impact in popularizing Go among young players, both in Japan and—as translations were released—abroad.

Despite this Go still features heavily in her character's personality. The corporation and brand Atari was named after the Go term. Computer Go research has shown that given the large search tree, knowledge and pattern recognition are more important in Go than in other strategy games, such as chess. According to the review of Gobet and colleagues, the pattern of brain activity observed with techniques such as PET and fMRI does not show large differences between Go and chess. On the other hand, a study by Xiangchuan Chen et al. There is some evidence to suggest a correlation between playing board games and reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

In formal game theory terms, Go is a non-chance, combinatorial game with perfect information. Informally that means there are no dice used and decisions or moves create discrete outcome vectors rather than probability distributions , the underlying math is combinatorial, and all moves via single vertex analysis are visible to both players unlike some card games where some information is hidden.

Perfect information also implies sequence—players can theoretically know about all past moves. Affine transformations can theoretically add non-zero and complex utility aspects even to two player games.


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Go begins with an empty board. It is focused on building from the ground up nothing to something with multiple, simultaneous battles leading to a point-based win. Chess is tactical rather than strategic, as the predetermined strategy is to trap one individual piece the king. This comparison has also been applied to military and political history, with Scott Boorman 's book The Protracted Game exploring the strategy of the Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War through the lens of Go.

A similar comparison has been drawn among Go, chess and backgammon , perhaps the three oldest games that enjoy worldwide popularity. Chess, with rows of soldiers marching forward to capture each other, embodies the conflict of "man vs. Because the handicap system tells Go players where they stand relative to other players, an honestly ranked player can expect to lose about half of their games; therefore, Go can be seen as embodying the quest for self-improvement, "man vs.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Absract strategy board game for two players. This article is about the board game. For other things named "Go", see Go. Game pieces, called stones , are played on the lines' intersections. An example of a situation in which the ko rule applies. Go strategy and tactics. The chain of three marked black stones cannot escape in any direction. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Go ranks and ratings. Time control and Byoyomi. Go players , Go professional , and List of professional Go tournaments. Strategy games portal China portal Japan portal Korea portal. See the section on "Life and Death" for seki. See this article by Benjamin Teuber, amateur 6 dan, for some views on how important this is felt to be.

Time-wasting tactics are possible in Go, so that sudden death systems, in which time runs out at a predetermined point however many plays are in the game, are relatively unpopular in the West. If twenty moves are made in time, the timer is reset to five minutes again. This is a good amateur level but no more than might be found in ordinary East Asian clubs. Published current European ratings would suggest around players stronger than that, with very few European 7 dans.

Ignoring illegal suicide moves, there are at least ! See Go and mathematics for more details, which includes much larger estimates. The complexity of the algorithm differs per engine. Retrieved March 23, Retrieved 28 November Teach Yourself Go , p. The Tso Chuan reprint ed. Alternately, a measure of all the alternatives to be considered at each stage of the game game-tree complexity can be estimated with b d , where b is the game's breadth number of legal moves per position and d is its depth number of moves [ plies ] per game.

Allis , pp. Archived from the original on Retrieved 28 October Retrieved June 3, Retrieved 5 June Retrieved 15 May Retrieved 31 May British Go Journal Nr. Retrieved 8 October Induction in the game of Go". Nihon Kiin, , p. Archived from the original on 8 June Match Player , GoBase. Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 3 March Retrieved 11 January Playing the first move in the upper right corner". Retrieved 11 December Archived from the original PDF on 25 May The Electric Sage Battle.

Retrieved December 8, Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 15 March Go master Lee Se-dol wins against AlphaGo program".

Retrieved 13 March