Add to Wish List. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Table of Contents. Next on the horizon is the application of new technologies that will change the way we drive our cars. De rigeur for many drivers, electronic passes and GPS systems represent the tip of the iceberg in terms of emerging applications of new technology.
Not far off are networks consisting of vehicles, lane markers, exit ramps, and other highway structures that work together to create safer highways. Inter- and Intra-Vehicle Communications provides details on the current state-of-the-art in wireless communication technology within and between vehicles. The author describes the operation of vehicle systems and sensors and provides a tutorial covering the fundamental concepts associated with communications and transmission technologies that can be used for inter- and intra vehicle operations. The book includes detailed information on wired and wireless communications within a vehicle and how such communications provide the capability for vehicle communications and the intelligent roadway.
It also examines protocols used to transfer data, and analyzes the role of sensors used inside and outside a vehicle as a mechanism for developing smart automobiles. The author examines the issues from every angle, elucidating problems surrounding security, radio frequency interference, and operation under severe conditions and offers actual and potential solutions.
These features provide an in-depth exploration of the possibilities and how to bring them into reality. Request an e-inspection copy. Architectures, Protocols and Standards. A Wireless Technology Revolution. Taking Wireless to the MAX. Besides the original task of mobile WiMAX, it also allows variety of different applications: Mobile WiMAX data rate is 40 Mbps which is a sufficient bandwidth for supporting different services in vehicular communication Chien et al. Mobile WiMAX devices typically have an omni-directional antenna that is of lower gain compared to directional antennas but are more portable.
However, in urban environments they may not have line-of-sight and therefore, users may only receive 10 Mbit sec -1 over 2 km sec Higher-gain directional antennas can be used with a Mobile WiMAX network with range and throughput benefits but the obvious loss of practical mobility. Medium range technologies can be used within the radio range and measured in tens or hundreds of feet.
The range of technologies may also be helpful for V2V and V2I communication.
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- Inter/Intra-Vehicle Wireless Communication.
- Inter-Vehicle Wireless Communications Technologies, Issues and Challenges.
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The standard, coverage, bit rate and application of the medium range communication technologies are shown in Table 2. The detail of medium range communication technologies are explained as follows. The aim of the IEEE Legacy Wi-Fi has two ratified variants, The improved performance of Wi-Fi Applications here are advanced drive assistance reducing the number of accidents, decentralized floating car data improving local traffic flow and efficiency and user communications and information services for comfort and business applications to driver and passengers.
In VANETs, the Wi-Fi has limitations in degree of covering, capacity and interference of the channel, the high mobility of the nodes, frequent topology changes and network fragmentation. Thus, a great deal of effort is dedicated to offer new MAC access strategies and to design efficient routing protocols , adjacent devices use same channel for accessing medium cause interference.
Different routing strategies have been defined based on prior ad hoc network architectures by targeting the specific VANET needs of scenarios and applications Shimizu et al. It is a multi-channel wireless standard operates in 75 MHz licensed spectrum at 5. DSRC is capable of delivering 27 Mbps data-rate in 1 km range by using a two way line-of-sight short-range radio which is significantly lower cost compared to cellular, WiMAX or satellite communications.
DSRC is currently considered the most promising wireless standard in vehicular networks. DSRC is specifically design for both public safety and private operations for vehicular communication environment. It operates in stringent environment which requires; fast communications to maintain the connection with speeding vehicles at all times, strict QoS committed to predefined threshold delays for safety messages, minimal use of transmission power and maintaining privacy and anonymity of roaming users in addition to many other environmental challenges.
Potential applications of DSRC are Electronic toll collection, Intersection collision avoidance, Automatic vehicle safety inspection, Transit or emergency vehicle signal priority and many more Hassan et al. Where V2V applications will not be fully functional until a significant percentage of cars on the road are equipped with DSRC systems For vehicle safety applications at road intersections, DSRC reception is likely to be problematic due to Non-line-of-sight reception conditions.
Alternatively, it required a system with better coverage for information exchange, such as cellular system. DSRC is not expected to replace other wireless technologies, nor is it expected to uniquely serve all vehicular communication needs, rather DSRC is seen as the main candidate for safety, short-range applications, subscription free services, road toll services and other similar localized applications Morgan, The combination of IEEE There are six standards under family named as ,1,2,3,4,5,6.
Each one handles different issues at different layers. It provides an alternative to IPv6. It also defines the management information base for the protocol stack.
Inter/Intra-Vehicle Wireless Communication
This bandwidth is divided into seven 10 MHz channels i. OFDM system provides both V2V and V2I wireless communication s over distances up to 1 km while taking into account the environment, that is, high absolute and relative velocities up to km h -1 , fast multipath fading and different scenarios rural, highway and urban.
By using the optional 20 MHz channels, it allows data payload capabilities up to 54 Mb sec Together these standards provide the foundation for a broad range of applications in the transportation environment, including vehicle safety, automated tolling, enhanced navigation, traffic management and many others Banchs and Vollero, WAVE is able to provide broadband local communications with low latency which is mandatory for realizing vehicular active safety applications, such as wireless local hazard warnings, vehicle maneuvering assistance and cooperative automatic cruise control.
However, crucial number of RSU Road side units is a prerequisite for the successful introduction of the service. WSMP Wireless short message protocol provides efficient broadcast service with low latency.
Table of contents for Inter- and intra- vehicle communications / Gilbert Held.
As far as multi-hop communication is concerned, routing becomes a challenging issue because of the dynamically changing network topology of VANET. As surveyed Li and Wang, , location and geographic information based routing algorithms, known as position based routing and geo-cast routing, are usually used in VANET. Another major issue here with WAVE is security. Vehicles should be able to change their IP addresses so that, they are not traceable, however it is not clear how this will be achieved.
Moreover this can cause inefficiency in address usage since when a new address is assigned the old address cannot be reused immediately. Delayed packets will be dropped when the car changes its IP address which causes unnecessary retransmissions. Short range technologies could be only used in Line of sight therefore may be helpful in InV communications. WPAN protocols operate at lower frequencies between devices that are usually only a few feet apart.
Currently Bluetooth, ultra-wideband UWB , ZigBee is protocol standards for short- range wireless communication s with low power consumption Park and Rappaport, The standard coverage, bit rate and application of the long range communication technologies are shown in Table 3.
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The detail long-range communication technologies are explained as follows. Bluetooth is currently the most widely used automotive wireless technology in many vehicles.
In a Bluetooth-enabled vehicle, the car audio system takes over the phone function. In addition, other Bluetooth devices can easily interconnect within a Bluetooth enabled car: Table 4 reports the data transfer speeds required by some audio systems. Beyond entertainment and phone calls there are other emerging possibilities, including remote starting to warm-up the car in the winter or start the air conditioning in summer, a remote parking garage or home garage door controller and payment for gas at the pump and toll road payments Sugiura and Dermawan, However, Bluetooth has several drawbacks in an IVC context.
Perhaps the most important drawback is that Bluetooth imposes a Piconet structure which is difficult to maintain in IVC systems that are much more dynamic than the stationary systems Bluetooth targets. It was shown, using accurate Bluetooth simulations which Piconet and Scatternet formation may take as long as 7 and 45 sec, respectively. Furthermore, new nodes joining existing Piconets encounter significant delays Pokharel et al.
Inter- and Intra-Vehicle Communications
Finally while the specifications allows for transmission ranges of up to m, almost all current chipsets only allow for ranges of up to 10 m the lowest specified in the standard. Even the m range is considerably smaller than that of DSRC. An alternative to Bluetooth is a new radio frequency technique called UWB. UWB has recently attracted much attention as an indoor short-range high-speed wireless communication.
One of the most exciting characteristics of UWB is that its bandwidth is over Mbps up to Mbps which can satisfy most of the multimedia applications such as audio and video delivery in home networking and it can also act as a wireless cable replacement of high speed serial bus such as USB 2. UWB uses very short pulses, so that the spectrum of the emitted signals spread over several GHz, because of the wideband nature of the signal, UWB has been used in radar applications Hu et al.
UWB is the newcomer in the area of vehicle communication system. The main advantages of UWB technology are its high data rate, low cost and immunity to interference. It is applicable for vehicular collision-detection systems and suspension systems that respond to road conditions Richardson et al. But due to the fact that UWB could potentially interfere with communication sources, is a technical problem that must be solved before it could be used in IVC systems.
In addition, there is a concern that UWB's radio coverage could extend to uninvolved vehicles which could generate false or irrelevant information. Based on the IEEE ZigBee provides self-organized, multi-hop and reliable mesh networking with long battery lifetime ZigBee fills a gap not provided by the other technologies, namely the interconnection of wireless sensors for control applications Hannan et al.
ZigBee is expected to be used in monitoring and control applications, related to temperature and humidity measurement as well as heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and lighting control. One of them is rental car monitoring. A ZigBee-enabled monitoring system could allow customers to quickly drop off a rental car without waiting for the attendant to check gas or mileage. Other interesting automotive applications are tire-pressure monitoring and remote keyless entry.
Further proposals involve attaching a ZigBee device to anything which should not be lost e. Due to the low transmission rate and small area coverage, ZigBee manufactures slow to make an appearance on the market. In order to establish communication in vehicular network, many technical issues and challenges must be addressed. All Communication technologies come with their own set of requirements, especially in the aspects of quality of service, speed and link establishment etc. Selection of communication technology: Selection of proper technologies required support of high data rate and high mobility in dense Vehicle communication network Jerbi et al.
Interference issues in short range communication: When communication interference appears, wireless transmitters in the immediate vicinity operating in the same frequency band invariably cause Misra et al. The high radio density can result in substantial delays in time to transmit and even data losses. Due to high mobility, a VANET is extremely dynamic in nature and requires extreme configurations, high-speed movement of vehicles cause frequent topology changing Park et al.
Table of contents for Inter- and intra- vehicle communications
In the worst case, if two cars with high speeds drive in opposite directions, the link will last only a very short amount of time. Further, Handover becomes a challenging task in high mobile environment, where high-speed nodes frequently handoff between Access Points APs along the road. A high velocity of vehicles causes a large and fast variation of the channel conditions which may increase Frame Error Rate FER e. Vehicle moving at speed 60 km h -1 caused variation of the channel conditions and may increase FER dramatically due to the flat fading Rayleigh channel Afonso et al. IVC system requires fast association and low communication latency between communicating vehicles in order to guarantee: In real time wireless communication , multiple objects could degrade the strength and quality of receiving signal and, therefore, have a negative impact on messages reception rates Sun et al.
Moreover, due to mobile nature of vehicles, fading effects have to be taken in account. Because of fast fading phenomena, a transmitter can experience a different multipath environment each time when it sends a packet. Due to the low strength radio wave in far apart nodes or if there are some barriers between these nodes, they cannot detect the traffic status of each other Toor et al. This is so called Hidden Nodes problem which may cause a high possibility of collision.