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The articles will present for the first time in print the material which for some years has been mimeographed for the use of seminary classes in Christology. The form of the material is new, however, and the entire treatment has been recast to include new material and to make plain the thought to the reader who may not have had previous instruction in this doctrine.

It is intended that the more technical material not absolutely essential to the thought will be included in footnotes for those interested. The first major division of Christology dealing with the preincarnate Son of God will occupy the articles to be printed in Instead of following the customary division of the subject into that which is found in the Old Testament and in the New Testament, it will be the plan to include all material in both Testaments having bearing on the preincarnate Christ.

Two major divisions will be observed: In the first division particular attention will be given to the testimony concerning the deity of Christ. In the second division the works of Christ in eternity past, in creation, providence, preservation, revelation, and salvation in the Old Testament will have principal treatment. No attempt will be made to follow the traditional limitation of Christology to the Person of Christ only. The importance of His work in the total revelation of Christ justifies the extended discussion. Messianic prophecies will be included in the later discussion of Christ incarnate.

Christianity by its very name has always had Christ as its historical and logical center. The doctrine of Christ is vitally related to every important doctrine of theology. The important matter of bibliology—the place of the Bible and divine revelation in theology—is logically inseparable from the doctrine of Christ. It is a matter of history that those who have interpreted literally the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the infallible and inspired Word of God have almost always accepted the deity of Christ.

It is normal also for those who accept the unique deity of Christ to also accept the Scriptures.

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This subjective approach finally had its reductio ad absurdum in the liberalism of a decade ago which was unblushing humanism. The ultimate in the destruction of the Biblical doctrine of Christ was reached early in the twentieth century when the charge of certain liberal theologians that Jesus was only a myth began to be taken seriously in the theological world.


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Liberal theology in some quarters had accepted as already proved that Jesus was not essential to Christianity, but it remained for Arthur Drews in his The Christian Myth to state it blatantly and win a group of followers. It is taken for granted that the destruction of grounds for implicit faith in the infallibility of Scripture has been achieved and that the Jesus of history was after all only a man with at best a deeper God-consciousness than others. Douglas Clyde Macintosh, Professor of Theology and Philosophy of Religion in Yale University, has perhaps stated what may be accepted as the norm of present liberal attitude toward Jesus in the following statement:.

In our sketch of the life and thought of the Reverend John Cotton we noted the theory advanced by Sir Henry Vane the younger, Governor of the Colony in , that the Holy Spirit is united to the believer in the same manner as the divine nature was united with the human Jesus. This rather startling Christological suggestion, which seems to have been rejected as heretical by the theological builders of that day, bids fair to be made, after some slight reshaping, the headstone of the corner in the reconstructed temple of Christian evangelicalism.

Conversely, Jesus strengthened the emphasis on progressive revelations substitution of present religious experience as a norm of doctrine for the infallible Scriptures. We are told today, then, that the real question is not whether the Scriptures are infallible, whether Christ was uniquely divine, but rather what Christ speaks to our hearts today through our religious experiences. Barthianism, like other forms of modernism, is utterly bankrupt as far as providing a basis for Christology.

It is, in fact, a revival in new terminology of ancient Gnostic ideas which were utterly destructive to Christian faith. The charge that Barthianism is a new form of liberalism rather than a new form of Reformed theology can be sustained on both theological and philosophical grounds. While, therefore, the history of Christology in the past and present will serve as a guide in the present study, the time-honored path of dependence upon the Scriptures will be followed instead of the present modern spirit.

Another term often used is epiphany appearance to someone. In the Bible, theophanies have reference specifically to Christ. The principal theophany of the Old Testament is the Angel of Jehovah, which has been shown in previous discussions to be the Son of God appearing in the form of an angel. The Angel of Jehovah. As the most frequent form of theophany in the Old Testament, the Angel of Jehovah affords a rich study in revelation of the Person and work of Christ in His preincarnate state.

There are some passages in which it is not clear Dan 3: In other references, the context leaves little doubt as to the meaning of the term. A study of the many passages dealing with the Angel of Jehovah will reveal a most remarkable breadth to the preincarnate work of Christ for His people. At the same time, His Person is revealed in all its grace and righteousness. In the first instance Gen To her He gives comfort and assurance.

The Pre-Incarnate Christ

Again in Genesis It is certainly a revelation of the gracious care of God that in the first two theophanies of Scripture in which the Angel appears, it is on behalf of a friendless and comfortless person who is not even included in major features of the Abrahamic covenant. The Angel goes before the servant of Abraham seeking a wife for Isaac and prospers his way Gen The Angel ministers to Jacob Gen He appears to Moses in the burning bush to call him to his work as leader Exod 3: The Angel of God was in the pillar of a cloud and the pillar of fire and led Israel through the wilderness to the promised land Exod He warns Balaam Num He warns and judges Israel Judg 2: Gideon is called and commissioned as a leader and judge by the Angel Judg 6: An entire chapter of Scripture is devoted to the Angel of Jehovah and His dealings with the parents of Samson Judg The common belief in the Angel of Jehovah as God Himself is shown in the conversation of various people in the Old Testament: He instructs Elijah in his controversy with Ahaziah and the judgment on the messengers 2 Kgs 1: He is the protector of Daniel Dan 3: He is the revealer of secrets to Zechariah in his prophecy.

The combined testimony of these passages portrays the Son of God as exceedingly active in the Old Testament, dealing with sin, providing for those in need, guiding in the path of the will of God, protecting His people from their enemies, and in general executing the providence of God. The references make plain that this ministry is not occasional or exceptional but rather the common and continual ministry of God to His people.

The Pre-Incarnate Christ

The revelation of the Person of the Son of God thus afforded is in complete harmony with the New Testament revelation. The testimony of Scripture has been so complete on this point that in general scholars who accept the inspiration and infallibility of Scripture have been almost of one voice that the Angel of Jehovah is the Christ of the Old Testament. Not only Christian theologians, but Jewish scholars as well have come to this conclusion. While fewer in number, other forms of theophany are afforded in the Old Testament. In view of the revelation afforded in other theophanies, there can be little doubt that this theophany is also an appearance of Christ.

The cloud of the Lord, the glory of the Lord Exod It is safe to assume that every visible manifestation of God in bodily form in the Old Testament is to be identified with the Lord Jesus Christ. The prince of the host of Jehovah Josh 5: Some passages must, however, remain in dispute, as the appearance of an angel to Daniel Dan Their identification with the Son of God refutes at once the Arian heresy that Christ was a created being and the Socinian and Unitarian perversions of the Person of Christ. For anyone who will accept the Scriptures in their plain intent, there is a clear portrayal of Christ in these Old Testament theophanies.

Only by denying the accuracy of Scripture can any other view be supported. It is rather curious that the modernist after declaring as spurious or interpolated the portions of early Scripture which oppose the evolutionary theory then turns to what is left of the Scripture for evidence of his own view. In the doctrine of Old Testament salvation, if the Scriptures are accepted as infallible, the revelation of salvation is not a late development of prophetic writers but instead a primary and basic revelation of God to the first man and succeeding generations.

The revelation of universal sin and condemnation. In the account in Genesis 3 of the fall, nothing is made clearer to man than the fact that through his sin he had come under condemnation. This was manifest in hiding from God and in confessions to God. The need for salvation was patent. Here is the fundamental conflict between Biblical Christianity and pagan humanism as reflected in human thought down to our day.

Preincarnate is boggling and I could not quite follow what was going on at all times, particularly considering the significant jumps in time and space but it was entertaining and full of Mr Micallefs delightfully zany humour which is throughout the book including in footnotes and a section at the en I adore Shaun Micallef and will gladly read or view any and everything he has to offer. Preincarnate is boggling and I could not quite follow what was going on at all times, particularly considering the significant jumps in time and space but it was entertaining and full of Mr Micallefs delightfully zany humour which is throughout the book including in footnotes and a section at the end of the book with some faux 'coming soon' previews for other books by Micallef.

The book is also nicely illustrated here and there with a particular emphasis on Badgers. May 21, Urbaer rated it really liked it Shelves: Read this one in a chapter a night method and it was funny and entertaining. Micallef weaves a tale of time travel in a rather bizarre way. Often it feels like your reading a skit playing out and there's the occasional breaking of the fourth wall, some witty little footnotes and so on.

There's plenty of great lines. I'm not sure if the story logically makes sense, but it's not the sort of book that it's really meant to. I'm going to have to read it again to see if it happens to.

I did quite enjoy Read this one in a chapter a night method and it was funny and entertaining. I did quite enjoy H. Wells trying to compete with Conan Doyle, I hope they really did have conversations in the way Micallef describes. Truly a tour de force. Jan 19, pinknantucket rated it liked it.

It was fun, as you might expect from Mr Micallef. I experienced some trepidation prior to reading this handsome volume lovely illustrations! But this is an enjoyable amusement, reading quite how you'd expect a book by Micallef to read.

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Perhaps still not QUITE successful at ironing out the inevitable problems associated with a time-travel plot. Also, a hint now and then of something deeper that makes me wonder It was fun, as you might expect from Mr Micallef. Also, a hint now and then of something deeper that makes me wonder what kind of book he could write if he wasn't so determined to be funny. Jan 13, Lauren rated it it was ok. This is a crazy story. If you love somewhat paradoxical time travel and Shaun Micallef's humour, this is the book for you. I only became certain of what was going on when I reached page And even that was short-lived.

Several times, when a new link between Micallef's nutters adventure and real-world history became clear, I found myself thinking, 'Oh, this could be so cool. Give the book a go. You might love it. If not, it's only pages and has seve This is a crazy story. If not, it's only pages and has several cameos by badgers. Where I think he falls down slightly, in TV and in print, is trying to craft a narrative. His penchant for the silly, the surreal and the slapstick is hard to fit into a novel. I really wanted to like this book, but eventually my min rebelled against the nonsense in search of 10 pages of sane plot.

Surrealism is best served in bites. Oct 12, Mark Russell rated it really liked it. I loved his skilled command of the language his satirical employment of Victorian English no less and enjoyed the altogether quirkiness of the unlikely tale quirky as only Micallef can be.

preincarnate

This work is only for die-hard Micallef fans, and I thoroughly enjoyed every page and illustration as well as the footnote arguments with his editor. Jan 18, Tamz rated it it was ok Shelves: I was left feeling both amused and confused. Amused because I love the humor and Micallef's comical style in the book; confused because..

I don't think I understood what I just read: May 30, Cate rated it liked it. This won't be to everyone's taste. If you like Shaun Micallef's absurdist humour, you'll find this amusing, with it's outlandish loops of logic, sarcasm, black humour, satire and clever wit. I certainly enjoyed it. May 24, David rated it it was ok.


  • Preincarnate by Shaun Micallef.
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A fairly benign book, pleasant without being outstanding. It doesn't particularly excite, and the plot feels a bit random and complicated for the amount of meat in the book, though it was nonetheless a reasonably enjoyable and humourous read at times. I didn't feel there was enough in it to actively like it on the whole, even humour-wise, so I would recommend this book to fans of Micallef but not really to others - there are better books out there in the humour genre. Apr 30, Exoticbrett rated it really liked it Shelves: Possibly the greatest badger story ever told.

At times I was concerned that I'd accidentally consumed some acid on my morning toast and was tripping for the entire book, but took a step back and realised, this is Shaun Micallef. Reads like a bizarre lovechild of Spike Milligan and Monty Python. He's a master of the non-sequitur, and this is absurdist humour at its best. I loved every minute. Mar 31, Penelly rated it it was ok.

I had quite high expectations for this because I'm a fan of Micallef's quick and surreal wit. It was an easy read and relatively enjoyable, and some of it was quite funny.

However, overall, the story didn't really work for me. It was a strange time-travelling kind of tale, with characters from history and fiction. The best bit were the silly footnotes. Nov 19, Jeremydc rated it really liked it. I am a huge fan of Micallef. The pockets of genius and brilliance in the book were what I was after.

The sporadic storyline is not your typical one but creates the vessel with with to allow access to the brilliant mind of Micallef where he exercises wordplay and wide-ranging erudite references. Silly, jumbled mess of a read--lots of fun. I gave up trying to keep track of the timeline after the first few chapters, and just went along for the ride.

Highlights for me were the footnotes, references to badgers, appearances of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and the recommended reading guide at the end. There are no discussion topics on this book yet.