Many people train these horses to drive carts. Jack and Jill Origin: Sardinia and Sicily off the coast of Italy Diet: A jennet is a female donkey, a jack is a male donkey and a foal is a baby donkey. Miniature donkeys are herd animals and love the company of other animals. Miniature donkeys make fantastic pets especially for children. A miniature donkey must be less than 36 inches. Did you know a donkeys favorite pastime is rolling on the ground tall.
Harry and Alfie Origin: Shetland Isles, off the Northwest coast of mainland Scotland Diet: Herbivore mainly grasses and hay Facts: These are very strong, hardy animals; this is mainly due to the fact that they had to survive harsh conditions and little food on the Shetland Isles. During the Industrial Revolution in Britain they were used as pit ponies were they hauled carts of coal underground in the mines. Shetland Ponies are very strong for their size and can pull double their own weight.
Shetland ponies are very intelligent and good natured, but can often become cheeky when over spoilt. Did you know that Harry and Alfie here at the farm are retired circus ponies. Dusty and Holly Origin: Europe and America, from breeding programs Diet: These horses are usually less than inches tall, which is measured at the last hairs of the horses mane, their withers.
Falabella horses are a breed of miniature horses. These animals are often kept as family pets due to their friendliness and how well they interact with children. The average lifespan of these horses is years. Some miniature horses are used as assistance animals for the blind. The domestic goat was domesticated from the wild goats of southwest Asia and central Europe. These animals are closely related to sheep and goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair and skins all over the world, yet more recently they have become popular as pets.
Preschool Activities Farm Theme: Make a Mystery Animal Book - The Educators' Spin On It
A male goat is called a buck or a billy, a female goat is called a doe or a nanny and a baby goat is called a kid. Goats are very inquisitive animals and will inspect any new object which comes into their pen, they will do this through sniffing, chewing and tasting the object.
Did you know goats are very intelligent and love to test fences and gates in order to escape from their pen? They have even been known to climb trees! Ancient breed of sheep, which are thought to have originated in Syria years ago Diet: These are a rare breed of black and white spotted piebald sheep. Sometimes they are kept for ornamental purposes or for guarding other livestock.
Benefits of Farm Animals Genetic Adaptation: A Review
These are very hardy sheep, which very rarely need veterinary care. They shed their fleece once a year at springtime and on the farm they are shorn. Their wool can then be sold to make into yarn. These animals can grow up to 6 horns, which usually curl. Sooty and Sweep Origin: These are intelligent, nimble animals with excellent mothering habits.
Soay sheep have quirky behavioural traits and are lots of fun to watch.
Rams have two horns which are extremely strong. They have naturally short tails and have a self shedding fleece. Soay Sheep can live for 10 to 12 years and weigh from lbs. These animals much prefer to eat weeds rather than grass! Omnivore, mainly grasses, and shrubs but also eat insects. These pigs are often called miniature pigs because they are much smaller than regular farm pigs, yet can still grow to large sizes lbs. In the past they were mainly used for food, but today they are more often used as pets, with many people keeping them in their house. They have tough outer hair, and if you stood on a pigs back on your bare feet you would definitely get a pinch!
Did you know that pigs are the forth most intelligent animals in the world? Were imported to New Zealand Diet: The KuneKune pig pronounced Cooney Cooney is characterised by its small size and hair covering its body, they have a short snout and pointy or floppy ears.
The KuneKune pig has a pair of tassels called piripiri hanging off its chin, similar to a goat. These are delightful, very friendly animals, which thrive on human company.
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Did you know this unusual name KuneKune means round and fat in Maori. Andes in South America Diet: These animals are domesticated animals and so do not exist in the wild. In the Andes people used them for food, but they now have become popular household pets. These are very shy animals and can get scared very quickly. Baby guinea pigs are born fully furred and after two days are eating the same food as their parents. Accordingly, considering different factors, climatic condition, topography, breed type, relationship with human, disease and parasite resistance, welfare issue, physiological and behavioral status, nutritional habit in harsh environment and management influences, local and cross breeds are more important than exotic breeds to establish an international sustainable farm animal breeding program at farm and laboratory level.
Likewise, in-situ and ex-situ adaptive local gene conservation bank should be done properly, especially, in developing countries. Therefore, the importance of this review is high and must be documented. Genetic adaptation is a characteristic with a heritable basis that will improve the reproductive and survival traits caused by domestication and natural evolution [ 1 ]. Genetic adaptation is of unknot major aim of evolutionary biology [ 2 ]. Consequently, genetic selection has got an attention to establish breeds which are more adapted, fast growing, productive and better disease and insect infestation resistant animals for supplying food and other livestock products to human beings in every parts of the world [ 3 ].
However, evidence for genetic adaptation in farm animals remains poorly understood [ 4 ]. Additionally, the influence of climate challenge on farm animal genetic resource adaptation and conservation related to human food supply and the alleviation mechanisms [ 5 ]. The significance of different livestock production systems to be part of the food source to mitigate the insecurity problem by conserving diversified animal genetic.
However, unlimited mating, habitat distruction, unsustainable selective pressures for adaptation to global climate changes, over exploitation and loss of community structure are major threats to conservation of farm animal genetic resources [ 6 - 8 ].
Moreover, there have been losing of farm animal genetic material in some place as a result of globalization [ 9 ] and many local breeds have a small population mass due to the cause of inability to adapt resulting extinction [ 10 ]. Therefore, the paper aimed to review about the benefit of genetic adaptation of farm animals. Animal genetic resources AnGR are required to put a solution for world food insecurity challenge especially in in developing countries at livelihood.
Livestock provides products with great amout of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals mostly for infants and mothers. Livestock sector supports more than a billion people particularly the rural people which are predominantly poor [ 11 ]. The need and competion to use animals and their products have been significantly increasing throughout the century and this will be expected to rise in the coming years. Numbers of local breeds recorded per species and region for the five main farm animal species for food and agriculture.
In 35 th world animal genomics conference, reported the world human population will increase rapidly from 7. Therefore, a better understanding of the underlying genomic control of adaptation in native and exotic livestock will be required to meet the growing human needs. Keeping the diversity of the genetic resources in the way to transfer to the next generation is mandatory. The availability and cheap animal genomic technologies provided benefit for the livestock producers and consumers in the developed world.
These tools shall also deliver new opportunities for the developing world. Genetic adaptation of farm animal functional traits for economic profitability and welfare issues. Functional traits play a critical role in biological and economic efficiency by reducing costs of production. Consumers demand of farm animals product is growing; as a result it needs supply of safe, quality and low cost product by giving attention to farm animal welfare.
In this case, to establish effective and efficient breeding program there should be a consideration of functional traits [ 14 ]. Adaptation as a result of heritable feature of genes of farm animals favor survival of a population. Many breeds of the harsh environment have developed many adaptive traits that increase their survivability [ 15 ]. The existence and fruitful reproduction of farm animals which are genetically adapted to a specific environment is majorly determined by natural selection.
Smallholder pastoralists and their animals lived in harsh environments which may be extremely cold or hot. Moreover, these environments can be characterized by scarcity of feed, water resources and high disease pressure with large seasonal and annual variation of rainfall. In this condition, the farm animal genes have a potential role to allow animals to live under stressful conditions. The first stragy of breeders is to keep the environmt confortable by considering the need of animal. The other altenative is to raise locally adapted animals.