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Princeton University Press July 21, Language: Related Video Shorts 0 Upload your video. Try the Kindle edition and experience these great reading features: Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. I first heard of the incarceration of the Japanese-Americans from a friend in Utah.

While still a teenager, he and his family who were living in Seattle were given 48 hours to sell their home and business and were moved into a cencentration camp. He lived in the camp until he was 18, at which time he was drafted into the Army. They took one look at him in the Army and said, You're going to be a Japanese interpreter.

His brother enlisted in the Army to get out of the camp and was a member of the famous Regimental Combat Team fighting in Italy where he was severly wounded. This was one of the more disgraceful acts of our Government. There was not any movement to move Americans of German or Italian descent into camps. The Japanese Americans on Hawaii were not affected, only those on the west coast of the mainland.

And there was never a case of spying by the Japanese Americans. This splendid book brings a new level of research and understanding to thie shameful time in our history. While Hayashi is critical of the evacuation saying "despite the obvious presence of Japanese nationalistic sentiments before and during the camps, since people cannot and should not be locked up on the basis of political sentiment but rather on the basis of acts committed. As for the first reviewer, his history is just plain wrong. Internees included 10, Germans, 16, Japanese 5, who voluntarily renounced U.

Only a small fraction of enemy aliens were interned. Japanese citizens with families were sent to Crystal City, Texas and lived side-by-side with German and Italian families. German Americans on the east coast and throughout the country were arrested, interned, and in some cases deported. Almost 11, German Americans were interned in the U. Many German Americans sat, worked, played and went to school in the same camps as their Japanese American counterparts.

Furthermore even before the first person was interned, , Italian Americans and , German Americans were deprived of their civil liberties when they all persons, male and female, age 14 and older were required to register as "Alien Enemies. In addition they were forbidden to fly; to leave their neighborhoods; to possess cameras, short-wave radio receivers, and firearms. Finally, these persons were required to report any change of employment or address to the Department of Justice. In California, the population was 1. That said, there was an internment camp in Hawaii at Sand Harbor.

More importantly, Hawaii was under military martial law at the time. If the the authorities could have evacuated all ethnic Japanese from Hawaii they would have.


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They could not so they did not. As an aside, Japan had a battle plan in place for the invasion of Hawaii that intended to utilize ethnic Japanese during the occupation.

Democratizing the Enemy: The Japanese American Internment - ProQuest

The plan was scrapped after Japan's defeat at Midway. It is more accurate to say that no Japanese Americans were charged or found guilty of such crimes during the war. Those suspected were simply sent to internment -- not relocation -- camps. For example, in Hawaii, three Japanese Americans on Niihau aided a downed Imperial Navy aviator to the point where they attempted to kill some of their Hawaiian neighbors. One of the Japanese was killed in a struggle and the other two surrendered to authorities. This "Niihau Incident" is considered the trigger that largely justified the relocation order.

Until martial law, however, watching ships from public property was not a crime. Iva Tokuri D'Aqino also aided Japan rather than be sent to a civilian internment camp in Japan along with her fellow Americans. Americans need to study this history a little more thoroughly.

Hayashi has the integrity to be honest at least. How absurd to expect that the U. Does it not seem evident that the fanatics among the internees would have been eager, even at the loss of their own lives, to create havoc with atrocious attacks such as has been seen in the bombings of the Fed. Building in Oklahoma City, the Boston Marathon, etc? Nitrogen based fertilizer easily converted for the purpose of creatong an incredibly powerful explosive was commonly available in the agricultural communities of the coastal area and easily could have been employed in attacks all over the Western Defense Zone.

I recall well, that a simple chain link fence separated, perhaps by 20 feet, one of the main roads adjacent to the Lockheed, Burbank, plant and hundreds of P's and Hudson bombers parked in rows within the airport premises. All the other L. A booklet available from the Manzanar historical site, titled 'Death Valley: It's Impounded People' is the 'smoking gun' proving how much in error are those who urge us to believe that those of Japanese descent "who were wrongfully inconvenienced by relocation away from the Western Defense Zone, were innocent truck farmers, fishermen and small business owners who were just as patriotic as any other Americans.

In his post-war investigations of the incidents within Manzanar, Carey McWilliams, a noted leftest, makes mention of the fact that, while at Manzanar with his wife and young son, Karl Yoneda, a new enlistee in the U.

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Army and awaiting orders to report for basic training was threatened by Harry Uyeno, a leader of the Fascist element, with these words: This quote is buried in the footnotes at the end of 'The Martyr of Manzanar'. As is quoted in this bio, she, Elaine, wrote her husband at his Army post, of her fearful existence in Manzanar as the wife of a U. The Fascist have control of Manzanar! If he was a 'martyr' it was to the Imperial Japanese cause he so devoutly hoped would prevail in it's war against the U.

Japanese American Internment During WWII

Uyeno and his close associates compiled a 'Death List' of those who supported the U. Elaine Yoneda was on the 'list'. She had been told by friends that the Fascist element stated that "Karl Yoneda may have gotten away, but we still have his wife and kid. Uyeno was one of those who Tayama said tried to kill him.

FT was a supporter of the war against Fascism. On , the first anniversary of the Japanese victory at Pearl Harbor, Tayama had been beaten badly by Uyeno's 'goons', Tayama was rescued by on-lookers and taken to the Administrative area and placed in the hospital.

Later that evening a full riot broke out motivated, to a definite extent, by the plan to obtain forced access to the hospital in order to "finish off Tayama," The medical staff hid Tayama under a bed and told his would be assassins that he had already been transferred to the hospital in Bishop. Conversely, camp administrators and social scientists believed "loyalty" came from "culture;" they also believed that the Japanese, particularly those born in America, had immersed themselves in American [End Page ] culture.

They therefore confidently asserted that the internees were loyal to the United States. These clear divisions did not exist within the Japanese community itself, and in chapter 2, Hayashi shows how, prior to the war, Japanese ideas of governance and Japanese loyalties differed by prefecture, class, and even generation.


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These contrary notions about authority and classification among Caucasians and Japanese resulted in turmoil and peace within the camps, depending on which group of white administrators assumed power in a camp. Chapter 3 focuses on the forced removal and internment of Japanese under the guise of "military necessity," which was, surprisingly, supported by the majority of Japanese, who feared worse treatment during wartime hysteria. However, tensions between different segments within the Japanese community and among camp administrators over issues of loyalty and governance did not diminish.

Chapters 4 and 5 address these problems that arose in governing the Japanese within the camps as well as the successful solutions found that ushered in a "quiet period," when internees and administrators accepted new rules of governance. Chapter 6 examines the end of the mass removal policy in December , which resulted in a reduction of camp rules but also increased administrative pressure for relocation.

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During this time internees who were loyal to Japan shifted their support to the United States in light of the decline of the Japanese empire. The last chapter, and the epilogue in particular, proved to be the most intriguing part of Hayashi's analysis, as he demonstrates how internment affected a wide range of peoples and a vast geographic expanse. While some individuals profited from the internment of Japanese Americans, Hayashi likewise points out how the water and land development associated with the camps often negatively impacted those residing within the immediate vicinity of the camps, including Native Americans.

Internment experiences transformed some camp governors, who went on to apply the lessons of relocation to areas as diverse as Paraguay and Iran. Hayashi underscores as well how Japanese Americans' lives, along with their relationship to Japan, were fundamentally altered, as many severed commercial and cultural ties with Japan. Relocation later shaped Japanese American demands for reparation from the U.

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