Manual The European Union (Global Institutions)

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This has seen the EU become both a major force in contemporary institutions of global governance and a template for supranational governance that might influence other attempts to construct regional and global institutions. This volume bings together a collection of leading EU scholars to provide a state-of-the-art overview covering these and other debates relating to the EU's role in contemporary global governance. The Handbook is divided into four main sections:. European studies and global governance — provides an overview and critical assessment of the leading theoretical approaches to the EU's role in global governance.

Institutions — examines the role played by the key EU institutions in pursuing a role for the EU in contemporary international relations. Policy and issue areas — explores developments within particular policy sectors, assessing the different impact that the EU has had in different issue areas, including foreign and security policy, environmental policy, common commercial policy and the Common Agricultural Policy.

The global multilevel governance complex and the EU — focuses on the relationship between the EU and the institutions, regions and countries with which it forms a global multilevel governance complex.

European Union

Bailey University of Birmingham. Jens-Uwe Wunderlich's research and teaching focuses on international relations theory, European integration and globalization and on comparative regionalism; he has recently published Regionalism, Globalisation and International Order — Europe and Southeast Asia Ashgate and A Dictionary of Globalization Routledge, During the s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power. Nevertheless, in an agreement was reached and on 1 July the Merger Treaty created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as the European Communities.

In , the Communities were enlarged to include Denmark including Greenland , which later left the Communities in , following a dispute over fishing rights , Ireland , and the United Kingdom. In , the first direct elections to the European Parliament were held. Greece joined in , Portugal and Spain following in In , after the fall of the Eastern Bloc , the former East Germany became part of the Communities as part of a reunified Germany.

Attempts to solve the problems and to make the EU more efficient and coherent had limited success. The expansion of the EU introduced a new level of complexity and discord. In , euro banknotes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Since then, the eurozone has increased to encompass 19 countries.

The euro currency became the second largest reserve currency in the world. In , Bulgaria and Romania became EU members. The same year, Slovenia adopted the euro, [59] followed in by Cyprus and Malta , by Slovakia in , by Estonia in , by Latvia in , and by Lithuania in In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality , created a permanent President of the European Council , the first of which was Herman Van Rompuy , and strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

In , the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe. From the beginning of the s, the cohesion of the European Union has been tested by several issues, including a debt crisis in some of the Eurozone countries , increasing migration from the Middle East , and the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU. The following timeline illustrates the integration that has led to the formation of the present union, in terms of structural development driven by international treaties:.

Including the overseas territories of France which are located outside the continent of Europe, but which are members of the union, the EU experiences most types of climate from Arctic North-East Europe to tropical French Guiana , rendering meteorological averages for the EU as a whole meaningless. The majority of the population lives in areas with a temperate maritime climate North-Western Europe and Central Europe , a Mediterranean climate Southern Europe , or a warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate Northern Balkans and Central Europe.

Cities are largely spread out across the EU, although with a large grouping in and around the Benelux. In , when the EEC was founded, it had no environmental policy. European policy-makers originally increased the EU's capacity to act on environmental issues by defining it as a trade problem. The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in Initially, EU environmental policy focused on Europe.

More recently, the EU has demonstrated leadership in global environmental governance, e. This international dimension is reflected in the EU's Sixth Environmental Action Programme, [77] which recognises that its objectives can only be achieved if key international agreements are actively supported and properly implemented both at EU level and worldwide. The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions. Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy.

As of 1 January , the population of the European Union was about This corresponds to 9. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany 6. The largest of these polycentric metropolis include Rhine-Ruhr with approximately Native language [91] Total: EU citizens able to hold a conversation in this language [92]. The European Union has 24 official languages: Important documents, such as legislation, are translated into every official language and the European Parliament provides translation for documents and plenary sessions.

Due to the high number of official idioms, most of the institutions use only a handful of working languages. English, French, and German. Similarly, the European Court of Justice uses French as the working language, [97] [98] while the European Central Bank conducts its business primarily in English. Even though language policy is the responsibility of member states, EU institutions promote multilingualism among its citizens. Most official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family , represented by the Balto-Slavic , [j] the Italic , [k] the Germanic , [l] the Hellenic , [m] and the Celtic [n] branches.

The European Day of Languages is held annually on 26 September and is aimed at encouraging language learning across Europe. The EU has no formal connection to any religion. The Article 17 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union [] recognises the "status under national law of churches and religious associations" as well as that of "philosophical and non-confessional organisations".

The preamble to the Treaty on European Union mentions the "cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe". Christians in the European Union are divided among members of Catholicism both Roman and Eastern Rite , numerous Protestant denominations Anglicans , Lutherans , and Reformed forming the bulk of this category , and the Eastern Orthodox Church. According to new polls about religiosity in the European Union in by Eurobarometer , Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for Catholics are the largest Christian group, accounting for Across the EU, belief was higher among women, older people, those with religious upbringing, those who left school at 15 or 16, and those "positioning themselves on the right of the political scale".

Basic education is an area where the EU's role is limited to supporting national governments. In higher education, the policy was developed in the s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme , a university exchange programme which began in There are similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training , and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme — These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU.

Scientific development is facilitated through the EU's Framework Programmes , the first of which started in The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. Although the EU has no major competences in the field of health care, Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities". The European Commission 's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers seeks to align national laws on the protection of people's health, on the consumers' rights, on the safety of food and other products.

All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries. The European Union operates according to the principles of conferral which says that it should act only within the limits of the competences conferred on it by the treaties and of subsidiarity which says that it should act only where an objective cannot be sufficiently achieved by the member states acting alone.

Laws made by the EU institutions are passed in a variety of forms. Through successive enlargements , the European Union has grown from the six founding states Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands to the current Countries accede to the union by becoming party to the founding treaties , thereby subjecting themselves to the privileges and obligations of EU membership. This entails a partial delegation of sovereignty to the institutions in return for representation within those institutions, a practice often referred to as "pooling of sovereignty".

To become a member, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria , defined at the meeting of the European Council in Copenhagen. These require a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law ; a functioning market economy ; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law. Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council. There are six countries that are recognised as candidates for membership: Albania , Iceland , Macedonia , [p] Montenegro , Serbia , and Turkey , [] though Iceland suspended negotiations in Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway , which are a part of the single market through the European Economic Area , and Switzerland , which has similar ties through bilateral treaties.

The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. EU policy is in general promulgated by EU directives , which are then implemented in the domestic legislation of its member states , and EU regulations , which are immediately enforceable in all member states.

Beyond the EU institutions is the Council of Europe CoE which is a wider international organisation with 47 member states whose stated aim is to uphold human rights , democracy and the rule of law in Europe. These ethical institutions are distinct from the legislative European Union institutions mentioned above, although ECHR decisions are enforcable upon the EU institutions and upon the several judiciaries of sovereign member states of the EU [].

The Venice Commission formally The European Commission for Democracy through Law provides advice regarding constitutional matters in order to improve functioning of democratic institutions and the protection of human rights in member states of the Council of Europe. Lobbying at EU level by special interest groups is regulated to try to balance the aspirations of private initiatives with public interest decision-making process [].

By working together, they seek provide a forward policy consideration nucleus for the various European "think-tanks" which discuss various possible future social and economic scenarios that will eventually require ratification by the EU electorate. The classification of the EU in terms of international or constitutional law has been much debated.

It began life as an international organisation and gradually developed into a confederation of states. However, since the mids it has also added several of the key attributes of a federation , such as the direct effect of the law of the general level of government upon the individual [] and majority voting in the decision-making process of the general level of government, [] without becoming a federation per se. Scholars thus today see it as an intermediate form lying between a confederation and a federation, being an instance of neither political structure.

The organisation has traditionally used the terms "Community" and later "Union" to describe itself. The difficulties of classification involve the difference between national law where the subjects of the law include natural persons and corporations and international law where the subjects include sovereign states and international organisations. They can also be seen in the light of differing European and American constitutional traditions. It is, however, described as being based on a federal model or federal in nature; and so it may be appropriate to consider it a federal union of states , a conceptual structure lying between the confederation of states and the federal state.

Professor Andrew Moravcsik claims that the EU is unlikely to develop further into a federal state, but instead has reached maturity as a constitutional system. The European Union has seven institutions: Competence in scrutinising and amending legislation is shared between the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament, while executive tasks are performed by the European Commission and in a limited capacity by the European Council not to be confused with the aforementioned Council of the European Union.

The monetary policy of the eurozone is determined by the European Central Bank. The interpretation and the application of EU law and the treaties are ensured by the Court of Justice of the European Union. There are also a number of ancillary bodies which advise the EU or operate in a specific area. The European Parliament forms the other half of the EU's legislature. Although MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats and is divided into sub-national constituencies where this does not affect the proportional nature of the voting system.

The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union pass legislation jointly in nearly all areas under the ordinary legislative procedure. This also applies to the EU budget. The European Commission is accountable to Parliament, requiring its approval to take office, having to report back to it and subject to motions of censure from it. The President of the European Parliament currently Antonio Tajani carries out the role of speaker in Parliament and represents it externally. The European Council gives political direction to the EU.

It convenes at least four times a year and comprises the President of the European Council currently Donald Tusk , the President of the European Commission and one representative per member state either its head of state or head of government. It has been described by some as the Union's "supreme political authority". The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies. It acts externally as a " collective head of state " and ratifies important documents for example, international agreements and treaties.

Tasks for the President of the European Council are ensuring the external representation of the EU, [] driving consensus and resolving divergences among member states, both during meetings of the European Council and over the periods between them. The European Council should not be mistaken for the Council of Europe , an international organisation independent of the EU based in Strasbourg. The Council of the European Union also called the "Council" [] and the "Council of Ministers", its former title [] forms one half of the EU's legislature. It consists of a government minister from each member state and meets in different compositions depending on the policy area being addressed.

Notwithstanding its different configurations, it is considered to be one single body. In some policies, there are several member states that ally with strategic partners within the Union. The European Commission acts as the EU's executive arm and is responsible for initiating legislation and the day-to-day running of the EU. The Commission is also seen as the motor of European integration. It operates as a cabinet government , with 28 Commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state, though Commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state.

The 28 Commissioners as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. In , the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0. The Court of Auditors is legally obliged to provide the Parliament and the Council with "a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions". The European Court of Auditors has signed off the European Union accounts every year since [ when? EU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence.

These are areas in which member states have renounced any capacity to enact legislation. In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate. While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not. In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws. That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area.

Different legislative procedures are used within the same category of competence, and even with the same policy area.

The EU and Global Governance – Österreichische Gesellschaft für Europapolitik

The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories:. The EU is based on a series of treaties. These first established the European Community and the EU, and then made amendments to those founding treaties. These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation [r] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants. Under the principle of supremacy , national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and within limits even constitutional provisions.

The Court of Justice primarily deals with cases taken by member states, the institutions, and cases referred to it by the courts of member states. The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity , freedom , democracy, equality , the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities The charter is a codified catalogue of fundamental rights against which the EU's legal acts can be judged.

It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member states. Although, the EU is independent from Council of Europe, they share purpose and ideas especially on rule of law, human rights and democracy. The EU also promoted human rights issues in the wider world. The EU opposes the death penalty and has proposed its worldwide abolition.

Abolition of the death penalty is a condition for EU membership. The main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures, [x] and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions.

The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states. Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation. They are legal acts which only apply to specified individuals, companies or a particular member state. They are most often used in competition law , or on rulings on State Aid, but are also frequently used for procedural or administrative matters within the institutions.

Regulations, directives, and decisions are of equal legal value and apply without any formal hierarchy. Since the creation of the EU in , it has developed its competencies in the area of freedom, security and justice, initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism. To this end, agencies have been established that co-ordinate associated actions: Europol for co-operation of police forces, [] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors, [] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities.

This co-operation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime. Furthermore, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition , [] family law, [] asylum law, [] and criminal justice.

Foreign policy co-operation between member states dates from the establishment of the Community in , when member states negotiated as a bloc in international trade negotiations under the EU's common commercial policy. It was not, however, until when European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co-operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law.

The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP sometimes lead to disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq. The coordinator and representative of the CFSP within the EU is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy and defence matters, and has the task of articulating the positions expressed by the member states on these fields of policy into a common alignment. The High Representative heads up the European External Action Service EEAS , a unique EU department [] that has been officially implemented and operational since 1 December on the occasion of the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.

Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement. The perceived benefits of becoming a member of the EU act as an incentive for both political and economic reform in states wishing to fulfil the EU's accession criteria, and are considered an important factor contributing to the reform of European formerly Communist countries.

The European Union has concluded free trade agreements FTAs [] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others. The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes.

Following the Kosovo War in , the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO".

To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process. EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia. It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration.

In the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency having a stronger role and mandate along with national authorities for border management. In an EU consisting of 28 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on collaboration among all member states. In , the average among EU countries was 0. Because of its ability to shape rules and norms on a global level as well as its attempts to influence neighbouring countries, the EU has been called an emerging or potential superpower by scholars and academics like T.

The EU uses foreign relations instruments like the European Neighbourhood Policy which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union. These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union , or more closely integrated with the European Union.

The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation. This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country. Critics of the concept of the EU as an emerging superpower point to the lack of either a strong European military or of unified EU foreign policy.

The European Union has established a single market across the territory of all its members representing million citizens. The currency union represents million EU citizens. Of the top largest corporations in the world measured by revenue in , have their headquarters in the EU.

Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the states of central and southern Europe. EU research and technological framework programmes sponsor research conducted by consortia from all EU members to work towards a single European Research Area.

Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently becoming a single market , and a customs union between its member states. The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU , [] and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market.

Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas , as they travel internally.


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The non-EU member states of Iceland , Norway , Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union. Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries.

Workshop: Introduction to the European Union

Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states. The free movement of persons means that EU citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states.

The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis. This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services. The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in In , having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the Maastricht Treaty and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the convergence criteria if they wanted to join the monetary union.

The states wanting to participate had first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. In the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining. In , the currency was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states.

The eurozone constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro has since grown to 19 countries. The European System of Financial Supervision is an institutional architecture of the EU's framework of financial supervision composed by three authorities: The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU. To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level.

The EU has had legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence; this has its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community. The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October , and the first draft policy was published in January The EU has five key points in its energy policy: There is a strong dependence on Russian energy that the EU has been attempting to reduce.

In the estimated network covers: Rail transport in Europe is being synchronised with the European Rail Traffic Management System ERTMS , an initiative to greatly enhance safety, increase efficiency of trains and enhance cross-border interoperability of rail transport in Europe by replacing signalling equipment with digitised mostly wireless versions and by creating a single Europe-wide standard for train control and command systems.

The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network. In the pre EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda.

The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. The Galileo project was launched partly to reduce the EU's dependency on the US-operated Global Positioning System , but also to give more complete global coverage and allow for greater accuracy, given the aged nature of the GPS system.

The policy's price controls and market interventions led to considerable overproduction. These were intervention stores of products bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels. To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies amounting to the difference between the Community and world prices to export their products outside the Community.

This system has been criticised for under-cutting farmers outside Europe, especially those in the developing world. Since the beginning of the s, the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms. Initially, these reforms included the introduction of set-aside in , where a proportion of farm land was deliberately withdrawn from production, milk quotas and, more recently, the 'de-coupling' or disassociation of the money farmers receive from the EU and the amount they produce by the Fischler reforms in Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size.

This is intended to allow the market to dictate production levels. The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market. The Competition Commissioner , currently Margrethe Vestager , is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of trans-national corporations. Cultural co-operation between member states has been a concern of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty.

Association football is by far the most popular sport in the European Union by the number of registered players. The other sports with the most participants in clubs are tennis, swimming, athletics, golf, gymnastics, equestrian sports, handball, volleyball and sailing. Sport is mainly the responsibility of the member states or other international organisations, rather than of the EU.

However, there are some EU policies that have affected sport, such as the free movement of workers, which was at the core of the Bosman ruling that prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship. The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity. The flag of the Union consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. The blue represents the West, while the number and position of the stars represent completeness and unity, respectively.

United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the Union in the year , having been selected from proposals submitted by school pupils. The anthem of the Union is an instrumental version of the prelude to the Ode to Joy , the 4th movement of Ludwig van Beethoven 's ninth symphony. The anthem was adopted by European Community leaders in and has since been played on official occasions. Besides naming the continent, the Greek mythological figure of Europa has frequently been employed as a personification of Europe.

Known from the myth in which Zeus seduces her in the guise of a white bull, Europa has also been referred to in relation to the present Union. Statues of Europa and the bull decorate several of the Union's institutions and a portrait of her is seen on the series of Euro banknotes. The bull is, for its part, depicted on all residence permit cards. Charles the Great , also known as Charlemagne Latin: Carolus Magnus and later recognised as Pater Europae "Father of Europe" , [] [] [] has a symbolic relevance to Europe.

The Commission has named one of its central buildings in Brussels after Charlemagne and the city of Aachen has since awarded the Charlemagne Prize to champions of European unification. Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens , as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights.

The vast majority of media in the European Union are national-oriented. It provides support for the development, promotion and distribution of European works within Europe and beyond. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see EU disambiguation. Location of the European Union, its outermost regions , and the overseas countries and territories.

Council of the EU European Parliament. History of the European Union and History of Europe. Ideas of European unity before Treaties of the European Union. Geography of the European Union. Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest peak in the EU. Demographics of the European Union. List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits.

Shaping Global Policy in an Evolving World Order

Languages of the European Union. Religion in the European Union. Politics of the European Union. Member state of the European Union. Institutions of the European Union. Institutions of the European Union [] v t e. Budget of the European Union. Area of freedom, security and justice.

The borders inside the Schengen Area between Germany and Austria.

International relations

Europol Headquarters in The Hague , Netherlands. Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands. Seat of Frontex in Warsaw , Poland. President Donald Trump , The EU participates in all G8 and G20 summits. G20 summit in Hangzhou, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo , Common Security and Defence Policy.

If considered collectively, EU member states are the largest contributor of foreign aid in the world. Airbus is one of the world's leading aircraft manufacturers. Automotive manufacturing is one of most enduring industrial activities in the EU, and it accounts for millions of jobs, billions of euros in investment, and represents a large portion of the continent's exports.

Tourism is a major economic activity in the European Union with wide-ranging impact on economic growth and employment. Port of Antwerp container terminal, second-largest seaport in the European Union. Energy policy of the European Union. Millau Viaduct in France, the tallest bridge in the World. Spain places second in High-speed rail constructed km in the world after China. European Union competition law and European Commissioner for Competition. The European Capital of Culture programme was launched in the summer of with Athens being the first title-holder.

Berlinale in Germany, largest film festival in the European Union. Sport policies of the European Union. Media freedom in the European Union. However, only three of them — English, French and German — have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union. Basque is not an official language of the European Union but has a semi-official status.

Secretary of State for Transport No. This is a political and not a legal requirement for membership. Archived 26 June at the Wayback Machine. Amministrazione delle Finanze [] ECR Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 26 December Capital Cities around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture.


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  • The European Union and Global Governance.
  • Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 3 August Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community ". Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 19 March Fewer barriers, more opportunities". Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 6 September The Council of the European Union.

    Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 22 August