The Chair then has to confirm and augment this self-evaluation and point out potential blind spots. It is amazing how many Boards have not installed a structured evaluation process because it may be perceived as somewhat negative, heavy and almost compliance-driven. But the purpose is rather to seed a culture of continuous improvement in order to become a more effective Board member and a more effective Board. Do you have a last piece of advice on the diversity topic for Chairpersons and CEOs reading this interview?
Approach gender diversity as an opportunity to improve Board performance and to create significant additional business value — and not as an exercise in political correctness. No one else can have as significant an impact as the Chairperson and the CEO in evolving the attitude and mindset in the company to one that embraces and understands top team diversity. I have spoken with a number of Board members and Chairs who initially were very sceptical about gender diversity on their Boards. After experiencing the opportunities and impacts that a diverse Board provides, they embrace it. If all CEOs realise the benefits of a diverse team, we will not need quotas.
Gallen and Business School Lausanne. She previously worked for Unilever in various senior management positions in the Andean Region and led several international expansions before becoming active in the field of Executive Search and Human Talent Advisory. Eleonora combines almost 30 years of leadership experience in talent consulting search, selection, and professional development leading companies from various industries. Please click here for further information. Where are the Women? Our consultants Carolyn Lutz and Nick Harris moderated a discussion with an expert panel: Michael Hathorn, Professor at the Business School Lausanne and a specialist in Board diversity who also made himself available for an interview for this issue of the TTA.
Together with numerous participants, they discussed how companies can make better use of the full talent spectrum and improve Board performance. In addition, Christian was also honoured by the German Colombian Chamber of Commerce end of March for his three years of service on the Board. The critical role played by ownership strategy. Benefits of active and responsible ownership by Andreas von Specht and Nick Harris. Half of all FB owners claim that their business is heavily or even completely dependent on them and two-thirds of all owners have not yet organised their own succession.
If active and successful ownership entails founding, growing, preserving — but then also successfully transferring ownership to the next generation — many entrepreneurs risk failing in their mission. The main reasons for unsuccessful FB transfers are a lack of trust and communication issues among family shareholders — often accompanied by underlying or even openly hostile conflicts. Frequently, the next generation is insufficiently prepared to take over responsibility as shareholders, let alone as managers.
Interestingly, inheritance tax issues are not among the main reasons for unsuccessful successions. Succession and the transfer of control is of course not the only challenging situation for owners. They are often confronted with other exacting family situations — the cousin who is in need of money and wishes to sell, the brother who wants his son to be elevated into a senior leadership role, or the sister who wishes to be represented by her lawyer on the Supervisory Board.
If these situations are managed with diligence, care and emotional intelligence, FB owners can fully benefit from the advantages that a FB clearly has in comparison to other organisations, e. But if they are ignored or badly managed, then both the business and the family can suffer badly. Emotion, money and control are the ingredients of a potentially lethal cocktail. With ownership comes both privileges and responsibilities.
Entrepreneurs need a special skill-set to guide a FB through challenging times. Courage, decisiveness, strategic oversight and, crucially, a combination of IQ and EQ are essential. Functional management skills and market knowledge also do not do any harm, of course. Last but not least, there is the requirement to manage not just a commercial organisation but also a family closely intertwined and related to this business.
This can add significantly to the complexity. On top of that comes the family-leader role, which requires the foresight and independence to know when to let go — and to whom to hand over the torch. Succession as such comprises two different levels that should be clearly differentiated: However, it is not the final document itself that is decisive. More important is the discussion process and journey that leads to its definition.
Owning families increasingly understand the significance of such a process, which is normally moderated by an external facilitator. They wish to strengthen their family identity and legacy, foster harmony and secure stability within the family. Unlike a Shareholder Agreement, a Family Charter is not a legally binding document, but it defines and strengthens the DNA of a family and of their business. It thus becomes a morally binding document for the owning family and, over time, it turns into a crucial success factor. During workshops with the owning families, we try to ask far-reaching questions, such as: These are hugely important questions, which often require a considered thought process and intense discussions among family shareholders before arriving at a satisfactory conclusion.
This often includes a long-term orientation, flat hierarchy, fast decision-making and also e. A family business can turn these positive aspects into a huge competitive advantage. The Family Charter contains the guiding principles for good family governance. This can function as a disciplinary frame for the owning family itself — but it will also be carefully observed by other stakeholders outside the family.
The sustainability of a business enterprise depends on many factors. Perhaps the most important one is the exercise of good ownership practices. This is crucial because many other significant factors, like competent leadership, financial solidity, a viable strategy etc. Founders and sole entrepreneurs are often intuitively conscious of this necessity, although for them, the roles of owner and operator are not — and do not have to be — separated.
The result can be seen in many family enterprises that are run by moderately capable, or outright mediocre leaders, one of the main reasons why so few companies reach, let alone survive, the third generation. So how can you meet this challenging task? The first step is to create awareness among the owners of the significance and magnitude of this task. Then there should be a thorough discussion and an attempt to reach a common understanding on the fundamental questions mentioned above, an agreement that needs to be sufficiently documented, e.
Reaching such an agreement requires an honest discussion and a joint decision on which of these tasks can and should be executed by the owners collectively, with or without some sort of professional assistance; which tasks would better be delegated to individual members of the ownership group; and which tasks can or should be delegated to outside professionals. Once the number of co-owners has reached a certain magnitude this can start with as few as three co-owners if at least one of them manages the company on a day-to-day basis , it is typically recommendable to create a standing committee that executes a large number of the tasks listed above and leaves only the most fundamental decisions to a plenary assembly of co-owners.
This is, of course, the structure that public companies have by law, with a Board of Directors as standing committee and a General Meeting of Shareholders as plenary assembly, and that many larger private companies have adopted for practical reasons because such a two-level professional governance system simply makes sense. There are many variations of this structure, but the general two-level set up can be regarded as a universal standard. The central element of this governance structure is the Board, which in a private company can also be an Advisory Board and which can be composed entirely of co-owners, entirely of outside directors, or a mixture of both.
The key is to have capable, independently minded members, an experienced and empowered Chair Person, and the right set of procedures and practices that make sure that the Board deals with the right set of issues, at the right level of detail, in a timely and reasoned manner. Good governance is not only important in order to protect the fundamental interest of the owner to preserve and grow the value of the business and guarantee its sustainability.
Moreover, their long-term commitment correlates with the degree of professionalism of the governance structure. That, by the way, is also the case with younger generation family members who pursue executive or entrepreneurial careers: Insufficient ownership structures can be identified by one or more of the following traits:. Handing over the business to the next generation. An Interview with Dr. There are many ways in which a company can be successfully transferred across several generations — and also many risks.
From your point of view, what are the crucial aspects that owners of family businesses must take into consideration? Being an entrepreneur is not easy. You need to be courageous, skilful in dealing with people, and have the right education and experience for the job at hand. In a family business, dealing with the family is the top priority; that poses a further challenge in three dimensions.
First, there must be a horizontal balance, that is, between the siblings of the entrepreneurial family. Second, there must be a vertical balance between the generations; the allocation and distribution between today and tomorrow. After building Jacobs Suchard into the third largest coffee company in Europe, in , my father had bought out his three brothers and sisters who held largely equal rights in the family company. For this he indebted himself, while at the same time pursuing a globalisation of the company.
This led to having to sell Jacobs Suchard in for financial reasons. Thus, there was also no successful transition from the second to the third generation. In the end, everyone received a nice pay-out but the distinguishing characteristics of a family business — bringing together family members across generations, setting aside the individual interests in favour of those of the company, moving even closer together in bad times — were suddenly gone.
Could, in your opinion and in retrospect, the loss of the company and accompanying loss of family cohesion have been avoided? My father was too strong a personality to let his siblings with almost equal rights have an agenda different from his own. The voting rights should have been distributed differently in order to improve the culture of the majority, including veto rights and a strong role of independent third parties.
Instead, years of Jacobs coffee as a family business came to an abrupt end. Against this background, how did you proceed on a corporate level — or in other words, how did you succeed with a fresh start? This has now become a small star, which has increased its production volume from 50, tons of chocolate per year to almost 2 million tons today. Barry Callebaut went public in Is listing a family business not correlated to the risk of losing the long-term entrepreneurial view through short-term satisfaction of shareholders?
How did you manage to reconcile these two forces? There are three main reasons for this:. So I do not have to play judge and jury, but the company receives its stimulus directly from the stock market. Furthermore, the stock market listing forces us to achieve sustainable financial performance. Sustained because the CEO ensures that the stock market price increases by improving the performance quarter by quarter. At the same time, as President, I ensured that in three years, six years or ten years, we achieved our long-term goals resulting from the right strategy and the right team.
Finally, the stock market listing facilitates the procurement of cash: From an economic point of view, this sounds reasonable. But what advantage do the family members have from listing their company? For family members, too, an exchange listing is advantageous. It offers the individual members initially greater fungibility and management of their own portfolio, by enabling the selling and buying of shares on the stock exchange.
In addition, it requires a stable dividend policy and thus disciplines the family shareholders not to squeeze out nor to plough back too much cash. At the same time, however, it is just as important that a stock exchange listing allows a neutral performance assessment by the management. You and your family are investing in different companies in different industries.
Did this holding structure result from the perception of opportunities or was a corresponding investment strategy already planned for a long time? How do you take decisions? Already some twenty years ago, my father began to divide his assets. Half went to his heirs, his wife and us children, and the other half to a family holding company. This holding company invests any excess into a foundation.
While the heirs can now individually dispose of their assets, they decide jointly at the holding company and the foundation — but only on two things. On the one hand, on the appointment of the Board of Directors of the holding company and of the Board of Trustees. And on the other hand, on a possible distribution of the holding company to the Foundation. All other decisions are taken exclusively by the bodies of the companies or the Foundation. What about the operational influence of family members? Not every family member wants to work in his or her own company — others are interested, but they cannot cope with the entrepreneurial challenges….
Naturally, we try to fill the key positions in the individual companies with family members. My brother Christian, for example, directed the Jacobs Foundation for a long time before he handed over the office to our sister Lavinia some time ago — while my successors in the presidency of Jacobs Holding are my two brothers Philippe and Nicolas. We were obviously successful in transferring the responsibilities within the family.
Nevertheless, we are keen to ensure that we have mainly independent and professional people in these committees, in order to make sure that family politics and possible frictions and rivalries are not taken into the committees. Looking at the holding of positions as well as the voting rights, we could still question the rationale behind your commitment to the holding company in combination with your investments in Barry Callebaut.
Successful profits ultimately end up in the Jacobs Foundation — and not directly with you. This is a good and important question! It follows the rational that capital and voting rights should always be kept together. Nevertheless, we have deliberately chosen this structure for the following two reasons:. With one half of the inherited wealth, each one of us received enough to live. With the introduction of the other half into a holding and foundation devoted to the common good, the family will be charitably committed and dedicated to society for generations. Our holding company, our foundation and many foundation projects carry our name.
It is hardly conceivable for me that we are no longer interested in these institutions, which bear our name. Take, for example, the Jacobs University in Bremen: But does this structure also enable future generations to engage in the operational business and the foundation? As long as my or our offspring want to be entrepreneurial and have a corresponding professional training, they will have the opportunity to develop themselves entrepreneurially and to contribute to the company or the Foundation.
As for many family businesses, the core question remains: Every descendant must answer this question for him or herself. From my point of view, the answer is very rarely connected to the amount of money or size of the company. Entrepreneurship does not necessarily require much money, nor does a lot of money automatically lead to entrepreneurship. Therefore, we did not have a problem with the separation of voting rights and capital, and believe that the family will continue to be engaged in entrepreneurial activity.
How do you want to ensure that this will work as smoothly as possible in the future, also when very fundamental decisions have to be taken? Our entrepreneurial family consists of six tribes, who, as already mentioned, decide in a Family Council on the appointment of the Board of the holding and the Foundation, as well as on a possible dividend of the holding company to the Foundation. All other decisions are made in the bodies and management of the companies.
There is a clear distinction between confidentiality and the right to speak between family councils and societies. My two sisters and my older brother Christian are not involved in the Board of Directors of the Holding, which is why they receive less information about our portfolio companies. This asymmetry of course only works as long as and to the extent that they have confidence that those who are responsible for the company work well and also in their interest.
It is therefore essential to maintain an informal, personal and trusting communication culture outside the Family Council and outside the committees. Luckily, we were doing that successfully even after the death of my father nine years ago. Based on your specific structure and the interaction between family and company, can you formulate general advice on how future generations should be prepared for their role?
A family business lives from the family — in present and future generations. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the next generation in the best possible way. The only thing we can do is to create an environment for them which transports the appropriate values and creates role models, so that they can enjoy freedom and still learn to deal with it in a responsible way. We have established a very close cooperation with Anthony Harling, who together with his partner Jim Burley leads the consulting firm Archer Mann.
Michael Harthorn, Professor at the Business School Lausanne and a specialist in board diversity, we will discuss how companies can make better use of the full talent spectrum and raise Board performance. Amongst other things, Andreas spoke about the importance of a successful integration process for the long-term success of external manager in family businesses.
On March 31 , Dr. Together, they discussed the value external managers can add to family businesses and how to ensure their successful integration. After many years based in Gorch-Fock-Wall, our office in Hamburg has recently moved to a new location. From now on, you can find us, again in a central location, in Neuer Wall 80, close to the town hall. Navigating through rough seas. Opportunities and risks of volatile markets for company leaders by Felix B. Everything about the way we live and work is changing faster than ever before. Technological innovation has caused a digital revolution and markets are increasingly flooded with new products in ever-shorter innovation cycles.
Trends such as globalisation and urbanisation are being driven by these developments, and a global shift in economic power is taking place. Changes in the political landscape have significant impact on economic rules of play as well: Against the background of the rise of populism and extremist parties, international relations might be fundamentally altered once again by the forthcoming elections in Germany and elsewhere. These rapid changes fuel instability and uncertainty, and entail considerable risks for companies. Successfully established business ideas or products can become more or less redundant overnight due to new products that permanently disrupt or alter entire markets.
While individuals may quickly adapt their consumer habits and lifestyles to such changes, it is much more difficult for companies to rapidly reorient their businesses and react to disruptive technologies within a short period of time. The arising uncertainty can be aptly described by the acronym VUCA: Companies facing major challenges are forced to rethink their well-tried winning formula and come up with new, innovative concepts.
The speed and complexity of the market dynamics as well as the unprecedented political landscape are especially challenging for family companies, whose long traditions and sometimes rigid structures often slow down adaption processes — in contrast to small, technology-driven start-ups. Besides possible risks and dangers, disruptive changes also offer major opportunities for businesses. Growing networks across continents and industries open up new markets and unprecedented growth opportunities.
Companies using these opportunities are able to generate a competitive advantage and improve their market position. This of course does not happen by itself. However, rapid change does not only affect the organisation as a whole, but also its executives on an individual level. Since these changes are often not only unexpected, but also unpredictable, it has become extremely difficult for company leaders to prepare themselves and take the right decisions. Proven answers and decision-making schemes no longer work as disruptions are not sufficiently understood and are often too complex.
At the same time, decisions usually have to be taken under great time pressure and the obligation to quickly react. In consequence, many senior executives feel powerless. They are paralysed, become risk averse, invest insufficiently, and instead prefer to hoard cash. Others exhibit ill thought-through, adventurous behaviour due to a lack of understanding and clarity, which significantly increases the risk of serious mistakes and failure.
In difficult times, company leaders often have to withstand a closer scrutiny by the supervisory board, the owner, the customers or even regulatory authorities. External pressure with regard to deadlines, resources and expectations consequently leads to increased tension within the organisation. Growing speed and complexity also increases stress for the individual: How this stress level is dealt with individually can also influence the impact of turbulent times on the company. Effective management in uncertain times requires exceptional company leaders, characterised by great flexibility, versatility, anticipation and proximity to the market.
The status quo needs to be challenged, strategies adapted and optimisations implemented. This also includes a calculated risk tolerance: Furthermore, demanding times can make executives experience a high learning curve and their newly acquired and hard won knowledge can be capitalised on in the future. In addition, volatile scenarios allow new, creative decisions and solutions. Leaders can individually benefit from finding out how good they really are and how they perceive the company, its strategy and their own role in difficult times.
To leverage the positive and minimise the negative impacts of disruptive change, the executive of tomorrow has to understand how a complex, economically and politically changing world is affecting business models, organisations, and the individual. They not only have to be able to deal with uncertainty, but moreover to exploit the opportunities that are also thrown up. In times of uncertainty, entrepreneurs need to reconsider how they are hiring, retaining and developing top leadership positions.
Being a force for change. Disruption is everywhere and it is often start-ups or industry outsiders who challenge the establishment with new ideas. What is your advice for company leaders who are suddenly faced with these ever faster changes? Many senior executives who have been successfully managing businesses over the past few decades are finding that the requirements for success have changed significantly — for themselves and for their organisation. I would primarily advise them to be the guiding light for the company by creating a global mind-set, understanding what is happening outside the company and translating that into necessary changes.
Especially public companies are too focused on KPIs, hitting quarterly earnings and meeting the parameters of success that have been defined. As a result, it is very easy to miss the forest for the trees. CEOs and leaders constantly need to ask themselves: That is why the outside perspective is so important — not just with regard to technology, but also to other cultures and markets around the world.
Or by having conversations and close relationships with venture capitalists who know a lot about the start-up businesses that could become relevant. These are all very useful ways to get an outside perspective and create a different way of thinking. You obtained that outside perspective by e. How did you sell that idea to your staff? By asking them if there was any reason why we should not do it.
That was the beginning of a real dialogue around creating a global mind-set and understanding that instead of enforcing structures from the centre, we needed to serve our regional executives if we wanted to be successful in new markets. Being successful in new markets to some extent also depends on political developments — some of which seem to go rather backwards today. Many recent political results — for example the US presidential election or Brexit — were surprising and troubling to us. But we should learn to expect to be surprised when complicated systems are changing rapidly. And that is actually very much connected with the topic of disruption: There are always winners and losers in times of change and disruption.
The competitive environment for labour has become a global one, jobs can easily be moved somewhere else. And the pace of change by far exceeds the capacity of labour forces to retrain and redeploy. Unfortunately, people have a strong tendency to look for someone to blame, and it is much easier to blame somebody on the other side of the border than to look at your own nation or your own lack of relevant skills for a changing marketplace.
Across every industry, companies are looking for people who are digitally savvy, understand social media and are able to integrate technology into existing ways of doing business. Traditionally, companies used to recruit people with specific skills or a specific industry background. Today, companies are increasingly looking for the same kind of people that incorporate the above mentioned skills.
What would organisations need to do differently today in order to successfully seek top talent around the world? In the past, companies spent more time recruiting talent to where they were located. Now they have to see talent as a resource that has localisation: Those locations — whether that is in Brooklyn, Berlin, London or Amsterdam — need to be used to recruit and retain people who live in an environment where they feel comfortable.
Meaning of "Humankapital" in the German dictionary
How do top executive search firms around the world have to adapt to these changes in order to stay relevant for their clients? With the emergence of LinkedIn and other networks, the executive search business is experiencing its own form of digital disruption. With these advancing abilities to recruit, more and more companies are moving in-house with their talent management.
But many companies are still defining the profile of their new senior executives narrowly and in traditional terms — and often not realizing that their need for new personnel might result from the need for different skills. As an advisor, you have to challenge the ideas of your clients and draw their attention to these new needs. Senior executives might be from outside the industry, but they might be the right person for the job if they are able to ask uncomfortable questions that prepare the company for a disruptive future, like: What do you believe are the biggest threats to your company today?
What do you think digital disruption will look like? How do you plan on coping with that? How is your team set up to lead change? Do you have someone who can be an advocate for making changes that go from central planning and skilled manufacturing to personalisation and consumer dialogue?
Many of our clients are family-owned companies. Are they facing the same challenges as public companies in disruptive times? Successful organisations have to be able to understand as quickly as possible what is changing — and be a force for change, not only reacting to what is happening. In comparison to family companies, public companies are much more responsive to an investor community, strongly focused on short-term earnings and therefore sometimes blind for the nuances of change.
The dynamic in family companies can cut both ways: What about the values that are so important for the DNA of a family company — are they still an advantage, or can they become a hindering block? Values can translate into a sense of mission and purpose for the company. Instead of focusing on a revenue target, the goal embedded in values is to meet a specific consumer need. Thinking about new ways to meet that goal can be a catalyst for innovation and positive change.
And for consumers today, it is increasingly important that the values of the company they buy from resonate with their own values. In the transparency of a digitally connected world, companies without a strong moral purpose are more easily outed. Therefore, the right values are perhaps even more an advantage in a changing world, not less. How to evolve your leadership style and engage fit-for-purpose executives by Carolyn Lutz and Nick Harris.
Reflecting on the dialogue with Frits van Paasschen, as well as the hundreds of conversations with business owners and leaders we have conducted over the past five years, we offer a collection of checklist ideas on how leaders can remain effective and grounded — as well as find their place — amid the apparent chaos. They also need to look deeper at the individual — gauge how they perceive and cope with change, understand their mind-set, uncover their inherent traits and drivers.
For senior executives contemplating the next step on their career and development journey, it is also more important than ever to find the right corporate home. When assessing the merits and challenges of joining a new company or business, leaders should seek to understand not just where but also how they will fit into the organisation. Critical questions to pose include:. And to quote Einstein again: Curiosity has its own reason for existing.
Afterwards, Carolyn founded and ran her own Geneva based executive search firm. Carolyn has broad experience in international executive search, for both multinationals and family-owned businesses. Every year, more than 1, entrepreneurs, CEOs and journalists from all over the world participate in this conference.
In January, the publishing house C. The article in Spanish can be found here. Competing for external top talents in family businesses by Andreas von Specht. Research indicates that the number of younger family members willing and interested to take over responsibility in their respective family businesses in the future is currently at a record low.
Here is the challenge for both owners and external executives: It requires certain skills, competencies and role-model behaviour from both sides to make this marriage a happy one. Apart from being an advisor on leadership and governance issues to other family businesses, I come from a family business background myself. Our bank in Germany, the Berenberg Bank, goes back to the year It is hence the oldest bank in Germany — and the 2nd oldest in Europe. The year , i. This is the result of a longer phase of significant reinvention and restructuring.
Both were made general partners several years ago and today have significant equity stakes. Even if perhaps different in style to previous generations of private bankers, they were highly successful when it came to reshaping our business model and improving the substance of the bank. And until recently, there was still an active member of the extended family on the board, who carried the family name.
The less well known part of the story is this: The family saw this situation coming and yet we did little to adjust. As long as our dominant family branch was always represented amongst the general partners, this never seemed a burning issue. It might differ now as the bank and its culture is changing. Is that necessarily a bad thing? One can draw some interesting conclusions and lessons from this family business story.
And there are many more. AvS — International Trusted Advisors and EY, together with a leading university, have just completed a comprehensive study on external managers in family businesses across Europe. Owning families are normally emotionally much attached to their business. The company represents an important aspect of their identity — and is in most cases far more than a financial investment. Family businesses, even if highly dynamic and innovative, are always long-term oriented. An important, if not the most important objective and challenge for many is to transfer the business to the next generations.
If family business owners provide long-term stability, a platform for rapid, independent decision-making, a sense of purpose and strong values — the importance of such positive role-modelling cannot be overestimated. However, this coin also has a flip-side: What are the required experiences prior to entering the family business — and who will decide if the son or the niece brings the right mix of critical competencies necessary to make it in the top job? In many family businesses you can sense some degree of uncertainty as to how an external recruiting process should be managed.
They know intuitively that wrong decisions with regard to the hiring of external top executives will become painful and very costly. And yet, because external hiring of the top positions simply does not happen frequently in most family businesses, many seem to get it wrong — especially the first time. If something feels wrong, even before the honeymoon period is over, it often has to do with a lack of deep understanding: Many family businesses are difficult to analyse from the outside; their true performance, for example, is often not published.
It is still surprising and sometimes almost shocking, how little some executives appear to research and investigate prior to signing an employment contract about the culture and DNA of a family business — and how this might differ quite dramatically from publicly-owned businesses. However, it can be equally surprising how little effort some owners invest into the hiring process and the careful integration of external talent.
The hopes of external top managers will mostly focus on a stable business platform with long-term, reliable investment horizons and decision—making independent of quarterly results. They expect to find flat hierarchies, few decisions-makers, uncomplicated and non-political ways of communication.
The fears of external executives joining a family business will be around potential hidden agendas among family members, a general lack of transparency and irrational behaviour. The ideal profile of an external executive for a family business will naturally include the most important critical competencies of such an individual. This is not only a question of previous experience, but defines a certain skill-set and the degree to which an individual displays competence in important areas.
For example, the ability to initiate change, to modify a business model or to bring about true customer orientation across a large organisation. Apart from entrepreneurial and social competencies, a competence most critical to success is the ability to function in the specific environment of the family business. And even more importantly: Simply because he had missed the subtleties of critical feedback on behaviour — which the owner ensured us he had made so crystal clear.
Hired on competency — fired on chemistry and style! Interestingly enough, compensation does not play the decisive role in attracting external executives. What really does influence the decision of external executives to join and stay in family businesses over a longer period of time, is entrepreneurial freedom. The ability to shape and form, to make educated decisions and to take full responsibility.
Well, if you seek true entrepreneurs, then you also have to treat them as such — and grant the necessary space and trust to let them flourish! To ensure long term success, family businesses face a growing need to recruit external top managers. From my experience, parents should talk to their children at a very early stage about the possibilities of joining the family business. Young people seek clarity and perspective for their own lives and often do not even know what opportunities — also including opportunities for change — the family business has to offer.
This is where the next generation is needed. Is there a typical competency profile? Family businesses, German ones in particular, are often characterized by modesty and restraint — and hence put company interests over personal matters. Family businesses therefore principally look for decent and competent personalities with a strong track record especially in strategy and leadership topics. Or in other words: They are looking for outstanding talents with low egos.
Are external managers, without prior experience in family businesses, therefore second choice? No, external managers are not per se second choice. This can also be done by external managers and there are many examples of large family businesses whose operations are successfully lead by external managers. When it comes to operations and executive management within a company, competency is king — no matter if it comes from within or from outside the family.
Or, asked the other way around: Appointing external managers definitely offers advantages. Managers that are not family members will always and only be judged by their qualifications and performance, as well as the way in which they lead the company — and not by their origin or family background.
- (Halle Institute for Economic Research)?
- Together Forever.
- The Trusted Advisor?
- The Smiling Assassin.
That allows a more objective view and unbiased management of the company — provided that the owning family indicates the long term direction and defines clear competencies. External managers should act within the limits of clearly defined fields of competences. This notably includes and requires a separation of company matters and the personal interests of individual owners. External managers should not therefore become involved in topics such as personal tax or financial investments, nor be compromised with requests for e. However, this often does not work.
What do company owners need to bear in mind in order to avoid an early and unintended exit of the external manager? An efficient culture of communication with regular and open exchange is crucial to build additional trust. In addition, it is extremely important that the family owners sufficiently communicate their values so to successfully introduce the external manager to the characteristics of family businesses. On the other hand, what should external managers bear in mind to ensure that they are accepted by the owning family and to lay the path for successfully leading the business?
And this requires the identification with the company and the values of the family. Nevertheless, it is important to keep a certain professional distance towards the owners. In a company, roles and expectations are clearly defined, facts and rational choices matter. In the family environment it is also about emotions, appreciation and sometimes unclear mutual expectations.
This is a difficult terrain for non-family members. Wrong expectations, incorrect behaviour, and a lack of clear competences, as well as the mingling of company matters and private interests of the owning family, are common mistakes when appointing external managers. That sounds like a demanding and difficult path. Are there even more risks that could lead to failure? Another risk are objectives that focus too much on short term goals and on financial aspects.
Bonus and compensation systems usually reward short term success instead of supporting the long term generation of values and sustainable profits. Long term goals are especially important in family businesses. Are compensation systems of family companies less attractive, or in other words: In principle, family companies pay adequately.
However, since stock options and other remuneration components usually do not exist, the total compensation can be below that of comparable listed companies. In exchange, statistics show that jobs in family businesses are much safer and that the average family company affiliation is more than three times longer than in similar positions in listed companies.
Besides security of employment, are there other non-monetary components in family businesses that attract external managers? Company culture, taking over responsibility as well as long term company values and goals are very attractive characteristics of a family business and definitely appealing for external managers. These characteristics are much more present, and lived more intensely, in family businesses than in large public corporations. Can you point out further differences between publicly listed companies and privately-held family businesses?
This means that shareholders are investors looking for the highest returns. A strong shareholder orientation is a typical management style in publicly listed companies. This concept is about much more than short-term financial incentives: This concept obviously differs a lot from the shareholder value approach — and successfully proved itself during the crisis.
Looking at the advantages and disadvantages of family businesses, one could ask: This cannot be said, in general. There are a variety of reasons for family businesses to go public, e. Needless to say, a regulated environment also creates more clarity for external managers. However, the Chair and the control of the Supervisory Board usually stays with a family member. What role does it play for family businesses? There is a unique challenge in family businesses: This not only helps the family, but also the external managers, to understand and respect the reciprocal expectations and fields of responsibility.
The subject of Corporate Governance is constantly developing and will be of increasing importance in the future — also for family businesses. How the Board ensures Good Governance. What to look for — and what to avoid — in effectively operating Boards by Dr. The sustainability of a business depends on its sustained ability to attract capable leadership talent, and that in turn depends in large measure on the quality of its governance.
Good governance, therefore, is not only important for its own sake but also as a requirement for attracting — and retaining — top management talent, be it external or internal the good ones have alternatives…. In our practice as advisors to owners of significant businesses we are often asked what it takes to ensure good governance, and the key really is to have an effectively functioning Board, be it a classical Board of Directors or an Advisory Board which can play an almost equally significant role for the quality of governance in a privately held company.
In order to achieve the desired impact, the Board, in the first place, needs clarity of purpose. A productive and well-functioning Board, however, is also an indispensable resource for management. The best CEOs appreciate — and seek — the advice and challenge of critical, independent-minded Board members and especially an experienced Chairperson as sparring partner.
Another function of the Board, and especially the Chairperson, can be to act as an intermediary, and at times even a mediator, between shareholders and management, or among different groups of shareholders. Another important feature of effective Boards is clarity of focus. Experienced Board members, led by a capable Chairperson, will focus on the long-term well-being and sustainability of the business.
A truly productive Board uses at least two-thirds of its time to think about the future — instead of reviewing and questioning past dealings or, worse, being presented quarterly reports and figures. A key focus for every effective Board is talent. The Board has to make sure that the company is managed by the best available talent which means not only selecting and employing the right executives, but also to help them integrate, to supervise, support and challenge them, to help them grow, to compensate them adequately, to retain them, and, when necessary, to replace them in time.
An effectively operating Board will be able to deal with typical problems that can arise. Some Boards experience a large difference of expertise and understanding among Board members, which is acceptable and manageable as long as it derives from a diversity of backgrounds and not from a lack of time commitment or meeting management. Another problem can be a clash of personalities within the Board. In general, it is advisable to have strong, and diverse, personalities in the Board room, and if they — and particularly the Chairperson — have the right set of communication skills, there will be productive discussions and a high level of added value.
Another problem is directly linked to productivity: There are a number of simple operating methods that set apart the productive Board. In our experience, a well-organised Board:. The value a Board generates for the company is highly influenced by its composition. Being a Board member is a challenging, potentially inspiring and fulfilling, but above all a demanding, sophisticated task. As individuals, they have to be well chosen on multiple dimensions:.
The effectiveness of this group also depends on how it is composed, i. An assortment of great musicians will not automatically form a well-honed band or orchestra. When egos are big, and spirits competitive, the opposite may happen and often does: A well-functioning Board requires a significant degree of humility from its members: And the more diverse the group, the higher the challenge of working productively. But so too will be the benefits be higher in terms of richness of ideas and soundness of decisions. An effective Chair instils in the Board an operating culture of openness, seriousness, respect, humanity, humility, professionalism and discipline which does not preclude a certain degree of humour, companionship and fun.
At the same time, the Chair is a serious sparring partner and mentor to the executive team and personifies the identity and the values of the company and their owners. This will become evident especially in times of crisis when the Board, and particularly its Chairperson, makes sure the company reacts in a calm, reasoned and expedient manner. And that the executive leadership is up to the task, backed and supported by the Board where appropriate — or replaced in a timely manner, if and when necessary, and in accordance with a succession plan the Board has developed well ahead of any crisis situation.
Even so, there seems to be insufficient awareness of the growing risk caused by this lack of succession. This gap can be closed by a deliberate decision to recruit an external manager as an alternative to family members. Based on an initial qualitative study, a quantitative research was conducted in which hundreds of owners, as well as non-family top managers in big family businesses in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and The Netherlands, have been interviewed. Please click here to download the study English , French or German.
In October, Andreas was asked to speak at a series of family business roundtables in the Baltics Lithuania and Latvia. Many family businesses in this region are currently transitioning or about to do so to the second generation. As part of the ongoing growth of our German activities, we are happy to welcome two new team members at our Frankfurt office. As of the end of September, Karin Wollmann has joined our Research Team as Project Coordinator and will support and steer our different international assignments.
Having successfully worked with Karin over the past years on a freelance basis, we are glad to have her on board as a full team member. Building a culture of purpose as the business model of the future? Non-profit organisations may certainly earn money and create profits; however, this money must always be put back into the organisation itself and used to benefit the mission for which it was formed. In other words, no money is distributed to owners or shareholders.
Launched in the United States, Benefit Corporations fall into two main categories: B Corps are for-profit companies that pledge to achieve social goals as well as business ones. Their social and environmental performance must be regularly certified by B Lab. B-Lab was set up in with three goals.
The first goal was to create an externally valid mechanism for accrediting. That somebody could look at a company and with a relatively simple grasp could say: In most countries in the world, including some states of the US, it is not even legal to have the governance of an organisation measured by purpose as well as profit. If you are a Director of a company and you make a decision that is not in the immediate financial interests of the shareholders, you could theoretically be sued.
So changing legislation to allow purpose to be imbedded into the governance of organisations was critical. And the third objective was to create a kind of community, so that companies who are interested in more than just making money can learn from each other and do new things. Whereas a regular business can abandon altruistic policies when times get tough, a Benefit Corporation cannot. Becoming a B Corp raises the reputational cost of abandoning declared social goals.
Being a B Corp also protects a company against pressure from investors. Many, if not most CEOs, still feel huge pressure to maximize shareholder value. At a B Corp, though, shareholders are just one constituency. However, sustainability and good corporate citizenship are issues that are routinely covered by the media, and businesses are very aware of their reputation on these issues. Businesses are also increasingly aware that their reputation can hugely impact their ability to compete for talent and engage consumers, both as loyal customers and also as promoters for the brand.
Having a social mission can hence offer distinct advantages. Research data shows that talents — especially younger ones, belonging to the millennium generation — want to work for socially conscious companies, and will even accept lower compensation in exchange for a greater sense of purpose. Until now, such people often work for not-for-profits, but B Corps may soon become a more attractive option.
Just watch the world around you. We are in the middle of another industrial revolution — but this one is happening so much faster than the original, which took almost a hundred years. The unbelievable pace with which markets, industries and business models are changing is stunning and unprecedented. In parallel, the political landscape is changing rapidly — causing a great deal of uncertainty and even fear. The electricity markets in Central and Western Europe and in the nordic countries have further shown weak in with falling prices. The key factors were the declining quotations for coal and natural gas and the warm weather.
Another driver was the growth of renewable energy. In the power markets conditions remained mostly an oversupply. They only caused for volatility during the year. Die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren waren die sinkenden Notierungen fuer Steinkohle und Erdgas sowie das warme Wetter. Ein weiterer Treiber war das Wachstum der erneuerbaren Energien. Auf den Strommaerkten herrschte weiterhin ueberwiegend ein Ueberangebot. Sie sorgten lediglich fuer Volatilitaet im Jahresverlauf.
Heat supply and climate protection in housing associations. State of the art, perspective demands, action alternatives; Waermeversorgung und Klimaschutz in Wohnungsunternehmen. Aktueller Stand, Perspektivische Anforderungen, Handlungsalternativen. In recent years, problems of energy supply and climate change in the housing association increasingly gain a higher importance.
These problems are a central issue in dealing with demands arising from changing demographics, increasing prices for energy and new statutory provisions for environmental protection among other things. According to this situation, this brochure provides information, ideas, experiences and proposals such as an efficient integration and permanent placement of energy and climate change into the apartment management. Power plant construction in Europe between challenges, imminent supply gaps, climate protection and investment opportunities; Kraftwerksneubau in Europa.
Zwischen neuen Herausforderungen, drohender Versorgungsluecke, Klimaschutz und Investitionschancen. The European power plant market is currently undergoing profound changes. While some countries withdraw from nuclear energy , other countries develop the sector even further. In the reference scenario presented, increased extension of renewables and distributed solutions are expected. Individual new build projects with combined generation are also being realised.
The power plant market is insecure for utilities and manufactures alike. Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues CEMUWA ; Klimaschutz , Naturressourcenschutz und Bodenverbesserung durch kombinierte energetische und stoffliche Verwertung lignozelluloser landwirtschaftlicher Abfaelle und Reststoffe. Aim of the project was the development of technologies for the utilization of agricultural wastes and residues at the example of rice straw, with the focus on the energetic and material use.
In the long term a contribution to climate protection and natural resource management could be reached. The focus was on investigations in the field of biogas, ethanol and butanol production including pretreatment as well as the material use in horticulture. The results show that the biogas and ethanol production with adapted pretreatments of rice straws is possible. The investigated solutions for material use in Egypt showed good results, which in some cases exceeded the expectations. By the use of rice straw imported peat substrates could be substitute or irrigation water saved, what is ecologically and economically useful.
The production of ethanol from rice straw was implemented on laboratory scale and preconditions for investigations in semi-industrial and partly pilot scale were created. Heat contracting - a contribution to climate protection, security of supply and competition; Waerme-Contracting - ein Beitrag zu Klimaschutz , Versorgungssicherheit und Wettbewerb. Contracting is an important trump card when it comes to containing the climate change and improving the security of supply - and a promising business field besides.
It is moreover an option that pays off. German tenancy law is in urgent need of a reform to make heat contracting more popular. Furthermore, the modernisation of heating systems through contracting should be placed on a level with modernisation effected by the landlord. Potentials of district heating grids for climate protection up to the year ; Potenziale von Nah- und Fernwaermenetzen fuer den Klimaschutz bis zum Jahr District heat is one of Germany's traditional end use energy sources, with a connected capacity of about 57, MWth.
The heat is distributed via 1, grids with a total length of about 19, km. The number of households supplied with district heat increased from 9. About out of about 1, German utilities provide district heat to households. During the past few years, the connected capacity of district heating has been stagnating. This is the result of thermal insulation measures, dismantling and abandonment of supply grids, but also of changes on the demand side that can still be compensated by concentration and expansion potentials. Gewerbe, Handel und Dienstleistung. New pricing models for energy.
Fundamentals of a reform of fees, taxes, levies and charges on electricity and fossil fuels; Agora Energiewende Neue Preismodelle fuer Energie.
Synonyms and antonyms of Humankapital in the German dictionary of synonyms
Germany ; Weyer, Hartmut [Technische Univ. In the ideal electricity market, electricity prices give the signal that supply and demand are balanced in real time, flexibility is offered and cost and energy efficiency are achieved. When electricity is scarce, high prices mobilise the operation of storage facilities, load management and generation plants. If electricity is available in surplus, the low prices attract additional customers. Ideally, prices also stimulate the right investments for a reliable, efficient and climate-friendly electricity system - even at the borders of the electricity, heating and transport sectors.
In reality, 75 to 80 percent of the electricity price for most consumers consists of government-regulated, regulated price components. Energy taxes, grid charges, taxes and levies total around 55 billion euros per year and fulfil important functions in the financing of the electricity system and energy turnaround.
However, they often almost completely overlap the coordinating price signal in wholesale. Offering flexibility is hardly worthwhile because taxes, fees, levies and charges are due immediately. The price signals are also not right at the sector borders: The reform of the tax, remuneration, levy and levy system is therefore urgently needed, but it is a complex undertaking. Agora Energiewende, with the support of E-Bridge, ZEW and TU Clausthal, has carried out an analysis of the current price structure and explored the scope for a fundamental reform of the existing system.
In this way, we want to lay a foundation for the development of concrete reform proposals, which will be worked out in a further study. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers.
Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges.
Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema '' Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. A vision of the future; Energie und Klima. Ein Blick in die Zukunft. This book contains five lectures from the symposium of 8 November The topics and speakers were: Die Themen und Referenten waren: Higher energy efficiency in administrative and office buildings.
Optimisation of primary energy consumption and economic efficiency; Energieeffiziente Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeude. Hinweise zur primaerenergetischen und wirtschaftlichen Optimierung. The study investigates measures to reduce primary energy consumption in administrative and office buildings and their effects in terms of economic efficiency. An exemplary office building is modernised step by step while recording the changes in the primary energy consumption coefficient.
Hierzu wird die energetische Ausfuehrungsqualitaet eines einfachen Beispielgebaeudes schrittweise verbessert und die Veraenderung des Primaerenergiekennwertes ermittelt. Solar energy and nuclear power. In this volume the energy sources used today and possible alternatives like solar-, wind-, and hydro power, geothermal energy and renewable fuels are presented. The environmental pollution due to fossil fuel application e. An extra chapter covers the CO2 problem greenhouse effect, ice cover on earth, sea level, influence on plant growth and agricultural crop as climatic forecasting.
Die Umweltbelastungen aus der Nutzung fossiler Brennstoffe z. Schwefel- und Stickoxide sowie der Kernenergie sind ausfuehrlich besprochen. A rising energy demand with limited natural resources pose utilities, industry and consumers with new challenges. This book follows an interdisciplinary approach and for the first time brings together debates and findings from industry, science, politics, culture and media.
Because the energy transition can only succeed if it is comprehensible for the individual and fragmented perspectives and interests are merged. Ein steigender Energiebedarf bei begrenzten natuerlichen Ressourcen stellt Energieversorger, Industrie und Verbraucher vor immer neue Herausforderungen. Denn die Energiewende kann nur gelingen, wenn sie fuer den Einzelnen fassbar wird und fragmentierte Sichtweisen und Interessenlagen zusammengefuehrt werden. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten.
It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in and that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth BUND. The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat Council of Constituent States. The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein.
Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs.
The results are detailed below. Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und. Advanced energy conversion and application - Decentralized energy systems. Papers; Fortschrittliche Energiewandlung und -anwendung - Schwerpunkt: Decentralized energy systems is the major topic of this VDI report which contains the proceedings of the VDI conference on advanced energy conversion and application. The decentralized energy systems are in the focus because it is expected that they will gain in significance in the course of restructuring and liberalisation of the energy markets and growing commitment to greenhouse gas mitigation.
The subjects of the papers are the cogeneration technology in general, and specific systems for combined generation of heat, power and cold, CHPC systems , systems for renewable energy generation, industrial energy technology, and analysis and optimization of energy systems. Der Bericht wendet sich an Hersteller und Betreiber dezentraler Energieanlagen, an Entscheidungstraeger aus Politik und Wirtschaft, an Berater und Ueberwachungsinstitutionen sowie an auf diesem Gebiet taetige Hochschullehrer und -mitarbeiter.
Supplying Europe with safe and low-cost energy ; Energie und Wettbewerb. Die Versorgung Europas mit sicherer und preisguenstiger Energie. To this end, deregulation is to be carried out as a first step. At the same time, the German Federal Cartel Office tries to abolish altogether the concept of territorial protection. From an all-European point of view, also the draft amendment to the Energy Economy Act proposed by the German Federal Ministry of Economics, and a number of regulations covering energy trust legislation, are appearing at the wrong time.
Pate bei den zu diskutierenden Vorschlaegen hat das englisch-walisische Modell gestanden, das aber wenig auf die gesamte Europaeische Union EU und gar nicht auf Deutschland uebertragbar ist, da dem tatsaechlichen ein staatlich kontrollierter Pseudo-Wettbewerb uebergestuelpt wird. Gleichzeitig versucht das Bundeskartellamt, den Gebietsschutz radikal aufzuheben. Auch der Entwurf des Bundeswirtschaftsministeriums zur Novellierung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes und einer Reihe von energiekartellrechtlichen Vorschriften kommt aus gesamteuropaeischer Sicht zur Unzeit.
Environment and power; Umwelt und Energie. Within the scope of the 35th economic seminar with he title '' Environment and power'' held between 18th and 21st September, , at the monastery Ottobeuren Federal Republic of Germany , the following lectures were held: The automobile market Klaus Conrad ; h The liability right as an instrument of environment policy Alfred Endres ; i environment economy and experimental evidence Joachim Weimann ; j Market design in the energy economy Felix Muesgen, Axel Ockenfels ; k Re-regulation of the liberalized energy markets in Europe Carl Christian von Weizsaecker.
Developments of the climate protection law and the climate change policy Bund, Bundeslaender und Kommunen. According to the motto of the energy transition the Federal Government set herself targets in the areas of greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy and energy efficiency. A key measure discussed here is the climate contribution of the German electricity sector, is now being implemented in a significantly modified form.
With a view on the long-term climate objectives prepares the federal government the national climate change plan ; the federal government promote locally climate protection within the framework of the National Climate Protection Initiative NKI in a Variety of projects. On the level of the federal states intensifies clearly the trend of the legal protection of federal climate protection targets. In addition to the federal levels are also the municipalities still active in various climate protection projects.
Als eine zentrale Massnahme wurde hier der Klimabeitrag des deutschen Stromsektors diskutiert, der nun in deutlich abgewandelter Form umgesetzt wird. Auf Ebene der Bundeslaender verstaerkt sich deutlich der Trend der gesetzlichen Absicherung von Landesklimaschutzzielen. Neben den ueberregionalen Ebenen sind auch die Kommunen weiterhin in vielfaeltigen Klimaschutzprojekten aktiv. On the necessity of equitable, sustainable global energy and resource policies; Gerechtigkeit und Globalisierung. Zur Notwendigkeit einer gerechten und nachhaltigen globalen Energie - und Ressourcenpolitik.
The trend towards globalisation is steadily increasing and, whether directly or indirectly, gaining an influence on more and more areas of our lives. At the same time, more and more negative effects of human activities attending the globalisation process are becoming apparent, especially for poor populations, but also for future generations. One essential trait of globalisation is that no-one can flee from it - or, to be more precise, from the negative impact of the deeds done in its name.
Globalisation therefore poses a global-scale equity problem. This can be demonstrated with particular clarity by reference to current global energy and resource policies. The foremost intent of this thesis therefore is to search for a more equitable and sustainable kind of globalisation than the one being practised at present. As we can learn from the political philosophy of international relations, this primarily requires an internationally binding code of behaviour or regulatory framework. Otherwise, as our present reality teaches us, whatever efforts are made, the outcome will be extremely meagre.
This kind of commitment has been demanded on many occasions in the past. However, where it has been codified to date, this has largely only been in the form of inter-country peace orders. The most prominent writings to this end are those of John Rawls.
klimaschutz und energie: Topics by ywukakyzin.ml
However, theories such as his are no longer commensurate with the complexity of today's globalisation process. The author of the present dissertation therefore addresses the better known of the few approaches that go beyond Rawl's thinking, some of which evolved directly from a critical study of his writings. She deliberately also reviews some of the lesser known works.
Based on a critical examination of the practicality of these approaches the author presents a draft for a binding global regulatory framework for the environment, economy and peace. A textbook and handbook; Energieeffizienz. Ein Lehr- und Handbuch. Apart from renewable energies , energy efficiency and energy conservation are the fundament for an economically optimized energy strategy.
Energy efficiency involves different ranges: Along the value creation chain energy efficiency signifies an effective conversion of raw materials, a use of by-products, a reduction of consumption and a modification of the behaviour. This text book offers a comprehensive overview of all ranges of energy efficiency.
It interdisciplinary it gives an engineering understanding of the technologies for the reader and connects this with economic, sociological, energy political and ecological fundamentals. The manual is not only suitable for the teachings in relevant courses of studies e.
Energieeffizienz betrifft unterschiedliche Bereiche: Energieeffizienz entlang der Wertschoepfungskette bedeutet, Rohstoffe wirksam umzuwandeln, Nebenprodukte zu nutzen, Verbrauch zu reduzieren und Verhalten zu aendern. Dieses Lehrbuch bietet einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber alle Bereiche der Energieeffizienz. Interdisziplinaer vermittelt es dem Leser ein ingenieurtechnisches Verstaendnis der Technologien und verknuepft dieses mit oekonomischen, sozialwissenschaftlichen, energiepolitischen und oekologischen Grundlagen. Das Handbuch ist nicht nur fuer die Lehre in einschlaegigen Studiengaengen z.
Energie -, Umwelt- oder Verfahrenstechnik, Architektur. Physical utilisation and conversion to energy of wastes arising in the wood industry; Stoffliche und energetische Abfallverwertung in der Holz- und Papierindustrie. The present paper describes material streams in the paper and wood industry. It also points out possibilities for the physical utilisation and conversion to energy of wood waste and discusses the problems they involve.
The authors give a brief overview of the of the plants used for this purpose along with illustrating examples. Ferner werden stoffliche und energetische Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Holzabfaellen und Probleme dieser Verwertung beschrieben. Auch die Anlagen zu dieser Verwertung und einige Beispiele werden kurz zusammengefasst vorgestellt. Energy , ecology and unreason; Energie , Oekologie und Unvernunft.
The contribution deals with the following issues: The energy -optimized house at Zittau - a new teaching and research buliding for gas and HVAC engineering; Das Niedrigenergiehaus Zittau - ein neues Lehr- und Foschungsgebaeude fuer die Gas- und die Versorgungstechnik. Fachbereich Bauwesen, Lehrgebiet Gastechnik. By means of the new energy -optimized building at Zittau, an education and research object, the Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen of Zittau is enhancing the practice-oriented education of students especially in the curricula hvac engineering and structural engineering.
As an experimental building it is, at the same time, a complex system demonstrating energy -saving construction and heating and permitting to carry out research and development work. The article describes the concepts and execution of the building. Zugleich ist es als Experimentalbau ein komplexes System fuer energiesparendes Bauen und Heizen und bietet hervorragende Voraussetzungen fuer die Durchfuehrung von Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten. Im Artikel werden Konzepte und Einrichtungen des Gebaeudes beschrieben. Planning and operating energy efficient factories; Energieeffiziente Fabriken planen und betreiben.
This book presents systematic approaches to developing energy saving potentials in the planning and operation of factories. The authors describe the drivers of the current energy debate and the state of the art in making factories energy efficient. They explain important principles that must be observed in considering factories as a system and in order to understand questions relating to energy. They have developed methods for finding appropriate energy -efficient solutions in factory planning.
Detailed explanations are given on energy -relevant installations which require planning such as drives, compressed air systems or ventilation systems. The book presents methods and instruments for the analysis and evaluation of energy consumption which can be used for assessment purposes during the initial planning as well as for monitoring and influencing energy consumption during normal operation. Selected practical examples, notably from the automotive industry, serve to illustrate the material presented.
The book is intended primarily for planning and production engineers in the piece goods industry as well as for students in related fields. Sie erlaeutern wichtige Grundlagen, um die Fabrik als System und energetische Zusammenhaenge zu verstehen. Eine von ihnen entwickelte Methodik hilft, bereits bei der Planung von Fabriken adaequate energieeffiziente Loesungen zu finden. Energierelevante Planungsobjekte wie elektrische Antriebe, Druckluft- oder Lueftungssysteme werden naeher erlaeutert. Fuer die Analyse und Bewertung des Energieverbrauchs werden Methoden und Instrumente vorgestellt, mit denen sowohl die Ausgangsituation bei der Planung beurteilt als auch der Energieverbrauch im.
Use of hydrogeothermal resources - energy and environmental analysis; Nutzung hydrothermaler Erdwaermevorkommen - Energie und Umweltanalyse. The usage of hydrothermal resources for providing low caloric heat is a promissing option for the reduction of energy related environmental effects. This is especially true due the fact that this technology is currently available from the technical point of view.
With this background the aim of this paper is to analyze the changes of some key environmental figures fro an existing hydrothermal heating plant in comparison to a fossil fired heating plant. The full life-cycle, from the erection to disposal of these plants are taken into consideration. Based upon the results discussed some conclusions are drawn concerning the contribution of a heat production from hydrothermal resources for realizing an environmental and climatic more sound energy supply system in Germany. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird im folgenden exemplarisch an einer existierenden geothermischen Heizzentrale die Umweltentlastung im Vergleich zu einer Waermebereitstellung aus leichtem Heizoel und Erdgas unter Beruecksichtigung der Anlagenerrichtung und -entsorgung quantifiziert.
Ausgehend davon werden Aussagen gemacht, inwieweit diese Technologie einen Beitrag zu einer umweltfreundlicheren und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Deutschland leisten kann. Energy and emissions trading. Proceedings; Energie und Klimawandel. Within the 14th Muensteraner Foreign Trade legislation conference at 15th and 16th October, in Muenster Federal Republic of Germany , the following lectures were held: Kachel ; 3 Liberalization and regulation of energy services at multilateral and bilateral level Christian Pitschas ; 4 Legal protection for foreign direct investigations in the energy sector Richard Kreindler ; 5 Energy cartels in the light of the WTO law Joerg Philipp Terhechte ; 6 Subsidisation of renewable energy in the area of attention between WTO and EU subsidy law Martin Lukas ; 7 Legal aspects of pipeline through the Baltic Sea Barbara Kaech ; 8 Sustainability standards and their compatibility with the WTO law Lorenz Franken ; 9 Economic instruments between Kyoto and Kopenhagen - Quo vadis climate protection?
Benjamin Goeerlach ; 10 Emissions rights trading with developing countries Peter Ebsen ; 11 Legal aspects of the European emissions rights trading Stefan Altenschmidt. Hydrogen and fuel cells. Energy technology without emissions and with high efficiency; Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellen. Energietechnologie ohne Emissionen und mit hoher Effizienz. In what manner are the fuel cell technology, hydrogen production from renewable energy sources, and reduced CO2 emissions connected, and what are the consequences for the German state of Hessen?
This document informs on the available types fo fuel cells, the role of hydrogen as a secondary energy source in the context of the future ''power-from-renewables'' scenario, electromobility and fuel cells, and the activities of the German state of Hessen in this sector ''H2BZ-Initiative Hessen''. The publication also contains important facts on power and emissions as well as exemplary projects of communities, the power industry, and private partners in Hessen.
Welche Arten von Brennstoffzellen es gibt, welche Rolle Wasserstoff als Sekundaerenergietraeger bei der Nutzung von erneuerbaren Energien in Zukunft spielen kann, was das Thema Elektromobilitaet mit der Brennstoffzelle zu tun hat, wie und warum sich das Land Hessen und die Wasserstoff- und Brennstoffzellen-Initiative Hessen - kurz H2BZ-Initiative Hessen - fuer die Akteure in diesen Branchen stark machen, erfaehrt man in diesem Dokument.
Vertriebsvertraege und Service managen. HEW, a leading German energy provider, uses Siebel e Energy to create a single, comprehensive view of customer information across multiple channels and integrating with the company's back office applications. Siebel e Energy provides improved management of energy contracts and enables HEW to increase sales efficiency, accelerate the service delivery process, and enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Siebel e Energy bietet verbessertes Management der Energieversorgungs-Vertraege und ermoeglicht HEW dadurch, die Effizienz im Vertrieb zu steigern, die Bereitstellung und Lieferung von Energie zu beschleunigen und so Kundenzufriedenheit und Kundentreue zu erhoehen. Potential and possibilities of supplying energy from biomass and biogas; Potentiale und Moeglichkeiten der Energiebereitstellung durch Biomasse und Biogas.
Beyond this, biomass is burdened with other drawbacks such as low supply efficiency, limited availability, and weather-dependent reliability. On the other hand, biomass is well suited for conversion to solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, including inexpensive ones with low energy density solid fuels , mostly used for stationary heating applications, as well as more expensive ones such as liquid fuels with a high energy density for mobile applications in the automotive sector.
Thanks to its capacity to regenerate, biomass is an inexhaustible resource. Moreover, its natural life cycle has a small impact on the environment. Es beduerfen darueber hinaus auch Nachteile, wie geringe Bereitstellungseffizienz, beschraenkte Verfuegbarkeit und witterungsabhaengige Zuverlaessigkeit, der Beachtung. Die Biomasse kann jedoch mit Erfolg in feste, fluessige und gasfoermige Energietraeger konvertiert werden, sowohl in preiswerte mit geringer Energiedichte Festbrennstoffe fuer bevorzugt stationaeren Heizungs-Einsatz als auch.
Energy conservation potentials in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe - an expose of theses; Die Energiespeicherpotentiale in den Laendern Mittel- und Osteuropas - eine Darstellung der Thesen. The report compares western and eastern Europe in terms of their supply with fossil energy , the development of their primary and end-use energy consumption, and the development of their gross power generation. Finally, a comparison of energy input coefficients and energy costs between the old and new federal states of Germany is made.
Der technische Stand der Energieumwandlungsanlagen und der Elektrowaermeanlagen sowie das Energieeinsparungspotential in Russland und die Effektivitaet von Massnahmen zur Elektroenergieeffizienzsteigerung in der Ukraine werden dargestellt. Two energy -efficient alternatives; Zwei energieeffiziente Alternativen. Solaranlagen und Blockheizkraftwerke im Vergleich. The potential of solar systems and cogeneration systems for heat supply to large-size domestic buildings was compared in a dissertation at Munich Technical University.
Waehrend gasmotorische Kleinblockheizkraftwerke meist im Gewerbe Einsatz finden, stellen heizungsunterstuetzende Solaranlagen bisher eine sinnvolle Ergaenzung von Heizzentralen kleiner Wohngebaeude dar. In einer Diplomarbeit, entstanden an der Fachhochschule Muenchen in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Energieservice der Stadtwerke Muenchen, wurden beide Waermeerzeugungsmoeglichkeiten zur Versorgung grosser Wohngebaeude miteinander verglichen.
Influencing energy consumption in public buildings - methodology and experience; Beeinflussung der Nutzer in oeffentlichen Gebaeuden - Methoden und Erfahrungen. In public buildings energy consumption and the attitude towards it depends in the most diverse fields upon the consumer hinself.
Public buildings are to serve as examples for developing strategies to save energy on the consumer's side. Methods and experience of 21 years of energy management are to be reported on through which a reduction of energy consumption of approx. Methoden und Erfahrungen dazu liegen vor, d. Energieeinsparung durch nichtinvestive Massnahmen.
Ein wichtiges Potential, nicht zuletzt wegen der knapper werdenden Energie -Ressourcen und oeffentlichen Mittel. Status of the energy transition and important fields of action; Stand der Energiewende und wichtige Handlungsfelder. Loeschel, Andreas [Muenster Univ. Germany ; Erdmann, Georg [Technische Univ. The energy concept of September and the exit from nuclear energy in August represent a long-term strategy of Germany's energy policy with ambitious goals. Since , an independent commission of four energy experts has been advising the Federal Government in this process.
It presents annual opinions on the progress of the energy transition, which review the implementation of the energy concept, including its objectives, with a view to ensuring a secure, economic and environmentally sound supply of energy in order to be able to follow up where necessary. The statements are attached to the Federal Government's annual monitoring reports on the energy transition and forwarded to the Bundestag.
In order to support the upcoming political discussions on the effective and efficient further development of the energy transition, the expert commission would like to give an up-to-date, fact-based overview of the current state of the implementation of the energy transition with the help of an energy transition traffic light in this article.
Seit dem Jahr steht der Bundesregierung in diesem Prozess eine unabhaengige Kommission aus vier Energieexperten beratend zur Seite. Sie legt jaehrliche Stellungnahmen zum Fortschritt der Energiewende vor, mit denen die Umsetzung des Energiekonzepts einschliesslich der darin enthaltenen Ziele mit Blick auf eine sichere, wirtschaftliche und umweltvertraegliche Energieversorgung ueberprueft wird, um bei Bedarf nachsteuern zu koennen. Die Stellungnahmen werden den jaehrlichen Monitoring-Berichten der Bundesregierung zur Energiewende beigefuegt und dem Bundestag zugeleitet. Um die anstehenden politischen Diskussionen zur effektiven und effizienten Weiterentwicklung der Energiewende zu unterstuetzen, moechte die Expertenkommission.
Treatment of biological waste and residues V. Biological - mechanical - thermal processes; Bio- und Restabfallbehandlung V. Biologisch - mechanisch - thermisch. From , the TA Siedlungsabfall Waste Management Regulation will come into force, and European legislation will overrule national legislation. Dumping of untreated waste in landfills will be prohibited, i. In view of the rigid specifications for emissions and residues and the demand for Europe-wide invitations for tender, time is running short.
The book outlines the options for action of the German states and of some applicant states for EC membership. Independent of this, also secondary fuels are gaining ground, and several contributions of the conference discussed quality assurance and utilization of secondary fuels.
Composting and sewage sludge utilization are further current issues. Air pollution, soil and groundwater protection, job security and energy potential are gone into, and an outline of the current situation of waste management is attempted. Hierbei wird der Handlungsdruck spuerbar, spaetestens ab dem Jahr der TA Siedlungsabfall Rechnung tragen zu muessen.
Die verbleibenden Zeitraeume sind daher eng bemessen, beruecksichtigt man insbesondere die langen Genehmigungs- und Errichtungszeitraeume fuer thermische Behandlungsanlagen. Vor dem Hintergrund der europaweiten Ausschreibungspflicht wird die gegenwaertige technische Diskussion zur MBA sehr stark durch die nunmehr von der Bundesregierung konkretisierten Emissions- und Ablagerungsanforderungen gepraegt. Der vorliegende Band soll aufzeigen, welche Handlungsspielraeume sich hierbei aus Sicht der verschiedenen Bundeslaender ergeben.
Ein Blick ueber die Grenzen hinaus zu einigen zukuenftigen EU. Gruppe Solares Bauen; Loehnert, G. The projecting experience and performance data of many demonstration projects are presented here. The buildings described are office buildings, administrative buildings and industrial buildings whose architecture and energy concepts vary considerably. The text is supplemented by many pictures and illustration. The subject matter is presented in a concise and practically oriented manner. Die Buero-, Verwaltungs- und Gewerbegebaeude d. Nichtwohnungsbau haben sehr verschiedene Gebaeude- und Energiekonzepte.
Gerade deshalb ist es interessant, wie diese im Journal unter den Aspekten wie 'Tageslichtnutzung', 'Waermeschutz', 'Kuehlung', 'Elektrizitaet', 'Solartechnik' miteinander verglichen werden. Die graphisch gut gestaltete Darstellung auf 80 Seiten wird unterstuetzt durch viele Fotos und Abbildungen und gewinnt durch die praxisnahe Aufbereitung, die in Zusammenarbeit mit den Planungsteams erfolgt ist.
Ecological valuation of mechanic-biological waste treatment and waste combustion on the basis of energy balances and air pollutant balances; Oekologische Bewertung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung und der Muellverbrennung auf Basis von Energie - und Schadgasbilanzen. The work aims at an ecological valuation of air pollutant emissions and energy consumption as particularly relevant aspects of waste treatment and waste combustion plants, based on new scientific results, in order to draw up ecological budgets and make system comparisons in waste treatment.
The target set is particularly effectively achieved by the following: The high transparency of the methodics should be emphasized.
- HUMANKAPITAL - Definition and synonyms of Humankapital in the German dictionary.
- Translation of «Humankapital» into 25 languages.
- by members of;
- Pleasing Sir.
- Never, Ever, Again.
They make the results obtained conclusive and verifiable. Diese Zielvorgabe wird durch die Dokumentation und wissenschaftliche Herleitung relevanter Rahmenbedingungen, sorgfaeltige Erhebung und Aufbereitung der Daten unter Gesichtspunkten der Erstellung einer Oekobilanz und letztendlich aufgrund der objektiven Bewertung und Interpretation der Ergebnisse im besonderen Masse erreicht. Besonders hervorzuheben hierbei ist die hohe Transparenz bei der methodischen Vorgehensweise.
Die ermittelten Ergebnisse sind somit nachvollziehbar und ueberpruefbar. Energy efficiency in Germany - a meta-analysis. Analysis and recommendations; Energieeffizienz in Deutschland - eine Metastudie. The Stuttgart Institute of energy efficiency in production compiled the first meta-analysis '' Energy Efficiency in Germany''.
It provides facts and figures on the development atatus and knowledge level of energy efficiency in Germany. The study shows the contribution have been made by individual measures and the potentials which are known, but have not yet been lifted. For this meta-analysis more than items available from research institutions, government departments, professional and industry associations have been identified with the main topic of energy efficiency and evaluated.
It provides an overview of the status of development and is an important reference work for industry, associations and politics. Die Studie zeigt auf, welchen Beitrag einzelne Massnahmen bisher geleistet haben und welche Potenziale zwar bekannt sind, aber bisher noch nicht gehoben wurden. Fuer diese Metastudie wurden mehr als Veroeffentlichungen von Forschungseinrichtungen, Ministerien, Fach- und Industrieverbaenden mit Themenschwerpunkt Energieeffizienz identifiziert und ausgewertet.
Sie bietet einen Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Entwicklung und ist ein wichtiges Nachschlagewerk fuer Industrie, Verbaende und Politik. This proceedings volume contains abstracts of research reports and posters in the field of accumulators and fuel cells. Integral energy concepts for office and residential buildings; Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Buero- und Wohngebaeude. It has been confirmed by practical project experience that integral energy concepts are an excellent basis for the construction of energy -efficient buildings.
In the extreme case buildings can even be self-sufficient in their energy supply. Uniting the responsibility for the overall energy and technology concept in the hands of a single contractor can help reduce frictional losses between those involved in the planning as well costs. A good example of this is the use of a simulation calculation for the prescribed demonstration of proper heat insulation.
The presented projects show that it is possible to construct ecologically answerable buildings at attractively low costs. The presented concepts appear particularly convincing from the viewpoint of long-term maintenance of value and user-specific advantages such as agreeable working conditions. Im Extremfall kann sogar eine autarke Energieversorgung erreicht werden.
Durch Zusammenfassung der Gesamtverantwortung fuer das Energie - und Technikkonzept in einer Hand koennen Reibungsverluste zwischen den Planungsbeteiligten reduziert und Kosten gesenkt werden. Ein Beispiel hierfuer ist die Verbindung des vorgeschriebenen Waermeschutznachweises mit einer fuer alle Beteiligten wesentlich aussagekraeftigeren Simulationsrechnung. Die vorgestellten Projekte zeigen, dass oekologisch sinnvolle Gebaeude auch zu oekonomisch attraktiven Kosten erstellt werden koennen, wobei insbesondere der Aspekt des langfristigen Werterhalts und die nutzerspezifischen Vorteile, z.
Compact and energy -saving trickle film ice storage unit; Rieselfilm-Eisspeicheranlage baut kompakt und spart Energie. Ice storages are well established in industrial refrigeration systems. The contribution describes new, compact trickle film ice storages with plate heat exchangers. Neue Impulse erhaelt diese Technik jetzt durch kompakt aufgebaute Rieselfilm-Eisspeicher mit Plattenwaermeaustauscher. Kassel symposium on energy systems technology: Renewable energy sources and efficient utilization of energy ; 7. Kasseler Symposium Energie -Systemtechnik: Erneuerbare Energien und rationelle Energieverwendung.
This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers on the following subjects: Energy vector for progress and development; Wasserkraft: Energievektor fuer Fortschritt und Entwicklung. Hydroelectric power has good future prospects: It is a renewable energy source and well suited for storage. Die Merkmale der Wasserkraft verdienen Aufmerksamkeit: Es handelt sich um eine erneuerbare Energie , die in grossen Mengen gespeichert werden kann und in der Energiewirtschaft eine grosse Rolle spielt.
Photovoltaic energy conversion and wind power plants creating new jobs; Arbeitsplaetze durch Photovoltaik und Windenergie. Experts are unanimous that opening up new markets through innovative technologies will be the successful strategy for reversing the upward trend of unemployment in Germany. This approach puts renewable energy sources into the foreground, as enhanced use of wind power and photovoltaic energy conversion will no doubt create new jobs. These technologies will, however, require favourable regulatory framework conditions in order to become a significant force in combatting unemployment.
Demnach koennte etwa dem Ausbau der regenerativen Energietraeger Wind und Photovoltaik zur Schaffung zukunftssicherer Arbeitsplaetze eine grosse Bedeutung zukommen. Einen ernstzunehmenden Beitrag im Kampf gegen die Arbeitslosigkeit koennen diese Technologien allerdings nur unter bestimmten Rahmenbedingungen leisten. The novel energy industry law and its impacts on the market and the natural gas sector of industry; Das neue Energiewirtschaftsrecht und seine Folgen fuer Markt und Branchen.
The book gives an in-depth, though easy-to-digest analysis of the completely revised German energy industry law and the deep-cutting changes brought about for the German natural gas industry as a marketer at home and in the European deregulated Internal Market for energy. Apart from explaining the legislative texts and their interpretation in line with the legislative intent, the authors present valuable, practice-oriented information for marketers challenged by the open market and the need for developing optimized cost and revenue management strategies as well as risk management strategies.
The information confers the basic insight into novel marketing instruments and opportunities, enabling readers to assess with required reliability emerging market developments, develop their own corporate strategies in response, maintain and strengthen their shares of the market, elaborate risk management strategies and alliances, and exploit and observe the chances and restraints set by the legal framework.
Neben den Rechtsgrundlagen veroeffentlicht es auch konkrete Informationen zu einem optimierten Kosten- und Erloesmanagement und schildert umsetzbare Konzepte fuer ein erfolgreiches Risikomanagement.
Damit schafft das Buch Grundlagen, um - die kommenden Entwicklungen zuverlaessig einzuschaetzen, - konkrete Unternehmensstrategien zu entwickeln, - Marktanteile zu halten und auszubauen, - Risiken gezielt zu begegnen, - rechtssicher zu handeln. Consumption and conservation of energy in small and medium-size business, trade, and the service industry; Energieverbrauch und Einsparung in Gewerbe, Handel und Dienstleistung. The objective of the study was to empirically investigate the extremely heterogenous section of ''small consumers'' with regard to energy consumption and the purpose of use.
The last representative survey -for Western Germany- was from the year , and no energy -statistical data at all existed for the new states. Therefore, it was urgently necessary to update the data basis for application-oriented measures in economy and politics. The situation of rational energy utilization with regard to small consumers had been investigated only a little and there were no relevant data at all about energy -relevant areas, systems and equipment and no statistical knowledge on the energy -technical situation.
The results of the study are expected to help to utilize the doubtlessly existing significant potentials of improving energy -efficiency by making available detailed in-depth branch analyses and representative results. Two practical measures are to be taken in the application phase of the study: Knowledge gained from the study will be used for implementation activities during the project already. Die letzte repraesentative Erhebung - fuer Westdeutschland - stammte aus dem Jahr , und fuer die neuen Bundeslaender lagen keine energiestatistischen Daten fuer den Sektor vor.
Daher war die Aktualisierung der Datenbasis als Grundlage fuer umsetzungsorientierte Massnahmen in Wirtschaft und Politik dringend geboten. Der Stand der rationellen Energienutzung war im Kleinverbrauch bisher noch wenig erforscht, Bestandsdaten ueber energierelevante Nutzflaechen, Anlagen und Geraete sowie statistische Erkenntnisse ueber. Der Stand der rationellen Energienutzung war im Kleinverbrauch bisher noch wenig erforscht, Bestandsdaten ueber energierelevante Nutzflaechen, Anlagen und.
DNK Energy Day ' Energy and environment as subjects in the dialog between politics, economy and the scientific community; DNK Energietag ' This fifth one-day energy forum of the DNK held in Bonn on 26 November once again gathered many representatives of industry, science and research, and the political arena. The general theme of the forum, ' Energy and environment as issues of a dialogue of politicians, industry and science' thus fits in well with the global energy issues.
The contributions to the panel discussion with the concluding summary of Dr. Ott as well as the lectures presented at the meeting are reproduced or this conference report from the manuscripts and the minutes. Energietag des DNK in Bonn am November hat erneut zahlreiche Repraesentanten aus Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Politik zusammengefuehrt. Kongresses des Weltenergierates, der gerade 2 Monate zuvor in Houston stattfand, zu erlaeutern und zum anderen, ueber die energiepolitischen Erwartungen an die neue Bundesregierung und deren Vorstellungen zur kuenftigen Energiepolitik zu diskutieren.
Die Beitraege der Podiumsdiskussion mit den Schlussbemerkungen von Dr. Ott sind wie die Vortraege weitgehend im Originalwortlaut wiedergegeben. Sie werden im vorliegenden Heft dokumentiert. Facility management and energy efficiency -- analysis and recommendations; Facility Management und Energieeffizienz: This final report presents the results of a study made on how facility management FM is positioned in enterprises and on how energy management can be integrated into the facility management process.
Also, recommendations are made on the actions that are considered necessary to improve the understanding of facility management and energy management. The findings of an analysis made of the results of a survey among enterprises, 20 interviews and 5 case studies are presented. The authors state that, in spite of the relatively small sample taken - mostly larger enterprises - trends in facility management and energy management could be shown. The findings of the survey, such as the relative importance of the integration of energy topics in facility management and the need for standardised indicators and benchmarking, are discussed in detail.
Also, it is noted that the success of FM is in part due to delegation of responsibility to smaller business units or even to individual employees. The importance of anchoring FM strategies at the top level of management is stressed, as is the need for promotion of the idea of facility management and training concepts for those responsible for its implementation.
Monuments and energy efficiency between conservation and modernization; Denkmal und Energieeffizienz zwischen Konservierung und Anpassung. Protection of monuments does not necessarily mean conservation of buildings in their original state, but modernization with a view to energy conservation should be an important goal as well. The contribution shows how the two goals can be combined. Energy -saving engines reduce operating cost and environmental pollution; Energiesparmotoren senken die Betriebskosten und schonen die Umwelt. Reduction of the energy cost will make production more economical and, in consequence, gain a competitive advantage.
In view of high energy cost, new international legislation and increasing energy -awareness, the new generation of energy -saving engines is gaining increasing acceptance. Gelingt es, sie spuerbar zu senken, wird die Produktion letzten Endes wirtschaftlicher und wettbewerbsfaehiger. Vor dem Hintergrund hoher Energiepreise, der neuen internationalen Gesetzgebung und zunehmenden Energiebewusstseins, gewinnen Energiesparmotoren der neuen Generation zunehmend an Bedeutung.
Energy and the future: Sustainable methods of energy use from passive architecture to fusion. Lectures; Energie und Zukunft: Zukunftsweisende Methoden der Energienutzung vom Passivhaus bis zur Fusion. In the run-up to the Kyoto conference, there is far-reaching agreement that the world energy industry needs to be reconstructed by the middle of the next century if a climate catastrophe is to be avoided. But how this goal can be reached is controversial. The risks involved are described in contributions concerned with German energy policy, the insurance sector, and scenarios for mitigating carbon dioxides on the basis of the Ikarus model.
Two papers describe the state of the art of fusion research. In the conventional energy sector, high-efficiency absorption-type refrigerators and thermal engines, and fuel conservation through low-cost passive architecture are dealt with inter alia. Other lectures report on the state of solar energy utilization and process chains in the hydrogen-based economy. Five papers are individually listed in the Energy database. Der Weg dahin ist umstritten. Zwei Beitraege berichten ueber den Stand der Fusionsforschung. Im konventionellen Bereich geht es u. Andere Vortraege berichten ueber den Stand der Nutzung der Sonnenenergie und Prozessketten in der Wasserstoffwirtschaft.
Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden fuenf.