Ramsden, the finest instrument of the kind ever made, with a remarkably fine transit instrument. The present professor of astronomy, Dr. Brinkley, is considered as one of the first mathematicians of the age, and is no less remarkable for the mildness and urbanity of his manners than for his profound learning and deep scientific knowledge.
By the assistance of the noble apparatus here, he has been enabled to solve some very important problems in astronomy, which had for a long time been the subject of research among the most distinguished mathematicians all over Europe — A piece of ground just out of Dublin has been recently purchased by the College for a botanic garden; but it was at this time too much in its infancy to be worth seeing.
I had not been many days in Dublin when I was most fortunately furnished with an opportunity of renewing an acquaintance from which many years before I had derived great pleasure; this was with Mr. Weld the ingenious author of Travels in America , and of an excellent description of the Lakes of Killarney. We met by chance in the street; and, though nearly twenty years had elapsed since our last meeting, we had no difficulty in recognising each other. Such an encounter was the more fortunate since Mr. Weld was not an inhabitant of Dublin , he was only come from the country for a few days.
He very obligingly expressed great pleasure in the interview; and, to prove that these expressions were not empty sounds, anxiously inquired how he could contribute towards doing the honours of his country to a stranger. Finding that I had not been at the Dublin Society , of which he is a very zealous and active member, he insisted upon carrying me thither at the instant; and thither we accordingly went. This Society, such as it now is, has varied very considerably from its original institution.
So long ago as in the year , a number of gentlemen, at the head of whom was Mr. Prior of Rathdowney in the Queen's County, associated themselves together for the purpose of improving the agriculture and husbandry of their country; and this was the first association ever formed, in the British dominions at least, — perhaps it might be said, all the world over, — expressly for such purposes. It has however in the lapse of time, by first enlarging the objects it embraced, at length lost sight of its original and primary one; so that while agricultural societies have in the course of a few years started up almost with the rapidity of mushrooms, throughout the British dominions, — this, the father of them all, is scarcely one any longer: The stipend granted by the Government is not the less continued to it.
The collection of minerals is esteemed one of the most complete and the most scientifically arranged that any country can boast. The Museum Hibernicum — Regnum Minerale — contains, as its title denotes, the minerals of Ireland alone; and few countries yield a more abundant harvest to the mineralogist: Among them is a piece of the Wicklow gold, and with it a model in brass of the largest piece ever found, weighing twenty-two ounces. Leske by whom it was made. This gentleman was Professor of Natural History at Marpurg in Germany, and was a pupil of the celebrated Werner, according to whose system the minerals are arranged.
They consist of between seven and eight thousand specimens, from all parts of the world. At the death of Mr. Leske , his heirs not inheriting his taste, or perhaps wanting the money, the collection was offered to sale, and was purchased by the Dublin Society for twelve hundred guineas. Among the Irish minerals are specimens of all the different forms assumed by the basaltic columns at the Giants' Causeway ; and a meteoric stone which fell in the county of Tipperary, the fall of which is too well authenticated to admit of a doubt.
Two men were at work upon the top of a house, when they heard a whizzing noise as if a cannon-ball were passing rapidly over their heads, and in a few instants saw something strike the ground at no great distance. They hastened immediately to the spot, when they perceived that the earth had the appearance of being recently ploughed up; and raking in it with their hands they soon found this stone.
It was then so hot that they could scarcely bear to touch it, and retained the same heat for nearly four hours. A large collection of specimens of different woods forms another very interesting object in this Museum. There is also a piece of wood from a tree, which when cut down was found to have letters carved in it, so far within, as to prove incontestably the truth of Mr. Forsyth 's theory, that the bark forms over and over the trunk of the tree in repeated coats. The collection of stuffed birds and other animals is by no means large or very select; there are some remains of the moose deer, but not so good as at the College museum.
Among the relics of antiquity are several heads of axes, which were dug up in the south of Ireland , corresponding exactly with some that have been found in the plain of Cannae and in Egypt, and which are considered as Carthaginian. This seems strongly to corroborate the idea that the Carthaginians, the most adventurous navigators of ancient days, actually traded to Ireland. Here is also a spur found in digging in some remote part of the country, of a size so enormous, and with a rowel so enormous, that it really seems as if it had belonged to a giant.
Models of Stone-henge such as it is now, and such as it is supposed to have been when perfect, are among the curiosities shown. This collection is always open to any one who shows a taste for the arts and is desirous of improving it, whatever may be his rank and situation in life. I saw some specimens of the works of the pupils very well executed. There is a very complete chemical laboratory, with a theatre for lectures.
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The board-room, where the meetings of the Society are held, is large and handsomely fitted up: The Exhibition-room is spacious and handsome. It was originally appropriated solely to exhibiting the works of living artists; but this year for the first time, in imitation of the British Institution in London, the principal noblemen and gentlemen of the country, who had in their possession good pictures by the ancient masters, had lent them to form an exhibition, for the benefit of young students.
The pictures were to remain for three months. To students this gallery was open gratis till eleven in the morning: There were some very fine pictures: Sebastian by Guercino , a St. Jerome by Spagnoletto , a landscape by Claude Lorraine , and one by Cuyp ; from the duke of Leinster's collection: Carracci , from Trinity College; a St.
Francis by Guido, from Sir T. These I mention as among the most striking, but there were many other very good ones. The principal contributors to the exhibition were, the Duke of Leinster, who sent nineteen pictures; Lady Harriet Daly , eighteen; Dr. Tuke, thirteen; Trinity College, six.
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These are the largest numbers sent by any contributors but the list of names by whom pictures were sent amounted to twenty-five, and the number of pictures to a hundred and thirteen. Added to all these things the Society have a most noble botanic garden at Glasnevin, a village just out of Dublin to the north. It is much larger than any other that I have seen either in the British dominions or in France , beyond which my knowledge does not extend; comprising more than sixteen Irish acres of ground, or about twenty-two English acres, and is laid out with great taste and judgement. The conservatories, however, and the collection of exotic plants, are not so good as in the King's garden at Kew.
It stands very high; and there is a fine view from the eminence, over the city and bay. Nothing, in short, can be conducted upon a more complete and liberal plan for the promotion of its various objects, than this Society is. The number of members at present is about five hundred: By these deposits, and the grant from Government, the institution is supported. There are no annual subscribers. The house in which I saw it in was in Hawkins-street, near the College.
Before my second visit to Ireland in the following year, Leinster-house, in Kildare-street, the town-residence of the Duke of Leinster, had been purchased by the Society, and the collections were all removed thither, but not arranged; so that, to my great regret, I could not renew and enlarge my acquaintance with objects so multifarious and well deserving the attention of every one visiting Dublin. The Dublin Institution in Sackville-street has a very good library, which is open to the proprietors and members from seven in the morning till ten at night, with a second collection of books for circulation among the members, from which each may have two out at a time.
There is also a news-room, where are English, Irish, Scotch, and French newspapers. A lecture-room was built, and a philosophical apparatus purchased; but so much money was expended on the library and these things, that it has been thought prudent to withhold the lectures awhile; with the intention, however, of resuming the idea whenever it shall be found practicable: The Institution was commenced only in , by three hundred subscribers at 50l.
A subscription of that sum constitutes a proprietor: Besides the three hundred proprietors, there may be members without limit, who pay three guineas entrance, and three guineas a-year; but they must also be elected by ballot. The Institution is managed by a committee of proprietors; but, this excepted, the members share all advantages equally with the proprietors.
The Royal Irish Academy was founded by the late Earl of Charlemont , and was incorporated by charter in the year Its objects are the advancement of science and polite literature, and the study of antiquities. In each of these departments there is a committee of seven, chosen for carrying on the purposes of the Academy. That for science meets on the first Monday in every month; that for polite literature on the second Monday; that for antiquities on the third; and a meeting of the Academy at large is held on the fourth.
The Council, which consists of the three committees, meet from time to time by adjournment. An annual prize of a gold medal worth 50l. Twelve volumes of the Transactions of this Academy have already been published. I was favoured by a gentleman, with whom I had the pleasure of passing many very pleasant hours in my second visit to Dublin , Mr. Kernan, a person of very extensive knowledge and science, with a copy of an essay by his sister which had obtained a prize from the Academy. The subject is The Influence of fictitious History on modern Manners.
Since I was last at Dublin Mr. Kernan has also distinguished himself so much by a course of chemical lectures, as to have been complimented for them by the Company of Apothecaries in Dublin with a piece of plate bearing an inscription suited to the occasion. The Castle, as it is called, the seat of government, and town-residence of the Lord-lieutenant, was in former times actually a fortress, flanked with bastions, and having a ditch round it.
The wall of this building is said to be fourteen feet thick. This loss of the venerable remains of antiquity is not compensated by any beauty of modern architecture. The deputy's residence in this country bears indeed a striking affinity in its outward appearance with that of the principal in London; — neither of them possesses a single one of those features which the idea of a palace immediately presents to the imagination. Dublin Castle is an ugly, shabby, red-brick building; and an uglier material for building was never invented by the ingenuity of man, till the architects of Brighton thought of using the still more hideous black composition of which so many houses in that town are constructed.
The whole range of building is divided into two courts.
In the interior court, which is called the Upper Castle-yard, are the state apartments, with the private apartments of the Lord-lieutenant, and those of most of the great officers of state. In the outer court, or Lower Castle-yard, are the treasury, the offices of the board of ordnance, of the quartermaster-general, of the secretary-at-war, and other public offices, with an arsenal, and an armoury containing arms sufficient for eighty thousand men.
But the most beautiful part of the castle is the new Gothic chapel, which occupies a conspicuous place in the Lower Castle-yard. It was not completed at the time of my first visit to Dublin, but was so at my second; and though not open promiscuously to all, through the politeness and patronage of Sir William Betham , the herald-at-arms, I was shown all over it.
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It is in the true Gothic style of the days when that mode of building was arrived at its highest perfection; and is indeed a beautiful specimen of modern taste and industry. The ornaments are copied principally from York cathedral. Of late years it has been found so insufficient for the increasing trade of the country, that a building at least equally spacious, called the Commercial Building, has been erected near it by private subscription, as an auxiliary.
It has a neat stone front, without any attempt at ornamental architecture. The Post-office has at present nothing to boast of as to outward show; but the first stone of a new one in Sackville-street was laid this year by the Lord-lieutenant on the twelfth of August, the centenary of the Hanover accession to the throne of England.
The plan is said to be of equal beauty with the other modern buildings of Dublin ; and being placed in the widest street of the city, where it will be seen with every advantage, it will be a great additional ornament. Saint Patrick's Cathedral — Dr. Such are the associations connected with Saint Patrick's cathedral, that no one can visit Dublin without feeling his attention early and eagerly directed towards it. I have mentioned that I had a letter of introduction to Sir Charles and Lady Morgan ; to their politeness I was obliged for several other very agreeable acquaintance to whom I was introduced.
Among them was that distinguished scholar and zealous antiquarian, Mr. William Monk Mason , with his beautiful and amiable wife. When I talked of going to Saint Patrick's, Mr. Mason , with the same disposition that I every where found to do the honours of the country in the politest manner to a stranger, proposed accompanying me thither the next Sunday, when he would explain all the antiquities, and would speak to the Dean that I might hear the best voices in the choir; — the party was joined by Sir Charles and Lady Morgan.
A very fine Cantate Domino and Deus misereatur were performed, with an anthem from the hundred-and-thirty-ninth Psalm, by three voices. The first singer, Mr. Spray, is indeed a very fine one; and the other two, though not perhaps equal to him, were such as would be an ornament to any choir.
Saint Patrick's is a Gothic building of the twelfth century: Indeed none of the Gothic remains in Ireland are to be compared with those in England. I believe some of the latter are allowed to be the best in existence in any part of the world; I saw none in France equal to them. The tower is the handsomest part of the exterior; but it is exceedingly deformed by the addition of a spire so totally defective in taste and workmanship, that it looks like a vast extinguisher: Stearne , bishop of Clogher, having left a legacy for the purpose.
In the nave of the church stands the monument to Dean Swift , which is an object of almost sacred veneration to the inhabitants; yet has he a more lasting monument than could be formed in brass or marble, in the bosoms of a grateful nation, to whom he was so generous a benefactor, of whose rights he was such a strenuous supporter. Near his monument is one to Stella , and another erected by the Dean to Alexander Magee , a faithful servant of his, who died in the year Since the monument to the Dean was first erected, a bust of him, esteemed a very good likeness, has been placed over it by Mr.
Faulkner, the nephew and heir of George Faulkner , the dean's bookseller and the publisher of his works. Besides these there is in the nave a monument to Dr. Marsh , formerly archbishop of Dublin, who bequeathed a very valuable library to the use of the public. This library is kept in a room near the cathedral. The Doctor's intention appears to have been that it should be perfectly free to every-body: The library is open every day from eleven to three o'clock, Sundays and holidays excepted, when all graduates and gentlemen are admitted to read; but no one is allowed to take a book down himself, he must apply to the librarian for what he wants.
Since this donation, the access to books has become so much more easy by means of reading-societies and other literary establishments, that it is now but little resorted to: Marsh 's monument is one to Dr. Smith , another archbishop of Dublin, who died in ; and on one side of the great west door is a very curious old monument again to an archbishop of Dublin, but at a much earlier period, a Dr. Michael Tregury , who died in In the choir, on the south side of the communion-table, is an immense ugly massive monument of painted wood to the family of Boyle, earls of Cork, on which are effigies of different members of the family to the amount of sixteen.
On the other side of the communion-table is a monument to the Marshal Duke de Schomberg , who was killed at the memorable battle of the Boyne. It was erected in the time of Dean Swift at the expense of the Chapter.
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There are many other monuments in different parts of the church, but these are the most distinguished. The Chapter-room forms the south transept. In it are suspended the banners with the other insignia of the deceased knights of St. Patrick; those of the living knights are suspended in the choir of the church. Near the chapter-room, in a niche in the south wall of the church, is a little basin of water called St. Patrick's well, to which are ascribed so many virtues, that it is very much frequented by the lower classes of the people.
The Chapter consists of twenty-six members; the dean, twenty prebendaries, two archdeacons, the chancellor, the chanter, and the treasurer. One of the prebendal stalls, that of Cullen, is annexed to the archbishopric. Though this edifice has no peculiar beauty of architecture to be displayed, yet as a venerable relic of antiquity, and as being rendered still more venerable by the revered name of Swift now attached to it, so indissolubly that the church cannot be adverted to without the idea of that extraordinary and comprehensive mind presenting itself; — for these reasons it is much to be regretted that it stands in so bad a part of the town, and that there is no good access to it from any quarter.
The best is by the west door; but this is never opened except on extraordinary occasions, such as an installation of the knights of St. Patrick, or some other grand ceremonial. Added to this, it is so inclosed round with miserable houses, that it is really difficult to make out where the walls of the church are. This is a fault also to be regretted in some of our most magnificent cathedrals in England. Something has of late been done towards removing the nuisance, for so it must be termed, from Westminster Abbey, honour and praise be to those who have presided at the improvement!
Patrick's cathedral would make an infinitely more respectable appearance standing in a large area. The bust cannot be supposed a likeness; it is very unlike all other representations of this celebrated character, and bears by no means the stamp of genius the forehead is remarkable for sloping back very rapidly from the eye-brows, in direct opposition to that fine arched forehead which is the distinguishing feature of intellect. The picture, however, makes ample amends: In saying that we trace in this countenance the mind capable of producing such a work, every thing is said.
The frame is a curious piece of carving, having the harp on each side with a variety of other emblems; it is of the fine Irish bog oak: What shall be said of the taste of such a man? This picture, with three dining-tables of very fine mahogany used by the Dean, are left as heir-looms to the Deanery. The house in which this celebrated man resided was some years ago destroyed by fire, but the present Deanery stands on the same site. Another very high treat was afforded me by Mr. Mason during my stay in Dublin, in looking over his most extensive and valuable library.
Ardent almost to enthusiasm in his researches into the antiquities of his country, particularly the ancient literature, he has amassed a very large collection both of printed books and manuscripts relative to them; among them are several manuscripts relating to the Brehon laws. But one great object of his ardour is collecting all the old manuscript pieces of poetry in the Irish language which he can possibly procure. Of these fragments he has already a considerable number, and he is confident that he shall at length prove irrefutably the claims of Ireland to the Ossianic heroes, which Scotland has so long arrogated to herself, since he will be able to produce poems in manuscript to substantiate the Irish claims, while Scotland has only oral tradition to justify hers.
I saw it in a state of great disorder, as he was but just removed into a new house in Harcourt-street, and half the books were lying scattered about the floor. Mason, a most lovely and amiable woman, alike in person and disposition, has a few very fine specimens of old china. The see of Dublin has two cathedrals attached to it, St. This latter, as the more ancient, ought perhaps to have had precedence, but St.
Patrick's has by association a value stamped upon it which almost precludes the possibility of not adverting to it the first. The original foundation of Christ-church is ascribed to the son of one of the Danish kings of Dublin , early in the eleventh century, more than a hundred-and-fifty years before the foundation of St. It was then a college of regular canons dedicated to the blessed Trinity, but was converted into a Chapter at the Reformation.
The church was probably in its original state, though built so long prior to St. Patrick's, much its superior as a piece of architecture. About two centuries and a half ago, from the decay of the roof, the south side of the nave fell down, and a mere blank wall has been built up in its place, which gives an air of deformity to the whole building; but the other side of the nave is much handsomer than any part of St. The style of the building is for the greater part Gothic; but there is one arch in the south transept of the form generally called in this country Saxon.
Near the wall which fell is a monument to the noted Earl Strongbow, the great agent, in conjunction with Dermod Mac Murrough, then king of Leinster, in the subjugation of Ireland to Henry the Second. The church was enlarged by Earl Strongbow in conjunction with the then Archbishop of Dublin and others, soon after Dublin surrendered to the English. The Chapter consists of a dean, three prebendaries, a chancellor, and a chanter. The Bishop of Kildare for the time being is dean, and one of the prebendal stalls is appropriated to the Archdeacon of Dublin. Lambert Simnel was crowned king in this church in the year , by the title of Edward the Sixth.
It was here that the liturgy was performed for the first time in Ireland in the English tongue, on Easter Sunday In the nave is also a handsome monument to Lord Bowes, who served several great law offices in Ireland , under the three kings of the House of Hanover. He attained the highest dignity in his profession, that of Lord Chancellor, in , and the following year was created a baron: On the north side of the communion-table is a very fine monument to the Earl of Kildare, the nineteenth in succession who had borne that title, and whose son became Duke of Leinster.
Another of the ornaments of this church is the monument to Mr. Prior the founder of the Dublin Society. On the top is his bust, below which stand two boys, one pointing to a bas-relief representing Minerva leading the Arts towards Hibernia, while the other holds in his hand a scroll, on which is the following inscription: The pavement of the church has been so much raised since its first erection, that the basements of the pillars are now sunk several inches beneath it: To this cause must it probably be ascribed that the monument to Earl Strongbow appears now so little raised above the pavement; it may reasonably be presumed that it was higher originally; but has, like the pillars, been earthed up.
The choir is rather handsome, and is fitted up with Irish oak. In it is a gallery for the Lord-lieutenant, who is obliged to attend service here on Christmas-day and on Easter-Sunday. The same singers perform the service here as at St. Patrick's; in the former at half past ten in the morning, in the latter at three in the afternoon. This cathedral stands, like St.
Patrick's, in a very bad part of the town. On the south side, joined to it, are a number of miserable ruins of the building where formerly the Four-Courts were held, before the erection of the present noble edifice. At the original foundation of the church, the episcopal palace was on this spot; but whether the Four-Courts were formed out of this building, or another was erected upon the same site, is not known.
One part of the ruins is still inhabited, but only by the poorest class, and appears likely to fall at any moment. Close by is an archway of perhaps forty or fifty feet in length, which appears evidently to have formed part of a cloister; but it is now so earthed up within, that little more than the vaulted roof remains aboveground. The memory, on seeing it, recurs irresistibly to the stupendous ruins of ancient Egypt, so many of which are described as earthed up in like manner.
The woman who showed us about took great pains to impress upon our minds the much greater antiquity of this church than St. Patrick's; the latter she seemed to hold in sovereign contempt, as a thing but of yesterday. Of the parochial churches, St. Werburgh's is the principal. There the Lord-lieutenant and Court used to attend divine service before the new chapel to the Castle was opened, St. The portico and spire are both handsome; over the portico is inscribed: Saint Andrew's, or the Round Church as it is more commonly called, is remarkable for the circular form whence it has its name.
Its external appearance is indeed so unlike any of our usually received ideas of a church, that no one, till informed, could possibly conjecture it to be one: The building is brick stuccoed over to have the appearance of stone; over the principal door is a group representing the martyrdom of the patron saint. There are sixteen other parish churches, but none particularly worthy of notice.
Dublin also contains sixteen meeting-houses for protestant dissenters of different persuasions, ten catholic chapels, six friaries, and six nunneries, but no synagogue for the Jews. The charitable institutions of Dublin are very numerous, and well regulated: This excellent charity owes its origin to the exertions of Dr. Bartholomew Mosse , once a celebrated surgeon and accoucheur in Dublin.
Struck with the unfortunate and comfortless situation of poor women at such a moment, of which, probably, from the nature of his profession he had too often ocular demonstration, in the year he took a house in George's-street for their reception, and supported it for some time entirely at his own expense. Like many other patriotic undertakings, the utility of which has in the end been universally acknowledged and applauded, a great popular clamour was at first raised against this institution; but at length the benefit derived from it was so palpable, that not only was the voice of opposition silenced, but the popular cry became as warm in its favour as it had once been against it; and the number of patients applying for admission was so great, that the original house was by no means competent to receiving them.
Many charitable and well-disposed persons now came forward to aid the Doctor's benevolent purpose; some with benefactions, others with annual subscriptions, till at length he formed the plan of erecting the present Hospital. He took a long lease of the ground on which it stands, and the first stone of the building was laid in , by the then lord-mayor of Dublin; while, the better to secure the probability of supporting his new foundation, he expended a considerable sum of money in laying out a portion of the ground as a garden for public amusement.
In a lottery he was tolerably successful; but, another scheme entirely failing, in the year he applied to Parliament for assistance, and obtained a grant of l. The following sessions, on renewing his application, another grant was afforded him of a like sum; and at the same time a vote was passed giving him l. The same year he obtained a charter from King George the Second , incorporating a number of the principal noblemen and gentlemen of Ireland as governors of his new establishment, and appointing him Master for life.
On the 8th of December it was opened for the reception of patients. To the Hospital has since been attached a building, of a circular form, thence called the Rotunda, where are rooms for public amusements, as balls, concerts, or exhibitions of any kind, with a theatre for public lectures; and from the profits yielded by these different objects, combined with those afforded by the gardens, and collections made at the time of service in the chapel, the Hospital is principally supported.
The gardens are open every night during the summer as a promenade, with a band of music and lights, each person paying sixpence at entrance, and they are much frequented even by very good company. About seventy thousand patients have been admitted since the opening of the Hospital, nineteen of whom have had three children at a birth, and one four.
The building exhibits in the exterior a happy medium between excessive plainness and idle ornament, and nothing can be neater or more comfortable than the wards for the reception of the poor women. The chapel is very prettily fitted up; and as it is open to the public on Sundays, is much attended. The square in which this Hospital and garden stand is now called Rutland-square, from its having been much improved and embellished under the patronage of the Duke of Rutland when he was Lord Lieutenant.
Since the death of Dr. Mosse , a new master of the Hospital is elected every seven years.
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The Foundling Hospital is a very extensive institution, established upon a truly noble and liberal principle, — the idea of removing every inducement to the neglect or destruction of infant innocence, which poverty or shame might prompt. Till that time all children were indiscriminately taken in; nothing was requisite but to deposit the child in a cradle fixed for the purpose at the principal entrance. This facility of admission occasioned children to be sent thither from all parts of the country; nay, they were even brought from England; the importation of them was, as I have been credibly informed, become a regular branch of traffic among the inferior traders between Dublin and Liverpool.
By the present regulation, the person must knock at the door and deliver in the child; and though it is received without any questions being asked, yet the bearer being obliged to show him- or herself, has been found a very great check upon the former illicit practices. The Hospital stands in a very airy situation, on the south side of the river, quite at the western extremity of the town. It was first founded in ; and, after various experiments for supporting it, a tax of one shilling in the pound upon the rent of all houses within the city was granted, with some additional duty upon inns, taverns, porter-houses, and the like.
The establishment is extremely well conducted, and the children all look perfectly clean, healthy, and happy. The infants are for the most part sent into the country, to the care of nurses provided for the purpose, where they remain till they are six years old; but the nurses are required to present them at the hospital once a year, when they come for their salaries, that the directors may be assured proper care is taken of them. The Blue-coat Hospital was originally intended for the support of the aged and infirm poor of the city, as well as for the education of children; but the funds proving inadequate to the support of so enlarged a plan, it is now confined to the education of boys.
The sons of reduced freemen have the preference before all others, with the exception of about fifty, who being on particular foundations, the persons appointing them are left entirely at liberty in their choice. The children are lodged, fed, clothed, and instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic, till they arrive at a proper age to be bound as apprentices. A mathematical-school is supported in the hospital by the corporation of merchants, for instructing a certain number of boys in navigation, who at a proper age are apprenticed to merchants or captains of ships, to be trained to the sea-service.
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It is for the reception of invalid soldiers, and will hold four hundred pensioners. A great number of out-pensioners are also supported by it — The land on which this hospital stands formerly belonged to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, who, as well as the Knights Templars, had in their days of prosperity possessions in almost every county in Ireland. A stone fountain adjoining the burying-ground of the hospital is dedicated to the first-mentioned knights.
Tasso , in his Gierusalemme Liberata , enumerates the Irish as among the nations that followed his hero to the crusade. Fuller , in his Holy Warre , mentions the priory of Kilmainham for hospitalers, and says that the Irish after Henry the Second's conquest of their country soon began to look towards Palestine; "Yea," he adds, "the concert of Christendom could have made no musick in these wars if the Irish harp had been wanting.
Stephen's Hospital supports seventy aged persons, decayed housekeepers, tradesmen, and servants, besides being an infirmary for the sick. Patrick's Hospital, founded by Dean Swift, is well known as an asylum for unfortunate lunatics and idiots.
Mercer's Hospital, founded by Mrs. Mary Mercer, is an infirmary for the sick poor: There are two Fever Hospitals, one in Cork-street, the other in Saint George's parish; — two Lock Hospitals, in Townsend-street and in Dorset-street; two Magdalen Asylums; — an Asylum for female orphans between five and ten years of age; — an Hospital for blind and gouty men; — and one for persons labouring under incurable diseases, which holds fifty patients. Near Clontarf is a Charter School, where a hundred-and-twenty boys are lodged, fed, clothed, and educated in the Protestant religion.
There are, besides, several Dispensaries, with an Institution for promoting Vaccination; and a variety of minor associations for different purposes of benevolence. The Asylum for Instructing the Blind, instituted by the Duke of Richmond, must not be passed over without being particularized. Nor must the House of Industry. This is a most excellent, extensive, and well regulated establishment for the reception of the poor; — all are admitted who desire it, no recommendation is required; but they must submit to the rules of the house. They are not permitted to live in idleness: The children are kept separate from the grown persons; and there is an infirmary for the sick, considerably removed from the receptacles of the healthy.
There are also a number of cells for lunatics; — I think about fifty. The people are entirely maintained here; and the works carried on nearly support the establishment: With an asylum like this to resort to, it is a shame that such an object as a beggar should be seen in the streets; yet are there swarms; and so wretched and tattered is their appearance, that it is impossible not to recur immediately to the celebrated saying recorded of that arch-wit Foote, "that he used to wonder what the English beggars could do with their cast-off rags, till he went over to Ireland , and then he perceived that they were sent to the Irish beggars.
A sort of caravan is often sent round the town, known by the cant name of the Black Cart, to take up persons found begging, and carry them to the House of Industry. The moment the beggars spy this vehicle at a distance, away they sculk into some place where they can lie concealed, nor venture forth again till a long time after it has disappeared. Sometimes, however, it will catch them unawares, and they are carried away: The cart is always followed by a great mob of people, particularly children. It is indeed a truth too striking to be passed over unnoticed, how much worse is the appearance of the lower classes in Ireland than in England!
This is more especially the case with the women, among whom such a spectacle is the most revolting. I have even seen in the north of Ireland , very well dressed women, in clean white gowns and smart bonnets, walking along the public road without shoes or stockings; they were tied up in a handkerchief and carried in their hands, ready to be put on when they touched on the place of their destination, which perhaps was a fair.
University College Cork
I did not observe this among well-dressed women in the south; but the north is half peopled by Scotch families, it is therefore not surprising that Scotch manners should prevail so much more among them. Another peculiarity which I observed in the dress of the women is, that, alike in the heat of summer as in the cold of winter, they walk about in long cloth cloaks; and that not only such as come absolutely under the definition of the poor, but women who rise a step higher in society, as inferior tradespeople and the like.
Though not coming under the description of charitable institutions, yet as an object of great public utility must be mentioned the Baths established within a few years by Sir Arthur Clarke. Too far from the Bay to obtain a supply of sea-water, unless by means of very expensive works, he forms, as a substitute, an artificial sea-water, by dissolving rock-salt in fresh water, which is said to be equally efficacious with the salt element itself. There are both hot and cold baths fitted up with the utmost neatness, and with every accommodation that can be wished by those who are to use them.
He has also medicinal baths, made by imitating certain natural springs, the composition of which is well known. This establishment was thought to reflect so much credit on the undertaker, that it obtained him the honour of knighthood, which occasions the wags to give him the appellation of the Knight of the Bath, while on Lady Clarke,?
His lady was a Miss Owenson, sister to Lady Morgan. She is very musical, and possesses a singular talent, approaching to ventriloquism, of imitating in singing two very different voices, so that it is scarcely possible to suppose they do not proceed from separate performers. The first time that I was entertained with a specimen of this talent, was in a large party at the house of her sister Lady Morgan , a few days after my arrival in Dublin. The company were in two. I own this appeared to me rather an odd performance to introduce, since there was nothing in the singing of either party very much to amuse or gratify the company.
How was I astonished when I found the whole to be executed by the same person, and that a lady whose natural voice, unlike either of the characters she assumed, is pleasing and melodious! Like the College of Surgeons in London, whose establishment is in the largest square of that large city, Lincoln's-Inn- Fields, the incorporated Surgeons of Dublin have theirs in the largest square of this metropolis, Stephen's Green.
The College of Surgeons is a handsome modern building, and one of the great ornaments of the square. It includes a good library, a theatre for lectures, a dissecting-room, and a museum for anatomical curiosities. Dublin possesses men of great talents and eminence in every branch of medical science. There are eleven markets in this city: Besides these there is the City market, in Blackhall-row, where little else is sold than mutton, lamb, and pork;? Fleet market, in Townsend-street, which on the contrary is principally a beef-market, and supplies the shipping;?
Spitalfields market, chiefly for bacon;? Smithfield, for live cattle, hay and straw;? This is now held near the Great Canal harbour. Potatoes, as the staple article of food throughout Ireland , are of course in profusion in all the markets; they are much cheaper than in London: This vegetable forms no less a constant dish at the tables of the rich, than the poor; the only difference is, that they are served in a more luxurious way, fresh ones being brought in hot two or three times in the course of the dinner; they are always served up with the skins on.
Eggs are equally a constant part of an Irish breakfast. Whoever sees the river Liffey, such as it is running through Dublin , must smile at the recollection of Tickel's poem, beginning Of Leinster fam'd for maidens fair, Bright Lucy was the grace; Nor e'er did Liffey's limpid stream Reflect a fairer face; — since nothing can be more black, dirty, and in every way the reverse of limpid, than is the complexion of these waters as they traverse the metropolis. Instead of being an ornament to the town, as a river ought to be, it is really rather a revolting sight. From what cause this may proceed I know not; but it should seem that it must be from very great mismanagement of some kind.
Are no pains ever bestowed in cleaning it? I know not whether either of these causes may have any share in the evil, but I know that the magistrates of the town would do well to exert their influence in having the cause thoroughly investigated, and proper remedies applied. It is generally expected that a tide river should be sweet and pure; that the constant ebb and flow should keep it free from impurities: When the spot on which Dublin stands was first inhabited, and for a long series of years after, the river seems to have spread into a much wider channel, and the ground on each side was altogether marshy and swampy.
It is by a gradual process that the river has been confined within its present limits. Three centuries ago the whole extent of ground from near the back of the College on to Ringsend appears to have been under water at the flow of the tide; to have been in fact much such another tract as what is now termed the North Bull. Even a century later there was a sort of petty harbour, where is now Townsend-street, at which passengers from England used frequently to land. At the latter period, that is two centuries ago, the part where now stands the Custom-house, the two Ormond Quays, and a considerable tract beyond on the north side of the river, was in the same predicament.
The making the quays has certainly given a very handsome appearance to the town; but if it has been in any degree the occasion of the evil I have noticed, that much more than counterbalances the advantage. The walls of the quays are built of the same granite, from Bullock, that has been mentioned in speaking of the pier. The name of this river has been curiously perverted: It was so called because, having its source in mountainous regions, the waters will sometimes, on occasion of heavy rains, come down with the rapidity of a mountain torrent.
The Anna Liffey is the name by which it is now designated in public documents, though in common conversation the former part of the name is usually dropped, and it is called simply the Liffey. Sir John Carr , in his Stranger in Ireland , makes a very odd confusion about the course of this river, since he places its source only four or five miles to the west of Dublin , yet says that it meanders beautifully through the whole county of Kildare.
The fact is, that it has its source among the Wicklow mountains , near a celebrated spot which will be noticed in its proper place, Loch Hela , that is, the lake of Hela; or, as by corruption it is now usually pronounced, Luggelaw. From thence it pursues a very winding course before it reaches Dublin ; and in two spots, as will be mentioned hereafter, pours down rocks, forming fine cascades. It is only navigable up to the first bridge in Dublin ; and at a very short distance beyond the town it becomes quite a small shallow stream, and really limpid.
It is crossed in the town by several bridges, three of which are very handsome. The first, that is the nearest to the mouth of the river, Carlisle-bridge, has only been built between twenty and thirty years: It is two feet broader between the balustrades than Westminster-bridge, but is very far short of it in length.
Essex-bridge, the next, has been built somewhat more than half a century: The other bridges, to the last, quite at the western extremity of the town, are not of any note. The last was begun in the year , while the Earl of Westmoreland was Lord-lieutenant; and the first stone being laid by his countess, it was called after her Sarah-bridge. It is also called the Rialto of Dublin , since it consists, like that at Venice, of only one elliptical arch. The whole length of the bridge is feet; the span of the arch is feet; the breadth thirty-eight, and the key-stone is twenty-two feet above high-water.
It is indeed a beautiful piece of architecture. A new bridge is planned directly opposite the Four-Courts, to be called after the duke of Richmond Richmond-bridge: Both to the north and to the south such vast additions have of late years been made to the city, that they may almost be called new towns.
The largest square in Dublin has the appellation of Stephen's Green. It is somewhat singular, that among the Irish, of whom three-fourths may probably, upon a moderate computation, be considered as adhering to the Catholic persuasion, — a religion abounding so much with saints, that not only does it furnish one for every day in the year, but, if any thing occasions one to be degraded from his station in the calendar, there is always another ready to supply his place, — it is rather extraordinary, that, among a people adhering so much to a religion thus abounding with saints, when the names of these saints are applied to a street or a square, they are deprived of their sanctity.
Thus instead of Saint Stephen's Green, as might be expected, this square is simply called Stephen's-green: The area of Stephen's-green is larger than that of any square in London: On my first arrival in Dublin , the centre was a green enclosed round with a live hedge, without which was a ditch; and between that and the road round the square was a row of very fine elms. This was in July The twelfth of August, the centenary of the Hanover accession to the British throne, was to be celebrated with great rejoicings, one part of which was a display of fire-works on Stephen's-green.
Having been absent from Dublin upon a visit into the country, from the sixth to the tenth, at my return I observed a most lamentable and sacrilegious havoc which had been made among these trees; they had been stripped almost naked to the trunks, that the fireworks might be the better seen from the houses. Spencer is also organizing the upcoming He began writing in the mids, publishing his first novel in In he founded the renowned literary magazine Souffles, a journal of literature and politics that was to earn Guest interviewer Suzannah V.
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At the end of the program, host Charlie Rossiter discusses Hadley's environmental conservation work. Originally recorded June 4, Aired August 1, Smith discusses her new book and her tenure as current US poet laureate. If you enjoy this podcas Ian Ferrier, in town from Montreal, takes listeners and host Pamela Bentley away from the summer heat wave with some passionate winter poems from his book, Bear Dreams, as well as reading his new children's book, A Child Sees Winter Coming and a Bear Dreams, illustrated by Cameron Murray.
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