In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, here were two hundred and sixteen salt-works, of six leads-walling each: The duty produced from them amounts annually to near five thousand pounds: The tax on this useful article is very considerable; which it bears, as being of most cheap fabrick, and most universal use. This tribute was continued on the Britons when the Romans possessed our isle. THE latter also made salt part of the pay of their soldiers, which was called salarium; and from which is derived our word salary. Salinis was a place not far from hence, one of the wiches; but I am uncertain which.
The Romans made use of the springs, and made salt by much the same process as we do at present. The salt produced was white. It struck the natives, who stiled this place, perhaps the first place where they saw salt of this kind, Heledd-Wen, or the white brine-pits, to distinguish them from the springs which they used in so slovenly a fashion. There were mountains of salt in India. Scotland and Ireland are totally destitute of them. Thus, there are some which rise out of the middle of the Were, in the bishoprick of Durham; others in Yorkshire, Cumberland, Lancashire, and Oxfordshire: FROM that period to the present, they have been successively in use.
The Saxons, according to their idea of liberty, divided them between the king, the great people, and the freemen. Thus, at Nantwich was one brine-pit, which gave employ to numbers of salinae, or works. Eight of them were between the king and earl Edwin, of which the king had two shares of the profits, the earl one. Edwin had likewise a work near his manor of Aghton, out of which was made salt sufficient for the annual consumption of his houshold; but if any was sold, the king had a tax of two pence, and the earl of one penny.
IN this place were likewise numbers of works belonging to the people of the neighborhood; which had this usage: From Ascension-day to the feast of St. Martin, whosoever took the salt home, whether his own, or purchased from other works, was to pay toll, except the before-mentioned work of the earl; which enjoyed exemption, according to antient usage. IT appears, that the king and earl farmed out their eight works; for they were obliged to give, on the Friday of the weeks in which they were worked, xvi. This is a measure, which, according to Spelman, amounts to a horse-load, oreight bushels.
The pans of other people, from Ascension-day to that of St. Martin, were not subject to this farm on the Friday; but from St. Martin's day to Ascension they were liable to those customs, in the same manner as those of the king and the earl. THE Welsh used to supply themselves from these pits, before the union of our country with England. ALL these salt-works were confined between the river and a certain ditch. If any person was guilty of a crime, within these limits, he was at liberty of making atonement by a mulct of two shillings, or xxx.
If crimes of that nature were committed without the precinct, the common usage of the county was to be observed. WHETHER this notion might not have been delivered from the Germans to their Saxon progeny, and whether they might not, in after-times, deliver their grateful thanks for these advantages, I will not determine; but certain it is, that on Ascension-day the old inhabitants of Nantwich piously sang a hymn of thanksgiving, for the blessing of the brine.
In fact, salt was, from the earliest times, in the highest esteem, and admitted into religious ceremonies: Homer gives to salt the epithet of divine. Both Greeks and Romans mixed salt with their sacrificial cakes. Molibit et aversos penates Farre pio, saliente mica. IN this town was an antient hospital dedicated to St. Laurence's Hospital; both which stood in the Welsh Row, the street next to Acton; but at present, even their scite is hardly known.
Here was, besides, a chapel called St. Anne's, near to the bridge; but that, likewise, has been totally destroyed. THE church is a very handsome pile, in form of a cross, with an octagonal tower in the centre. The east and west windows are filled with elegant tracery.
The roof of the chancel is of stone, adorned with pretty sculpture. The stalls are neat. THE only remarkable tombs are, a mutilated one of Sir David Cradoc in armor, with three gerbs on his breast for his coat of arms. The other is to John Maisterson and his wife, engraven on a large slab, and dated THIS town was the only one in the county which continued firm to the parlement from the beginning to the end of the civil wars.
The place was defended only by mud-walls and ditches, formed in a hasty manner by the inhabitants and country people; who were highly incensed at some cruel and impolitic treatment they had met with from the royalists. The garrison defended themselves with great obstinacy. The most remarkable attack was on the 18th of January, when the besiegers were repulsed with great loss.
Among the slain on their side, was the famous Captain Sandford; who again employed the eloquence of his pen, but to as little purpose as he did before at Hawarden. To the Officers, Soldiers, and Gentlemen in Namptwyche, these. Let not your zeal in a bad cause dazzle your eyes any longer; but wipe away your vain conceits, that have too long let you into blind errors. Loth I am to undertake the trouble of persuading you into obedience, because your erroneous opinions do most violently oppose reason amongst you; but, however, if you love your town, accept of quarter; and if you regard your lives, work your safeties by yielding your town to Lord Byron, for his Majesty's use.
You see now my battery is fixed; from whence fire shall eternally visit you, to the terror of the old, and females, and consumption of your thatched houses. Do not wonder that I write unto you, having officers in chief above me: Accept of this as a summons, that you forthwith surrender the town; and by that testimony of your fealty to his Majesty, you may obtain favour.
My firelocks, you know, have done strange feats, both by day and night; and hourly we will not fail in our private visits of you. LET these resolve your jealousies concerning our religion: Pray mistake us not, but receive us into your fair esteem. I know we intend loyalty to his Majesty, and will be no other but faithful in his service. This, Gentlemen, believe, from. He sent him up to London, where he was committed prisoner to the Tower, and confined near four years. Nantwich was the residence of the widow of the great Milton, during the latter part of her life.
Minshul, of Stoke, in this neighborhood. The poet married her in the fifty-third or fifty-fourth year of his age, wanting, in the season of his infirmities, assistance from a dearer relation than that of domestics. I fear that he was disappointed; for she is said to have been a lady of most violent spirit. She probably had heard him say as much, in the composition of his invocation to Urania, in his 7th book: At the fourth stone lieth, a little out of the way, Wibbunbury, a small village, supposed to have taken, its name from Wibba, second king of the Mercians, who died in The manor was antiently in the great family of the Praers.
Paul, in lieu of all other services. But the Praers remitted all their right in this manor, and the patronage of the church, to the bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, in , the fifth of Edward I. THERE had been, in much earlier times, a family in this place which took their name from it; for Richard de Wibbunbury was sheriff of Cheshire in Whether the Praers ever assumed that name, is uncertain. THIS village was formerly surrounded with gentlemen's seats.
Among those was Lee, the residence of a family of the same name; from which were descended the Lees, earls of Litchfield, derived from Benedict, a son of this house, who made a settlement at Quarendon, in Buckinghamshire, in the beginning of the reign of Edward IV. Part of the church was taken down in ; at which time many of the monuments were destroyed: The most antient is a large altar-tomb of alabaster, with the figures of a father, and son, and lady, engraven on the stone: This he repaid with the most faithful adherence, raised forces in his support, and lost his life valiantly fighting, in the fatal field at Tewkesbury, on Saturday, May the 4th, His son, with numbers of persons of distinction, took refuge in the abbey.
Hic jacet Johannes Delves, miles, et Elena uxor ejus, nec non Johannes Delves, armiger, filius et heres predicti Johis. Ralph, the second son of Sir John, and his wife Catharine, are represented on a tomb by two brass plates. Sir Thomas lies beneath a canopy, supported by four pillars of the Ionic order, of white marble, gilt and painted. His lady Anne, daughter of Sir William Brereton has a fashionable fore-top, a great ruff, and extended hood. ON getting into the great road, I passed on the left the scite of the antient seat of Lee, and an iron forge.
Sir John Berniers, Lord Bourchier, the noble translator of Froissart, relates the deed with all the simplicity of the original. But when Lord James Audeley sawe that shoulde nedes fyght he sayde to the Prynce I have alwaies served truly my lorde your father, and you also, and shall do as long as I live. Therefore I requyre your Grace, as in rewarde for any servyce that ever I dyde to the Kynge your father, or to you, that you will gyve me licence to departe fro' you, and to set up my self there, as I maye accomplyshe my vowe.
Than the Knyght departed fro the Prince, and went to the foremost front of all the batayles all, onely accompanyed with four Squyers, who promysed nat to sayle him. This Lorde James was a ryghte sage and a valiant knyght, and by hym was muche of the hooste ordeyned and governed the day before.
The journey from Chester to London:
As longe as his breth served him he fought: And they unarmed hym, and bounde up his woundes as well as they coude. Some Knights y t were there answered and sayde, Sir, he is sore hurt, and lieth in a litter here beside; by my faith, said the Prince, of his hurts I am right forye, go and knowe if he maye be broughte hider, or els I will go, and se him there, as he is.
The inscription is lost. ONE of the residences of the Audleys was at this village: Salusbury joined the Duke of York at Ludlow. They were formerly much frequented on account of bathing and drinking. THIS parish is remarkable for Saxon antiquities. The approach is very visible: He seems to have been favored in those reigns. In the reign of Edward II. Fitzherbert command a vast view into Worcestershire and Shropshire.
He is represented as if after the resurrection, shewing the wound in his side to the incredulous disciple. It was found under ground, near the place it now occupies; and seems to have been buried in the reforming times, to preserve it form the rage of the image-breakers. The bounteous Trent, that in himself enseams Both thirty sorts of fish, and thirty sundry streams. His intelligence failed him, and the Scotch insurgents possessed themselves of Derby. In other countries, the nature of the land permits a ready execution of these designs.
Egypt and Holland are levelled to the workmen's hands. Yet such is the case ar present. At present, nothing but a general dearth can create a scarcity in any part adjacent to this extensive work. The profits arising from tonnage is already very considerable; and there is no doubt but they will increase annually; and, notwithstanding the enormous sum of money it has cost in the execution, the proprietors will be amply repaid, and have the comfort to reflect, that, by the conclusion of this project, they have contributed to the good of their country, and acquired wealth for themselves and posterity.
Over each, stones were erected, as usual, in memory of the dead; from whence the names of those places are derived. Wulfere, after this unnatural deed, was struck with the utmost remorse, and, by the influence of his queen and St. This is certain, that religious were found here after the Conquest; for there is an idle tale of two nuns and a priest being slain there, by Enysan, a Norman.
This Enysan, of Walton, was the true re-founder. Little credit should also be given to the murder of the sons of Wulfere. The Saxon Chronicle is silent about the deed. That prince was a convert to Christianity, and seems to have founded the house through the common motives of zeal. The church of this priory was the place of interment of several of this great family; and numbers of magnificent tombs, with their figures in alabaster, lay there till the dissolution; when they were removed to the Augustines, on Stafford Green.
I see on the road-side a fragment of a thick wall, perhaps a remnant of the priory. The church is quite new, and is a very elegant building, dedicated to St. Wulfad, one of the supposed martyrs. At the time of the suppression, a tablet, giving the whole history of the house, was hung up in the priory: He also built in the garden a mausoleum; in which, I think, he is interred.
The place is at present the property of Edward Weld, Esquire, of Lulworth castle, in Dorsetshire, and descended to him of late years, by virtue of a marriage of an ancestor with a daughter of this house, in the reign of Charles II. It passed from this family by the gift of Adena, eldest daughter of William, grandson to the former to Warren de Verdon; and by his daughter Alditha, to Sir William Stafford; and by the marriage of Margaret, daughter of one of his descendants, in the twelfth of Edward III.
It continued in possession of that family till the reign of James I. In his time it was sold to George Digby, groom of the stole to that monarch, by his half-brother Richard Erdeswik. A law-suit concerning this place gave rise to the fatal duel, in November , between James Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun; in which both combatants lost their lives. THE church is in the gift of Lord Harrowby. THE monuments are curious. He erected one in his life-time; and is represented recumbent, a colossal figure in a jacket with short skirts, and spurs on his legs.
Above, in two niches, are his two wives, kneeling: Besides inscriptions to these ladies, is a pedigree of the house; for which, as well as several other epitaphs of the Erdeswiks, the reader is referred to the Appendix. THE inscription on a plain marble tomb, in memory of Mr. Ipsis Idibus Decembris a o. Lectissima heroina Jana Baronissa Gerrard. FROM Sandon the hills recede to the north. In many places are the arms of the Devereux; the devices of the Ferrars and Garnishes; and, in Saxon characters, the initials of the founder, W.
Walter Devereux with the motto Loial suis je. Over the door of the gateway is carved a head in profile, with a crown above. In the middle of the court stands a fountain: The view within the court is faithfully shewn in Plot, tab. IN several of the windows are painted glass. In the great bow-window of the hall are the horse-shoes, the antient device of the Ferrars; in others, the arms of that family, the Devereux, Garnishes, and Shirlies.
A bed is still preserved here, the work of Mary Stuart, who was for some time imprisoned in this house: This fortress was very soon permitted to fall in decay. Leland speaks of it as a ruin in his days. When the power of the nobility was broken, by the policy of Henry VII. Chartley castle was built by Randle Blundeville, Earl of Chester, in , on his return from the Holy Land; and to defray the expences of this, as also of Beeston, which he also founded, a tax was levied on all his vassals. By his death, this part of his estate devolved on William Ferrars Earl of Derby, in right of his wife Agnes, third sister of Randle.
His son Robert, entering into the factious views of the barons, received a defeat at Chesterfield in It continued in his line till the reign of Henry VI. The lady was at that time only eleven years and eight months old; but by the king's special favor, in , she had livery of her lands, without further proof of her age. I was disappointed; for I found only, one of this great line deposited in the place.
His son, for a series of victories in the cause of liberty, received from his grateful party the magnificent honors of a public funeral in the capital, which his arms had defended. He served with honor in the French wars, under Henry VIII; and in the naval attack of Conquet, in , he was honored with the garter by his royal master, and with the title of Hereford by his successor. His death happened in He lies here under a fine monument, erected in his life-time; his figure is represented in robes, with the collar of the garter round his neck: On one side of him is placed his first lady, Mary, daughter of Thomas Marquis of Dorset; on the other, his second, Margaret, daughter of Robert Garnyche, Esquire, of Kyngeton, in Suffolk.
Around the side is represented, I suppose as mourners, six female and six male figures; the last begirt with swords. ON the chancel floor a brass plate preserves the memory of Thomas Newport, steward of the houshold to Walter, first Earl of Essex, and delivers his character in these terms: Thomas Newport conditur hoc tumulo. Qui felix ortu suit et morta beatus; Quem Deus et coelum, quem pia vota habent. This place is productive of salt, and has been long noted: It has since been re-united to the house of Tixal, by purchase. The barn belonging to the manor-house of Heywood, was of a most magnificent size; but of late has been greatly reduced.
I am not clear about the truth, of this report. There certainly had been a bridge here long before, so that, if there was any foundation for such a mark of respect, it could only have been rebuilt after falling to decay. The first, animated with milk-white cattle, emulating those of Tinian; the last with numerous swans. The boundary on one side, is a cultivated slope; on the other, the lofty front of Cannock Wood, clothed with heath; or shaded with old oaks, scattered over its glowing bloom by the free hand of nature.
IT is more difficult to enumerate the works of art dispersed over this Elysium; they epitomize those of so many places. The old church of Colwich; the mansion of the antient English baron, at Welsely Hall; the great-windowed mode of building in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the house of Ingestre; the modern seat in Oak-edge; and the lively improved front of Shugborough; are embellishments proper to our own country. Amidst these arise the genuine architecture of China, in all its extravagance; the dawning of the Grecian, in the mixed gothic gateway at Tixal; and the chaste buildings of Athens, exemplified by Mr.
He was the example of true taste in this country; and at the time that he made his own place a paradise, made every neighbor partaker of its elegancies. He was happy in his life, and happy in his end. I saw him about thirty hours before his death, listening calmly to the melody of the harp, preparing for the momentary transit from an earthly concert to an union with the angelic harmonies.
There is also a very fine figure of Trajan, in the attitude of haranguing his army. The beautiful monument in the lower end of the garden, does honor to the present age. It was the work of Mr. Schemecher, under the direction of the late Mr. The scene is laid in Arcadia. The moral resulting from this seems to be, that there are no situations of life so delicious, but which death must at length snatch us from.
OPPOSITE to the back-front of the house, on the banks of the Sow, stand the small remains of the antient mansion, which, according to Leland, originally belonged to Suckborrow with a long heard, and who, as some say, gave it to the mitre of Lichfield. It must have been in very early times; for the manor of Haywood in which this is included belonged to the see in , the twentieth of William the Conqueror, and so continued till the reign of Edward VI.
The house was till that time one of the palaces of the bishops. Shugborough was frequently the house I had the happiness of making my head-quarters: The walks are partly bounded by enormous hedges of forest-trees, and partly wander into the antient wood, beneath the shade of the venerable trees. THE house is built in the stile of the reign of Elizabeth, with great windows in the center, and a bow on each side: In the great hall, over the fire-place, is a very good picture of Walter Chetwynd, Esquire, in a great wig, and crossed by a rich sash.
The present church of Ingestre was rebuilt by him, and was consecrated in August A sermon was preached, prayers read, a child baptized, a woman churched, a couple married, a corpse buried, the sacraments administred, and, to crown all, Mr. Chetwynd made an offering on the altar of the tythes of Hopton, worth fifty pounds a year, to be added to the rectory for ever. The church is very neat, and is prettily stuccoed. In it is a mural monument, in memory of its great benefactor, who died in Their figures are presented in alabaster, under a large canopy.
The patronage was granted, in , by Henry VI. The dean's house stood at the vese end of the church, and serves at present for the school. The tomb of his great line were removed to this church from Stone, at the dissolution, but soon suffered to perish. It had formerly four gates; of these two are yet standing. The place never was defencible; at last ever stood a siege.
Sir William Brereton, the parlement general, took it by surprize, in May , with the loss only of a single man. THE origin of Stafford is very uncertain: Cambden attributes a tower to Edward the Elder, founded in the year after that which was built by his sister, and places it on the north side of the river. A mount still remains near the new bridge, called by Speed, Castle-hill; at present named Bullyhill, on which it probably stood. The keep was on an artificial mount: This was founded by William the Conqueror, and was soon after demolished.
It is conjectured, that the king at that time reserved this manor to himself, and that it was not included in the vast grant made by him to Robert, of eighty-one manors in this county, twenty-six in that of Warwick, twenty in Lincolnshire, two in Suffolk, and one in each of those of Worcester and Northampton. It appears that it continued in the crown till the second of Edward II.
It was garrisoned by the king in the last civil wars; was taken by the parlement forces, and demolished in This great family had in it barons, earls, and dukes; and in the year became extinct: The moat of their antient residence is still to be seen, surrounding a rectangular piece of ground, the scite of the house. Near the extremity of a high hill, steeply sloping on three sides, and commanding a most extensive and beautiful view, I found a large sea, surrounded in some parts with one, in others with two, deep fosses.
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This had been a British post, as it agrees with those we find in many parts of the kingdom; but as it retains the name of Billington Bury, it probably might have been occupied by the Saxons, whose posts are distinguished by the addition of Borough, Bury, and Berry. It first sent burgesses to parlement in , the twenty-third of Edward I. None were such originally, but which were royal; but were afterwards bestowed in see on some nobleman, as proved the case with this, as mentioned in page 76; when it was given to Edmund Lord Stafford, with eighty-one dependent manors, with sixty knights sees, viz.
This may be called a port to Stafford. A little further is Weeping Cross, so stiled from its vicinity to the antient place of execution. When I was wandering through them, I imagined myself engaged in those of my native country. Here I suppose to have been the park of red deer, which Leland says the bishop of Lichfield had in his manor of Shugborow. I skirted part of the wood, which here ends boldly, almost driving the traveller into the Sow. This front has received from Mr.
Anson a wonderful change. Pines instead of oaks; which, waving over the head of the passenger, would recall to his memory, had he been abroad, the idea of many an alpine scene. It shews here at once, all that I before mentioned en detail. THE parsonage and church of Colwich contribute to the variety of the view, from another station: Here is also the burial-place of the Ansons, made a l'antique, in form of a catacomb. His four horses perished. The antient mansion of the family of the same name, lies low and near the river. This manor is a member of Heywood. In the twentieth year of the Conqueror.
Nigellus, the paternal ancestor of Greslei, held it of the bishop. About the reign of Henry II. AFTER riding a little way along the Lichfield road, I turned to the left, and crossing the vale, which now expands and grows less rionte, repass the Trent at Colton, on a bridge of a fine single arch. Ray, among the eel-shaped fish.
The form is long; the head depressed; the mouth large, armed with small teeth; the nose furnished with two beards, the chin with one: The noted old fisherman of the Rhine, Leonard Baltner, took out of a single fish not fewer than , eggs. Erdeswik informs us, that at the time of the Conqueror, one Galfridus was lord of Colton.
The old hall, which was large enough to contain fourscore lodging-rooms, was burnt down in the time of Charles I. It at that time belonged to Lord Aston. THE country now alters for the worse, and the soil becomes wet and miry. At the time of the Conquest they were found possessed of Bagot's Bromley.
In , or the fifth of Richard I. The best rooms are, the hall, the library, and a large drawing-room, lately added. This preserves a likeness of a very different character, Henry Earl of Huntington, lord president of the north, and one of the peers to whom the custody of the queen of Scots was entrusted. He appears with a firm countenance, short hair, and whiskers; in a black dress, laced with gold on the seams, and graced with a triple gold chain.
Sir Walter was ambassador to Spain in the time of the negotiations about the Spanish match, in the reign of James I. He was resolute and prudent, and had great knowlege of the importance of the English trade with Spain. His reward was a Scotch peerage; being created by Charles I. He is represented in rich armour. He was artfully received, and sent back with the promises of better usage.
Grief, or, as others say, poison, administered by the instigation of Leicester, who loved his wife, cut him off at the age of thirty-five, at Dublin, in Perhaps the infamy of Dudley 's character, and the speedy and indecent marriage of the countess with that favorite, might give rise to the scandal; for an inquisition was made on his death, and the report in consequence was, that he died of the flux; a disorder very frequent in Ireland in those days. Among them is Colonel Richard Bagot, governor of Lichfield, who fell in the cause of loyalty, in the fatal battle of Naseby.
He is dressed in a buff coat, and represented with long hair. Salusbury of Bachymbed, in Denhighshire, in a vast high sugar-loafed hat and kerchief, bordered with ermine. A head of her son Charles Salusbury, in long hair, and flowered night-gown, is also preserved here. The king Lewis XIV. The populace, with difficulty could be persuaded to suffer his remains to be carried to their grave. Si parmi les defauts que to peignis si bien, Tu les avais repris de leur ingratitude.
THE park is at some distance from the house. Within, are several sculptured tombs, of the time of the fifteenth century; some with imaged figures, others engraven; mostly in memorial of the Bagots: The monument of Sir Edward Bagot, who died in , is mural, and supersedes the ten commandments, being placed over the altar.
On the outside of the church, two modest heaps of turf, parallel to each other, mark the spot where the remains of the last amiable owners of the place repose; whole merit survives in their successor. I FOUND myself here not very distant from Whichenoure Hall, and could not resist the desire of visiting the seat of the celebrated Flitch, the desperate reward of conjugal affection. This had been the property of the Mavestons, at left from the time of Edward I. In the beginning of the reign of the usurping Henry, when the kingdom was divided against itself, two neighboring knights, Sir Robert Maveston, and Sir William Handsacre, of Handsacre, took arms in support of different parties: They assembled their vassals, and began their march to join the armies, then about to join battle, near Shrewsbury.
Sir William was slain on the spot. Sir Robert proceeded to the field, and met his fate with the gallant Percy. What a picture is this accident, of the miseries of civil dissension! THE tomb of Sir Robert is altar-shaped: Robertus de Mauvesine, miles, Dns. HERE is a tomb of two other Mauvesins, one cross-legged, with each hand on his sword; both under arches in the wall.
At that time, it was called Brom-legge. After the Conqueror took it into his own hands, the name was changed to that of King's Bromley. It continued in that family till the year , or the thirtieth of Henry VI. Afterwards, through the village of Alrewas. The manor was in possession of Algar Earl of Mercia; but on the forfeiture of his son, the brave Edwin, was bestowed by the Conqueror, with the following, on Walter de Somervil, one of his Norman followers. The Roman road passes this way, and on this marshy spot was formed upon piles of wood.
It runs from the east side of Lichfield, and points to the north-east. The present house is a modern building, remarkable for the painted wooden bacon flitch, still hung up over the hall chimney, in memory of the singular tenure by which Sir Philip de Somervile, in the time of Edward III. The services clamed were these, viz. He shal enquere of hym which demandeth the baconne, if he hath brought tweyne of his neighbours; who must answere, They be here redy; and then the steward shal cause theis two neighbours to swere yf the said demandant be a weddyt man, or have be a man weddyt, and yf syth his marryage one yere and a day be passed, and yf he be a freeman or a villeyn: And his neghbours shal make oath, that they trust verily he hath said truely.
And all the free tenants of Whichenour shal conduct him to be passed the lordship of Whichenour; and then shall they retorne except hym to whom apperteiyneth to make the carriage and journy withoutt the countye of Stafford, at the costys of his lord of Whichenour. SUCH is the history of this memorable custom. Offley; but it appears that Henry Griffith was living in IN compliance with my original plan, I took the same way, in order to return into the great road.
Opposite is a very antient timber-house, belonging once to the Chetwynds; at present to Mr. On an eminence, above the town, is beautifully situated a large house, formerly belonging to the Westons, greatly enlarged and improved by the present owner, Ashton Curzon, Esquire. THE antient owners of Rudgley were of the same name with the town: The name continued here till after the time of Henry VI. THE parish and village of Longdon succeeds that of Rudgley. James; and belongs to a prebendship of Lichfield.
The village consists of scattered houses, extending for a vast way on each side of the lane; from whence the name. This gave rise, to a common saying in these parts, The stoutest beggar that goes by the way, Cannot beg thro' Long' in a summer's day. THIS manor is of vast extent. It once belonged to the bishop of Lichfield, but was alienated by Bishop Sampson. These livings at that time were good rectories; now poor vicarages, or mercenary curacies, annexed to the bishoprick.
In the next reign, he was made chancellor of the dutchy of Lancaster, and comptroller of the houshold; and obtained a peerage. Yet his zeal for the old religion, produced in him no scruples about sharing in the plunder of the church. The reforming Somerset, and the papal Paget, agreed in that single point. It is a very handsome stone edifice, in form of an half H; of late most admirably improved, and fitted up by the noble owner. The other apartments are small. A fine performance of Holbein's. It is encompassed with a vast rampart and two ditches.
The two entrances are opposite to each other, and before the eastern are several advanced works. It commands a vast view, and was well situated for the purposes of a temporary retreat. Doctor Plott ascribes this work to King Canute; but I suspect it to be of earlier origin. O woeful Cank the while, As brave a wood-nymph once as any of this isle, Great Arden 's eldest child!
Now by vile gain devour'd! BUT this change is much more beautifully described by Mr. Hinc mihi mox ingens ericetum complet ocellos, Sylva olim passim nymphis habitata ferisque: Condensae quercus, domibus res nata struendis Ornandoque foco, et validae spes unica classis. Where'er the chearless prospect meets the eye, No shrub, no plant, except the Heath, is nigh; The solitary Heath alone is there, And wafts its sweetness in the desert air.
So sweet its scent, so rich its purple hue, We half forget that here a forest grew. AFTER a short ride, I reached the summit of a long but gentle descent, from which is a fine view of the city of Lichfield, lying at the foot of it. The situation is delightful, in a fertile and dry soil, with small risings on almost every side. The cathedral, with its three spires, is a most striking object. I omit the legend of the thousand Christians, disciples of St.
I take up its history about the year , when Oswy, king of the country, established a bishoprick here, and made Dwina, or Dinma, the first prelate. This pious man at first led an eremitical life, in a cell, at the place on which now stands the church of his name, and supported himself by the milk of a white hind. Remorse, and consequential conversion, seized the Pagan prince. As some species of expiation, he preferred the apostle to the vacant see. He built himself a small house near the church, and, with seven or eight of his brethren, during the interval of preaching, read and prayed in private.
On the approach of his death, flights of angels, sang hymns over his cell. A lunatic, that by accident escaped from his keepers, lay a night on it; and in the morning was found restored to his senses. The very earth taken out of it, was an infallible remedy for all disorders incident to man or beast. I SHALL not trouble the reader with a dry list of prelates; but only mention those distinguished by some remarkable event, that befel the see during their days.
IN those of Winfrid, successor to St. This honor died with Adulf. John 's, in Chester; where he died, and was interred, in Roger de Clinton, consecrated in , took down the antient Mercian cathedral. We are not informed of the dimensions or nature of the building, any more than we are of that built by this bishop. There is not at present the left relique of this stile. He was highly favored by Edward I. His prosperity was interrupted by the resentment of the prince, who meanly revenged on the bishop a short imprisonment he had suffered in the time of his father, for riotously destroying his deer.
He may be considered as the third architect of this cathedral: This prelate also surrounded the close with a wall and ditch, made the great gate at the west end, and the postern at the south. He gave his own palace, at the west end of the close, to the vicars choral, and built a new one for himself at the east end. He partly built, or enlarged, the castle at Eccleshal, and the manors of Heywood and Shugborow, and the palace in the Strand. He finished his useful life in November , and was buried in the chapel of his own founding.
Chad, and other objects of similar devotion, fell a prey to the rapacity of the prince. IN , it was possessed by the royalists of the county, under the Earl of Chesterfield: This happened to be the festival of St.
Chad, the patron of the church. The cavaliers attributed the direction of the fatal bullet to the influence of the Saint, in resentment of the sacrileges this nobleman was committing on his cathedral. The loss of Lord Brook gave very short respite to the garrison; which was taken almost immediately after, by Sir John Gell. IN April, in the same year, it was attacked by Prince Rupert At that time it was commanded by Colonel Rouswel; a steady governor over an enthusiastic garrison. The colonel took care to plunder the church of the communion-plate, during the time the fanatics were in possession.
Colonel Bagot met him, and after a brisk action, whipped the fellow himself into his retreat, and narrowly missed taking him. THE state of this church, after so many sieges, may easily be conceived. A very handsome tomb was erected in the choir to his memory, with his effigies laid recumbent on it, with a mitre on his head, and in his episcopal dress. THE sculptures round the doors were very elegant; but time, or violence, hath greatly impaired their beauty.
The fine painted glass was given of late years, by Dean Addenbrook. THE northern door is extremely rich in sculptured moldings: Probably the former is intended for St. It is a misfortune, that the ornaments of this cathedral are made of such friable stone, that what fanaticism has spared, the weather has impaired. THE roof was till of late covered with lead, but grew so greatly out of repair, that the dean and chapter were obliged to substitute slates instead of metal, on account of the narrow revenues left to maintain this venerable pile; and, after the strictest oeconomy, they will be under the necessity of contributing from their own income, in order to complete their plan.
The excellent order that all the cathedrals I have visited are in, does great credit to their members; who spare nothing from their own incomes to render them not only decent, but elegant. Along the walls of the ailes are rows of false arches, in the gothic stile, with a seat beneath. THE upper rows of windows, in the body, are of an uncommon form, being triangular, including three circles in each.
IN each transept are two places, formerly chapels; at present consistory courts, and the vicar's vestry-room. On each side are six statues, now much mutilated, placed in beautiful gothic niches, and richly painted. The first on the left is St. The other three are St. Beneath them are thirteen stalls, with gothic work over each. In this chapel are nine windows, more narrow, lofty, and of more elegant work than any of the others; three on each side, and three at the end. In this chapel stood the shrine of St. These were destroyed in the blind fury of civil war; as was another fine tomb of a Lord Basset of Drayton, who died in Of those are the effigies of the great Bishop Langton, with his pastoral staff in one hand, and the other hand in the action of benediction: From an intermediate bracket, it is probable some favorite saint might have been honored with a rich image.
He is called Captain Stanley. ON the floor, near the west door, are two droll epitaphs. The whole property is in the church, except two houses on the south side, bordering on the pool, which, before the present causeways were made, were granted to the city, that the inhabitants might have landing-places, and access to the cathedral; which in old times had a vast concourse of devotees to the shrine of St. Its members are, a dean, precentor, chancellor, and treasurer, who have prebends annexed to their offices. Out of these thirty-one, the dean and four more are stiled canons residentiary; which four are chosen out of the prebendaries and dignitaries.
Here are twelve minor canons: Both these were formerly collegiated, and had their hall and houses. That of the priest-vicars is a handsome room, rebuilt, and usually is lent for the purposes of assemblies, and other amusements. A new house also stands on the ground once occupied by the house of the choristers: It is remarkable, that the four archdeacons have here no stalls, as is usual in all other cathedrals.
THE other churches are that of St. In the time of Edward III. It is a vicarage, in the gift of the dean. This, and that of Stow, or St. Chad 's, are curacies dependent on St. Chad 's is reckoned the oldest of the churches of this city. In its north end formerly stood the shrine of St. At present, both house and land support an hospital at Seal, in Leicestershire. The water which now supplies the city, was granted, on St.
James 's day, in , by Henry Campanarius, son of Michael de Lichfield, bell-founder. Exculit ephebus paucis vivento diebus Ecclesiam rebus ditat variis speciebus, Vivat ut in Caelis nunc mercator Michaelis. Richard the merchant here extended lies, "Death, like a step-dame, gladly clos'd his eyes. The stone is still to be seen there. A figure of it was sent to the Gentleman's Magazine, by Mr. Greene, in this city. The inscription and translation are copied from the same magazine: The founder is uncertain.
Bishop Langton made the causeway, bridges, and dams, at each end of the pool. Before that, the great road went round Stowpool, near Stow church. The city is neat, and well built; contains little more than three thousand souls; is a place of great passage, has a considerable manufacture of sail-cloth, and a small manufacture of saddle-cloths and tammies.
These at lest after the Conquest paid fines to the crown, and formed part of its revenue. IT is governed by a recorder, high steward, sheriff, two bailiffs, a town-clerk, and coroner. In this the corporation has exclusive jurisdiction. The members are returned by the sheriff and bailiffs. Lichfield is quite an open town: The name only of Castle Ditch, in the east part of the town, preserves its memory. Probably in this fortress Richard II.
There are still some remains of the walls to be seen, mixed with roots of some very old ash-trees. Coins and tiles evince it to have been the Roman Etocetum, as well as its distance from Pennocrucium, a place somewhere on the river Penk, not far from Penkridge; but the site not well ascertained. The Watling-street road enters the county near Tamworth, and is continued into Shropshire, as far as Wroxeter.
This is asserted by John Ross, a Warwickshire antiquary, who died in , near twelve hundred years after the event; which he alone relates. As I could discover only Borough Cop and Offlo, which fall within the description, I was obliged to extend my ride. I passed through Whittington, a village with a church and spire-steeple, about two miles N.
Passed through Fisherwick park, a fine seat of the Earl of Donnegal, built from a design of Mr. Margaret, his daughter, conveyed it by marriage to the Stantons: So very rapid was the change of family in this place! IN the north wall is a painted figure, with curled hair, gown down to his knees, buskins on his legs, sword, gold chain, his hands closed, and a ring on his thumb. AN alabaster tomb of an Arderne, in a conic helmet, mail round his neck, chin, and shoulders, and a collar of S S: Around the tomb are various figures, in the dress of the times.
He lies between his two wives: Monks, and coats of arms, surround the tomb: His head rests on a helm, with the Eagle and Child, the cognizance of the Stanleys. UNDER another arch is his eldest son, a child with curled hair, and in a long gown, recumbent: There had probably been a battle on this spot during the heptarchy: Croxal church stands on an eminence.
He died in the year His name is expressed in form of a rebus; the word Hor cut upon a tun. PASS by Hazelar hamlet and chapel. The last is prebendal, and at present converted into a pig-stye. The spire of the church is extremely elegant, joined to the tower by flying buttresses.
He is dressed in a bonnet and long gown, with a chain from his neck, as usual with people of worship; for he had been one of the king's counsel, and custos rotulorum of the county of Derby. His wife is dressed in a square hood, with a purse, knife, and beads by her side.
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They died in The living is in his gift, and the whole parish his property. The manor was once belonging to the see of Ely; for it appears that Hotham, bishop of that diocese in , obtained for it a charter of free warren. Henry Lord Scrope, favorite of Henry V. It had long been the residence of the Mercian princes, who preferred it on account of its pleasant situation, and the quantity of woodland, which afforded them in plenty the pleasures of the chase.
The ditch is filled up in many places, yet still there are vestiges of it, and also of two mounts, on which probably stood two small towers. His posterity remained masters of it for some generations, holding of the crown in capite, by the service of finding three knights at their own costs, for forty days, in the wars of Wales.
The Freviles by this means owned it till the year , or seventh of Henry V. Lady Charlotte Compton, sole surviving daughter of the match, Baroness de Ferrers in right of her mother, married the present Lord Townshend, whose son, now Lord De Ferrers, enjoys the place. TILL the present century it had been the seat of its lords. Around the first are painted great numbers of coats of arms of the family of the Ferrers, and its alliances. Clear Ankor, on whose silver-sanded shore My soul-shrin'd saint, my fair idea lies: A blessed brook, whose milk-white swans adore Thy crystal stream, refined by her eyes; Where sweet myrrh-breathing zephyr in the spring Gently distils his nectar-dropping showers; Where nightingales in Arden sit and sing Amongst the dainty dew-impearled flowers.
Say thus, fair brook, when thou shalt see thy queen: Lo, here thy shepherd spent his wand'ring days, And in these shades, dear nymph, he oft has been, And here to thee he sacrific'd his tears. The right of voting is in the inhabitants paying scot and lot.
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Here are numbers of monuments, some antient, of the Freviles and Ferrers, with their figures, and those of their wives. Sir Humphry was the last male heir of his line. THE church is dedicated to St. It has been said, that she founded here a nunnery, and that Robert Marmion, lord of this place, received from her very sensible marks of resentment, for daring to remove the holy sisters. At present, this great church is only a curacy.
Philip Marmion dedicated here an hospital to St. There is now an hospital founded for more useful purposes, by Mr. This place was once the property of the Spermores; but in the time of Henry VI. The executors of the last of that line, a Doctor Swinfen, sold it, in the present century, to Mr. Swinfen, of London; in whose family it continues. This is seated on Blackbrook, a small stream, now furnished with a bridge. The stream runs through a beautiful tract of narrow but rich meadows, prettily bounded by low and fertile risings.
This spot had been the scene of much civil rage. It had ten pounds a year in spiritualities, and fifteen pounds ten shillings and three pence in temporalities. The road is over part of the common of Sutton Cofield, which is finely bounded on the left by a long-continued range of woods. On the right is the parish-church, Wishaw, and a little farther, that of Curdworth. THE place had been long a royal demesne; was possessed by Edward the Confessor, and afterwards by the Conqueror. It fell, either in his reign or that of William Rufus, into the hands of the Clintons, in whom it continued till the year , the twenty-seventh of Edward III; when it passed to Sir John de Mountfort, by virtue of his marriage with Joan, daughter of Sir John Clinton.
This brought ruin on himself and family. The church-yard commands a fine view of a rich country. The vicarage was formerly belonging to Markgate, in Bedfordshire, but is now in the gift of its lord. At the reformation, this custom was changed. THE figure of Simon Digby is in armor, with lank hair, and bare-headed. His grandson John, and great grandson George, knighted at the siege of Zutphen, are represented in the same manner, with their wives. The first died in ; the last in These are of alabaster, and painted.
THE tomb of Reginald, son of Simon, who died in , differs. His figure, and that of his wife, are engraven on a flat slab of marble, with twelve of their children at their feet. I FELT great pleasure in perusing an epitaph, by a grateful mistress, to the memory of a worthy domestic, Mary Wheely, whom she stiles an excellent servant and good friend; for what is a faithful servant but an humble friend? BENEATH two arches are two antient figures of cross-legged knights, armed in mail, with short surtouts, in all respects alike; only one has a dog, the other a lion, at his feet. He became a favorite of Edward I.
He died in the year , the period of crusades, and is buried cross-legged. The house consists but of one story, besides garrets; yet the apartments are numerous, approachable by strange and unintelligible access to all that are unacquainted with them, according to the stile of old buildings.
In respect to this county, he has fairly baffled every effort towards the discovery of any thing that could escape his penetrating eye. His diving skills provided him with a scholarship which allowed him to obtain a college degree and entrance into the United States Marine Corps as a commissioned officer. Colonel Grey Meadows retires from The Marine Corps after a long and brilliant career after the final task of coordinating the logistic support of all the Marines entrenched in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The reason he gives his inquiring friends for his departure is that he is entering another season of his life. In reality, the only love of his life, his wife Coleen, died while he was fulfilling his last combat obligation. His wife's death certificate lists suicide as the cause of death. Grey is unconvinced the most wonderful lady in the world who became his wife would commit such an atrocious deed, so he sets out to North Carolina to set the record straight.
Along the way, he saves a twenty-something, female road-warrior from an angry crowd of truck drivers who are intent on taking full advantage of her vulnerability. When Grey starts to leave the truck stop, the young women asks for a ride. From that point on, they form an uneasy union, as they drive on to North Carolina. Although the two of them are ill-equipped for the task, together with the help of the Cherokee Nation, they solve the mystery of his wife's death, expose an international cocaine cartel and set the record straight before heading off to their next adventure.
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