In their habits, they were irregular and absolutely neglectful of hygienic con- siderations. Between regular meals, they cooked food with their own pans and konro. Desks and wash-basins were often used as kitchen utensils. This assistant or head-student occupied an authoritative position towards the other students of the school.
The beginners were taught the first rudiments of the Dutch gram- mar by means of two books reprinted in Yedo. Ten books on natural philosophy and medicine constituted the school library. As soon as the grammar was mastered, the students set about making copies of these books for their own use. Among so many candidates for the privilege of copying these few books, it was necessary for them to decide their turns by lot.
As there was no foreign paper for sale, they wrote on glazed Japanese paper with Japanese ink and quills of their own make. At intervals of four or five days, there were class readings of these copied books. The readings were presided over by either the head-student or by the best student of the highest class ; and Ogata now and then gave lessons only to the highest class. These were the only times when instruction was given. In their study hours it was a point of honor with the students not to give or receive help of any kind.
They had to hammer out the meaning of their text-books by themselves as best they could. They had no other help than Zoof's? Dutch- Japanese Dictionary and Wei- land's? The former was written both in Japanese and in Dutch, so that most of the students consulted this dictionary. On the night previous to the day for reading, even the laziest student sat up all night with his book ; and a number of students were always found in the "Zoof's Room," as it was called, referring to this dictionary in pro- found silence. Chemistry had a great attraction for the students.
They were always making experiments with the most primitive and inadequate means. They succeeded in plating iron with zinc. An attempt to make iodine was a failure. They distilled ammonia out of bones and horse's hoofs ; but the stench was so-horrible that the experiment had to be removed from the school to the courtyard and from the courtyard to a boat on the river. They eagerly dissected dogs, cats, and the corpses of criminals, whenever the oppor- tunity offered. The Lord of Chikuzen once called at Osaka on his way to Yedo and stayed three days.
Ogata waited upon him and borrowed a book from him with the promise to return it before his departure. Ogata brought it to his house and showed it to Mr. The book was a Dutch translation of a new work by Faraday, the famous English scien- tist. One section of the work was a treatise on electricity.
This subject was treated with minuteness of detail. Many new theories were also presented in the work. The text-books in the school treated only the elements of physics, and the students had little knowledge of electricity. Consequently this work excited the interest of Mr. But it had to be returned to the owner within three days and it was a large volume of about one thousand pages He took the book to his fellow-students and con- sulted them about what should be done with it. They decided to make a copy of the section on electricity which appeared to be the most interesting.
Thus all the students, each in his turn, set about copying it. The part which they desired to copy contained about one hundred and sixty pages. In three days of constant hard work the task was accomplished. On the night when the Lord of Chikuxen was about to depart, they took leave of the book as if they were separating from a dear friend.
From that time, electricitv was studied much more 24 A l. There were then one or two Dutch schools in Yedo, but Ogata's students might rightly claim the distinction of being the best Dutch scholars in the Empire. IN the fifth year of Ansei , Mr. Fukuzawa re- ceived a summons from the authorities of his clan to go up to Yedo in order to open a Dutch school there.
In October he left Ogata's school and proceeded to Yedo. There he took up his residence in the mansion of his clan at Teppozu the present Tsukiji. Soon after, he opened at his home a school in which he taught a few young sons of his clansmen and a few students from other clans. As compensa- tion, he received a moderate salary from his clan. While he was studying at the Ogata School, Mr.
Fukuzawa used to look down with scorn on the Dutch scholars in Yedo; but now that he had become a teacher of Dutch, his vanity failed him and he could not rest contented until he sounded their actual scholarship. These passages he himself under- stood quite well but he frequently found that they could not explain them. One day he called on Teiho Shimamura, a Dutch scholar of some celebrity. Fukuzawa a Dutch work on physiology which he was then in the course of translating and said that a passage in it was quite beyond his comprehension, adding that it had stumbled several of his friends.
This little incident freed him from further apprehension that the Yedo scholars might be his superiors in Dutch. In July, the sixth year of Ansei , in pursuance of treaties of amity and commerce con- cluded the previous year with the United States, England, the Netherlands, France, and Russia, Yokohama was opened to foreign trade. In order to test the practical value of his knowledge of Dutch, Mr.
Yukichi Fukuzawa: A cultural critic truly ahead of his time
Fukuzawa sought an early opportunity to visit the foreign settlement at Yokohama. That, however, was nothing when compared with his depression at finding that the Dutch, which he had so laboriously acquired, was of no practical use to him. At Yokohama he saw many stores kept by foreigners. He called at some of the stores and addressed the shopkeepers in Dutch. But they did not understand him nor could he understand what they said. He could not even read the sign-boards over the stores or the labels on the bottles inside.
On inquiring he found that the language spoken there was English a language so extensively spoken in the world that it might almost be called international. On his return to Yedo, he was much discouraged to think that, if he desired to maintain his standing as a scholar who was familiar with Western learning, it would be necessary for him to devote to learning English as much time and energy as he had already expended on Dutch. But his was not a nature that yields to discouragement. On that very day he determined to learn English. But how accomplish this purpose? For some time, he was at a loss what to do.
Fukuzawa called on him to beg his instruction in English. At the specified times Mr. Fukuzawa walked from Teppozu to Moriyama's residence in Koishikawa a distance of about five miles each way during two or three months ; but almost every time he called some unexpected event prevented Moriyama from teaching him. Thus disappointed in his effort to learn from a teacher of English, Mr. Fukuzawa decided to proceed without the aid of a teacher. For this purpose he proposed to use two small books partly in Dutch, partly in English which he had purchased at Yokohama.
In addition, he had need of an English- Dutch dictionary. But neither in Yedo nor in Yokohama could such a dictionary be purchased. With the hope of borrowing there an English-Dutch dictionary, he immediately secured admittance to the school. To his great disappoint- ment, he was refused permission to take the dictionary home. Deeming it unprofitable to walk daily from Teppozu to Kudan where the Banslio WiirabesJio was located merely to consult the dic- tionary, he on the very first day abandoned the idea of attending the school.
As he thought that it might encourage him to have one or two fellow-students, he tried to persuade his friends Kohei Kanda and Masujiro Omura to join him in his study of English, but in vain. Nevertheless he found an earnest fellow- student in Keisuke Harada who had also perceived the necessity of learning English. Various expedients were adopted, in order to obtain instruction in pronunciation. Once they had for instructor in pronunciation a young boy from Nagasaki who had some knowledge of English.
Occasionally men who had by shipwreck been obliged to spend many years in foreign countries would come home to Japan. The zealous scholars were sure to call on them in order to get hints on English pronunciation. Throughout his study of English, he found that his Dutch acquirements were of far greater use to him than he had expected. A golden opportunity for improving his English was finally presented to our zealous scholar.
In December, tne sixth y ear f Ansei , the Tokugawa Government decided to send envoys to the United States for the twofold purpose of ratify- ing the previously arranged treaties and observing The envoys and their suite were to go in the Poivliattan, a warship sent by the United States Government for their transportation. The Kanrin Marn, a man-of-war of the Bakufu, was to make her trial trip as an escort of the Poivhattan. She could utilize steam power only when entering or leaving port and used sails during voyage. Kimura Settsu- no-Kami, Hugyo of Warships, was appointed her captain.
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The crew numbered ninety-five, among whom were found Rintaro Katsu the late Count Katsu as commander and Manjiro Nakahama as interpreter. Tlie report of this undertaking speedily spread about the whole city of Yedo. Fuku- zawa could no longer stay quietly in his study. Having got a letter of introduction to Capt. Kimura, he watted upon him and offered his services as an attendant. Fukuzawa's surprise, his offer was immediately accepted.
The voyage to foreign lands, it is evident, was then generally regarded with so much aversion that few persons would volunteer for such services. The Kanrin Maru weighed anchor in January, 1 the first year of Banyen ; and after a voyage of thirty-seven days, safely reached her destination. During the voyage, she experienced very stormy weather, lost two boats, and ran short of water. Many of the crew were seasick. Commander Katsu was one of the sufferers and was confined to his cabin during the entire voyage. Most of the captain's attendants were also ill. Fukuzawa remained quite well and gave active help to his master.
As soon as the Kanrin Maru reached San Francisco, distinguished men of the city came to the ship to congratulate the Japanese on their successful voyage. Presently a salute was fired on shore. The Japanese officers proposed to fire in return. Let us give up the idea. The engineer became excited and persisted in carrying out his idea. Im- mediately a cannon was cleaned and loaded. To his triumph and to the mortification of Katsu, he succeeded in firing a return salute. The Americans showed the Japanese the utmost hospitality. The Americans provided free quatiers for them on shore and docked and repaired their ship free of charge.
Every thing of interest that San Francisco afforded was freely shown them. They were taken to manufactories at different places and were struck with wonder and admiration at the in- genuity of the machinery. Every thing they saw was quite novel and wonderful to them. They were amazed to see vehicles drawn by horses ; and it was only after several minutes of study that they were able to understand the use of the carriages. They were often invited to dinner at large hotels.
When they arrived for the first time at a hotel, they were surprised to find that the floor of the room was covered with beautiful carpet. They were still more surprised to see the Americans walk on the carpet with dirty shoes ; and it was with some hesitation that they dared walk on it with sandals. Presently many bottles were brought in and when they were uncorked a strange hissing sound was heard. To each of the guests a glass of Champagne was served. There was something transparent floating in the wine. It being a warm April day, the Japanese could not guess what it was.
Some of them ventured to take the floating substance into their mouths, and, finding it to be too cold, at once spit it out. Others gnawed it awkwardly. Strange as it seemed to them, it was only ice. They started with terror at sight of a turkey and a pig cooked whole. Fukuzawa, as well as the rest, made some blunders. He was about to smoke another pipe, when, to his great surprise, smoke issued from the pocket.
He then found that the paper had taken fire from sparks that had remained in the ashes. Fukuzawa seized every opportunity for im- proving his English. He and Nakahama the inter- preter each brought back to Japan a Webster's Dictionary, the first copies of that work ever im- ported. His knowledge of Western things was greatly extended ; but his observation was limited to the manners, customs, and material things, to the neglect of the political, social and economic conditions.
Their mission finished, the Japanese left the land of wonders ; and, calling at Hawaii en route, they, in May of the same year, returned, after a peaceful voyage. Fukuzawa's stay in America, some disagreeable rumors concerning him had arisen among the people of his native town Nakatsu.
One of his relatives even said to his mother, " I am very sorry to hear of the unfortunate death of your son in America. They say his body is salted and brought back to Yedo. Fukuzawa resumed his teaching. Now, however, he taught English in- stead of Dutch. Still he could not yet readily under- stand English books. Consequently, in addition to teaching his students, he, with the aid of his English- Dutch dictionary, set himself assiduously to study English. The number of his pupils rapidly increased.
In this year, he published his first work, " Vocabulary and Phrases in English, Chinese, and Japanese. As there were very few Japanese who could read or write English or French, it was customary for ministers and consuls of foreign powers, in communicating with the Bakufu authorities, to add Dutch translations to their official dsipatches.
It was chiefly for translating these Dutch translations, rather than the original language, that Mr. His official duties afford- ed many facilities for improving his English. He tried to translate the foreign dispatches directly from the original English without looking at the Dutch, and only when he encountered very difficult passages would he consult the Dutch. This method contrib- uted much to his progress in English. There were In the Foreign Office many kinds of English books. These he very eagerly read. The marriage of Mr.
Fukuzawa took place at this period. In , when he was in his twenty- eighth year, he married a girl of seventeen years, Kin by name, the second daughter of Tarohachi Doki, a samurai of his clan. Three years later, their eldest son, Mr. AN exposition of the later career of Mr. Fukuzawa requires a preliminary review of the course of events connected with the foreign policy of the Toku- gawa Government. As already stated in the third chapter, in , Commodore Perry, American ambas- sador, came with a fleet to Uraga, with the object of arranging a commercial treaty between Japan and the United States.
For this purpose he bore a docu- ment addressed to the Shogun in which his govern- ment expressed its request. After a short stay, he left Japan promising to come in the following year for a reply. The government of the Shogun was in great perplexity about the problem thus created.
They immediately sent in answers and almost unanimously declared against the opening of the country. The government hurried forward de- fensive preparations. The military men from various clans flocked to Yedo and Kyoto with the expecta tion that they would be called upon to defend their country against the impudent intrusion of foreigners. Shortly after the departure of the American squadron from Uraga, English, Dutch, and Russian vessels came to Japan on missions similar to that of the Americans.
In February, , Commodore Perry made his appearance a second time in Yedo Bay with a fleet of ten fully armed vessels, compris- ing such an array as had never before appeared in Japanese waters. After much deliberation and discussion, proposals and amendments, banquets and presents, a convention between Japan and the United States was agreed upon, providing for the relief of ships and sailors. During the two years following, similar conventions were concluded also with England, Russia, and the Netherlands.
These dealings with foreign nations produced the most intense excitement throughout the Empire. The song of the " Black Ships " was heard everywhere. Two distinct parties came into existence, one of which wished to expel the " barbarians, " as the foreigners were called by them, and the other were in favor of opening the country. The members of the latter party were principally connected with the Shogun's government and had become impressed with the folly of trying to resist the pressure of the outside world. The exclusion party was made up of the conservative elements in the country, who clung to the old traditions of Japan that had matured during the two centuries of the Tokugawa rule.
Besides these conservatives, there was also a party composed of men who nourished a traditional dislike for the Tokugawa family. These men were glad to see the Tokugawa family involved in difficulties which were sure to overthrow it. These were chiefly found among the southwestern daiinyos, such as Satsuma, Choshu, Hizen, and Tosa. The lord of Mito. In execution of one provision of the convention, the United States government, in , sent Townsend Harris as consul-general to Japan. He was a man of great patience and tact, and gradually worked his way into the confidence of the Japanese govern- ment.
He became the counsellor and educator of the officials in everything pertaining to foreign affairs. The principal effort of Harris was the negotiation of a commercial treaty which should make provision for the conduct of trade in specified ports of Japan. Baron Hotta, who was now at the head of the Shogun's cabinet, drafted a treaty of amity and com- merce ; and sent a representation to the Imperial court of Kyoto in December, , stating the difficulty of exclusion and asking for the Emperor's sanction to the proposed treaty.
But the Emperor Komei was a great hater of foreigners and much influenced by the exclusion party. Hence he strongly opposed the liberal policy of the Bakufu. No answer came even in January of the following year. Pressed on one side by Harris, and urged on the other side by his anxiety for his country, Baron 4 o. Hotta now went in person to the Imperial court. There he did his best to explain the impossibility of adhering to the old tradition, but the influence of the opposing party could not be overcome by him. Thus the question of making the treaty had reached the climax of difficulty.
None but a master- mind could solve this problem. On his appointment as Tairo, he dispatched a special message to Kyoto for the Imperial sanction of the treaty. Just at this juncture, two American men- of-war came to Shimoda and one of them proceeded up the Bay of Yedo.
This news was immediately followed by a message reporting an arrival of Russian warships and saying also that they were soon to be followed by English and French squadrons which had been victorious in their war with China. Town- send Harris pointed out. Thinking that waiting for the Imperial sanction might bring irreparable disasters upon Japan, li Kamon-no-Kami decided to assume the entire responsibility himself and at last signed the treaty in July, Similar treaties were concluded also with England, Russia, and the Netherlands in the following month and with France in October.
These treaties provid- ed for immediately opening Hakodate, Yokohama, and Nagasaki, and fixed dates for the opening of Hyogo and Niigata. During the following ten years, similar treaties were concluded also with other nations. The moment the conclusion of the treaties was made public, the anti-foreign party began to show an increased vehemence in their opposition. It was charged against the Shogun that in making the treaties without the Imperial sanction he had gone beyond his proper power. He was not the sovereign of Japan and never had been.
He was only the chief executive under the Emperor. It was impossi- ble, therefore, that the treaties made by the Shogun and not ratified by his sovereign should be regarded by the Japanese as legitimate and binding. CHAP- which assailed his policy. The lord of Mito who was the head of the anti-foreign party was compelled to resign and was condemned to confinement in his private provincial palace.
Numerous other persons who had busied themselves interfering with his schemes and promoting opposition in Kyoto, li also imprisoned. His death was an irreparable blow to the Tokugawa Government. There was no one who could successfully assume his role. The outrages which now succeeded each other with terrible frequency were not confined to the native members of the opposing parties. Foreigners, who were so essentially the cause of the political disturbances in Japan, were particularly exposed to attacks.
In January, , Heusken, the secretary and interpreter of the American legation, was attacked by armed assassins and mortally wounded. The foreign powers urged the Bakufu to take measures against such outrages, but it had almost no control over these lawless ronins. THE anti-foreign sentiment began to show itself in the assassination of foreigners.
If, according to the terms of the treaties, the ports of Hyogo and Niigata had been opened at this time, the lives of foreigners would have been exposed to still greater danger. In view of these alarming difficulties, the Tokugawa Government decided to send envoys to Europe to ask for the postponement of the dates for opening these ports and for establishing certain con- cessions in Yedo and Osaka. Takenouchi and two other high officials of the Foreign Department were appointed for the mission. Their suite, about thirty- five in number, included three interpreters, three translators, and two physicians of the Chinese school.
Genichiro Fukuchi, who is now a famous dramatist, was one of the interpreters. Besides his travelling expenses, Mr. Fukuzawa received from the government four hundred dollars, the largest sum that had ever found its way into his purse. He sent one hundred dollars of this to his aged mother at Nakatsu, and spent the rest in London purchasing English books. In December, the first year of Bunkyu , the envoys and suite left Japan in a British warship which had been sent to convey them to Flurope.
Supposing that European food would hot suit their taste, they took with them hundreds of boxes of rice. For their accommodation at hotels, they also took dozens of large metal lanterns, various hand-lamps and candles. Dressed in haori and Jiakaina, they each carried two swords, while their hair was tied up in top-knots. How odd all this must have seemed to the citizens of London and Paris! After calling at Hongkong and Singapore, the ship landed its passengers at Suez, whence they crossed to Cairo. With their hearts set upon the European capitals, they crossed the Mediterranean and landed at Marseilles.
Hastening on to Paris, Mr. They then visited in turn London, the Hague, Berlin, St. On the arrival of the party in Paris, some French officials came to meet them. After greet- ings were mutually exchanged, the envoys said to the officials, " We have a large party and a great deal of baggage. We hope that you will allow our attendants to lodge near us. When they went to their appointed hotel, they found that the statement was true. The hotel was a five-storied building with six hundred apartments.
It could accommodate over a thousand guests. The servants numbered over five hundred. At first the Japanese were in constant danger of losing themselves in the hall-ways. Every room was warmed by steam in pipes and illuminated by brilliant gas-lights. In the dining-room every-thing was luxurious, and the Japanese brought the heartiest appetites to well appointed meals. Thus sumptuously entertained, they laughed at their folly in having brought rice, lamps and candles. They had no need to light their own lamps or to boil their rice.
They were puzzled to know what to do with these burdensome things. At last, they gladly disposed of them in the form of a present to one of the French officials. The European nations vied one with another in the cordiality of their reception of the Japanese. The Japanese were given every opportunity to in- spect the army and navy, the manufactories, banks, churches, schools, clubs, and hospitals. They were also invited to the balls and evening parties of the fashionable circles.
But they received the most cor- dial and extensive hospitality from the Dutch, who had been in friendly relations with Japanese for over two centuries. Fukuzawa and the other translators and interpreters who had a knowledge of the Dutch language greatly enjoy their time in the Hague. The party made numerous blunders. On one occasion, some of them ordered the waiter to bring cigars. So bad was their pronunciation that the waiter returned with sugar.
The envoys arranged with the treaty-powers that the opening of the ports of Hyogo and Niigata should be postponed for a period of five years from January, Having thus accomplished their mission, the party returned to Japan in December, This journey through the important countries in Europe proved of inestimable advantage to the Japanese in extending their knowledge.
Fukuzawa, who was thirsting for knowl- edge of Western things, was this the case. When he had visited California, there was not yet a railway in that state. At Suez for the first time he saw a line of railway. Later he found that all the principal cities of Europe were connected by a system of rail- ways. He was greatly surprised at the speed of the trains.
During his previous stay in America, he had carefully observed the manners and customs of Western people, so he now endeavored to gain infor- mation about political, social, and economic condi- tions. He sought to investigate those things which were too familiar to Europeans to need explanation but which were very difficult to study in Japan.
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What was a bank and how was it organized? What were postal regulations? What was a conscription law, an election law, and a legisla- ture? Such were important subjects for him, and some of them were so complicated that it took him a week or so to come to a tolerable comprehension of the terms. Everything he learned he wrote down minutely in a note-book. On his return to Japan, he published these notes in a book called Sciyo Jijo or " Things Western," which was eagerly read throughout the length and breadth of his country.
Indeed no book contributed so much to opening the eyes of his countrymen who had been until then in utter ignorance of European affairs.
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On his return to Japan, Mr. Fukuzawa continued in the service of the Foreign Office. In addition to performing his official duties, he continued indus- triously to write and to teach in his school. Fukuzawa's tour in Europe, the anti-foreign sentiment had reached its height. Foreigners were said to have desecrated the Japanese religion by climbing the sacred mountain Fuji. Numerous per- sons who had learned foreign languages were assassin- ated. On the afternoon of September fourteenth, , Saburo Shimazu, the uncle and guardian of the young prince of Satsuma, with his train and escort, was passing through Namamugi Village, near Kanagawa, in the province of Musashi, on his way home from Yedo.
A riding party consisting of an English lady and three English gentlemen attempted to break- through the line of procession. This act, being quite contrary to feudal etiquette, offended the Satsuma men beyond measure. Suddenly a soldier from the centre of the procession rushed upon the foreigners with a sword and struck Richardson, one of them, a fatal blow. Both the other gentlemen were also wounded, but the lady escaped unhurt. After riding a few rods, Richardson fell from his horse and im- mediately died from the effect of his wound.
The British government, which had hitherto shown good will towards Japan, was highly incensed. The British charge d'affaires, Lieutenant-Colonel Neale, sent a lengthy dispatch to the Japanese government, demanding the capture and punishment of the murderer of Richard- son, and the payment of an indemnity of , by the Shogun's government and of 25, by the Satsuma clan. A decisive answer must be given within twenty days. Fukuzawa and two other translators were called at night to the residence of Matsudaira Iwami-no-Kami, Bugyo of Foreign Affairs, to translate the dispatch.
They were en- gaged all night at the task. How should the govern- ment answer? The authorities as well as the people were filled with fear and anxiety about the conse- quences. Notwithstanding this grave difficulty, the Shogun left for Kyoto to pay homage to the Em- peror. Meanwhile twenty days elapsed. Then the government asked Colonel Neale to wait another twenty days.
After much discussion the request was granted ; but the authorities could not come to any decision. During this time, the whole city of Yedo was in great excitement, and one rumour after an- other arose. It was actually reported that war would break out on a specified day. In this way the day for the answer was repeatedly postponed. To add to the trouble, the French minister intimated to the government that France was in sympathy with Great Britain in the affair in question and that, in the event of war, her warships would join the British warships in Shinagawa Bay. Finally there remained only two days before the answer had to be given.
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Then a proclamation was issued in the city of Yedo to the effect that in case war were declared the event should be signalized by the firing of rockets at the Hania Palace the present Enrydkutan and that at this signal the citizens should prepare for war. At the Egawa drill ground on the beach of Shinsenza, every cannon was put in position with its muzzle towards the bay, in order that it might be fired at a mo- ment's alarm.
The citizens commenced preparations running hither and thither with their belongings. The British squadron then went to Kagoshimato demand the payment of the additional indemnity and the execution of the murderer. Negotiations failed to effect a settlement and the naval force was called upon to play its part. Three new valuable steamers, which the lord of the clan had recently purchased, were captured and burned. The Satsuma men be- came indignant and bombardment ensued. The batteries which lined the shore were dismantled by the British guns ; and the city of Kagoshima was almost completely destroyed by fire.
After this drastic lesson the money demanded was paid and this affair ended, although the murderer was not executed. Meanwhile patriots whose motto was to " revere the Emperor and expel the barbarians " had flocked in great numbers to the Imperial court at Kyoto. The Emperor at last granted Mori, the lord of Choshu, an edict which ordered the expulsion of foreigners.
On the tenth of May, , the Choshu men began to fine upon foreign vessels which at- tempted to pass the Straits of Shimonoseki. Conservative patriots and ignorant rdnins joined his flag, and almost the whole nation was seized with a fanatic enthusiasm. At this moment, the tables were unexpectedly turned. Through the joint influence of the Toku- gawa Government and the lord of Satsuma, the Emperor was compelled to suspend his operations and to drive out of the Imperial city the Choshu men who had persuaded him to undertake the war.
The Bakufu then obtained the Imperial sanction to the commercial treaties which were several years before concluded with the foreign nations. The Bakufu also gained the Imperial permission to chas- tise the Choshu clan as " traitors," and for that pur- pose sent ;i large army to Choshu. Both sides fought with varying success, until the Shogun's death in camp put an end to the war. In December, the second year of Keio , the Emperor Komei died and the present Emperor ascended the throne.
Fukuzawa made a second visit to the United States Several years previous to the time 54 ' I. Bryan, who was then American minister, to purchase two men-of-wai from his govern- ment on behalf of Japan. But what had become of the rest of the money? No intelligence what- ever had come from the government at Washington. The Bakufu, therefore, decided to despatch some del- egates to America to negotiate about the matter.
Tomogoro Ono, Auditor of Finance, Jutaro Matsu- moto, and some other officials were appointed for the mission. Fukuzawa was very anxious to see America once more, he repeatedly called on Ono, president delegate, and offered his services. His offer was accepted. The delegates and their suite set out on their voyage in January, the third year of Keio.
They agreed to receive an iron-clad called " Stonewall " and many thousands of rifles for the money. They returned to Japan in June. During this journey, Mr. Fukuzawa incurred the displeasure of his superiors. Though he was in the service of the Bakufu, he had no sympathy with it. On the contrary, he disliked it on account of its class system, its tyranny, and its conservatism.
The dele- gates were also of conservative and tyrannical prin- ciples, and every step they took offended his pro- gressive ideas. Hence it was natural that he argued with them almost every day. With Shimpachi Seki, an interpreter, and others, he attacked the incapacity and ignorance of the Bakufu authorities, and tvent so far as to say, " Such conservative government must be overthrown sooner or later.
On his return to Japan, he was ordered by the Rugyo of Foreign Affairs to be confined to his res- idence as a punishment for his disobedience. CHAP find that the confinement afforded him leisure and tranquillity. He devoted all his time to teaching in his school and to writing and translation.
He was soon after released and again resumed his official duties at the Foreign Office. But he was not at all satisfied with his position and resolved not to remain long in the service of the Bakufu. AT the time Mr. Fukuzawa returned from America, the Imperial court at Kyoto had steadily in- creased in power until the influence of the Yedo government was broken. The new Shogun Keiki, perceiving the anomaly of the duarchy and foreseeing that his government would not be able to govern Japan, Vequested the Emperor in October, , to take back the supreme power to himself.
This re- quest was immediately granted and the Shogun soon resigned. In December of the same year, Hyogo and Niigata were opened to foreign trade ; and foreign settlements were established in Yedo and Osaka. In the meantime, the Choshu clan had re- gained the favor of the Emperor. Important positions in the new govern- ment were filled by these men ; and the Emperor being still a boy, the real supremacy seemed to be in their hands.
Those clans which were hereditary vassals of Tokugawa regarded this state of things with much dissatisfaction and bitter jealousy. They persuaded the ex-Shogun Keiki to gather together an army to expel the Satsuma and Choshu men from the Imperial capital. On the pretence of paying homage to the Emperor, he started for Kyoto at the head of 30, men. After three days' hard fighting in the neighborhood of Kyoto, the Shogun was totally defeated and he returned to Yedo in a steam corvette.
So bitterly did Keiki regret his undertaking that he was willing to go again to Kyoto to beg the Emperor's pardon. But his retainers would not permit him to do so. They decided upon an effort to restore the power of the Bakufu. Ac- cordingly they held a conference to consider means for the attainment of their object. The Bakufu still had a powerful army, plenty of provisions and arms, and a strong fleet of ships. Thus the Empire was thrown into a state of commotion.
Fukuzawa did not show the least sympathy with either party. He had been promoted to the rank of an immediate vassal of the Bakufu and still retained his position of government translator. Yet he was not in sympathy with the Bakufu, as he was radically opposed to the absolutism and class system that characterized it. Nor did he care to support the Imperialists who were so blindly swept away by anti- foreign spirit. They were so ignorant of affairs in the outside world that they seemed to him incapable of ruling Japan.
Furthermore, he hated from the bottom of his heart both formality and officialism, while he had no ambition to attain political honors. Owing to the existence of Civil War, all negotiations with foreign powers were then suspended. Fukuzawa therefore had no work to do at his office ; but he went almost every day to the Shogun's castle in order to hear the news.
One day he saw Mr. Hiroyuki Kato who was until recently president of the Higher Educational Council at the office. The latter was in court dress. Fukuzawa hailed him saying, " Good morning, Mr. By the way, what will be the out- come of the present affair? I suppose you know well whether war will break out or not. Why, if war is certain to break out, I must pack and leave town ; if not, I can stay here in peace.
Whether or not war will occur concerns me very much ; pray let me know quickly. I have no time to talk such nonsense with you. I am in earnest. My life is at stake. You may fight or make peace as you choose. As for me, the moment war begins, I will run away from town. This was how Mr. Fukuzawa felt on the subject at the time. When the Bakufu offered him a high appointment, he declined it on the pretence of ill- ness ; and at length resigned his post as translator. Furthermore, he abjured his rank of samurai and became a keimin or commoner. At the same time, he declined longer to receive his salary from his clan.
The subject clansmen of the Bakufu were determined to fight to the last, and thus to repay the favors of the founder of the Tokugawa regime. If both armies had fought with their utmost energy and persistence the result of the contest would have been difficult to conjecture. But the ex-Shogun firmly held to his original attitude of respectful submission to the Em- peror, nor would he swerve a hair's breadth from it. In obedience to the counsel of Avva Katsu and Ichio Okubo, his two highest officials, he declared that he would never take up arms against the Emperor, and so he retired to private life.
The Imperial army, al- ready in the southern suburb of the city, was waiting to begin the attack. Katsu met Saigo, assured him of the submissive temper of the ex-Shogun, and begged him to spare the city. But the fanatical retainers of Keiki, unwilling to yield, made the temple grounds of Uyeno their stronghold. On the fifteenth of May, they were attacked and routed, and the magnificient temple, the pride of the city, was laid in ashes. Victory everywhere followed the Mika- do's brocade banner.
By July, the second year of Meiji. In October, the third year of Meiji , the name of Yedo was changed to Tokyo, which literally means the " Eastern Capital"; and the Emperor removed to the castle in the new capital. Soon after the downfall of the Bakufu, Mr. Fukuzawa was offered an appointment by the new government. But he declined the offer. The govern- ment renewed its invitation, offering him this time the post of superintendent of government schools ; but he again declined.
He did so, because his prin- ciples were in direct opposition to those of the new government, which was, in his estimation, quite con- servative and ignorant of the current events of the world. The authorities had, indeed, opened the promised ports to foreign trade, but they had done so under the pressure of foreign powers and against their will. They merely awaited a favorable oppor- tunity to expel foreigners and to close the country. Naturally he had no inclination to enter into the service of such a govern- ment. He had good grounds for his opinion of the new government. Etiquette required that he be granted an audience by Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress at the palace.
Foreigners were then considered unclean barbarians and the authorities were unwilling to admit one of them to the palace. So, before the prince entered the palace gate, they caused a religious ceremony of purification to be performed on his person, in order, as they sup- posed, to cleanse him of all uncleanness. This cere- mony naturally elicited from foreign residents in the country both indignation and ridicule. Portman, then acting American minister, reported it to the Washing- ton government under the heading of "A Purification of the Duke of Edinborough.
Here is an instance. The other day when the British Imperial prince 'was granted an audience by the Emperor, a Shinto rite of purification was performed on his body. Since the invention of the art of mak- ing paper, paper has been substituted for water. Some pieces of paper called gohfi are waved over unclean things for the same purpose.
When told of this report by Shimpachi Seki, an interpreter in the American legation, Mr. Fukuzawa felt like crying for regret and mortification. At about this time, Seward, formerly secretary of state of the United States, visited Japan with his daughter. He was a celebrated statesman who exerted himself much for the emancipation of the American slaves. He had warm sympathy towards Japan before he visited the country ; but now that he witnessed the actual state of things in Japan, all his sympathy chilled and vanished.
He even said, " I am sorry to say that a nation with such prej- udices and dispositions will not be able to preserve its independence. Fukuzawa saw with keen insight that. It was the root of every possi- bility, either of good or of evil. He determined to devote all his energies to this fundamental popular education. With this object in view, he extended his school and at the same time devoted all his spare time and energy to the work of translation and writ- ing. His school has since developed into the present Keio Gijuku, one of the largest, most progressive and best known educational institutions of modern Japan.
The services rendered by his school and by his books to the formation of the New Japan will be described in the following two chapters. In those days, every ambitious man was eager to get an official appoint- ment ; but Mr. Fukuzawa was never affected with the mania. He preferred quietly to continue his work as educator and as author, vocations which were then among the most unattractive. This shows clearly how far-sighted and how great he was.
Afterwards the government became impressed with the folly of trying to return to the ancient policy of seclusion, and finally adopted progressive principles. Fukuzawa had no inclination to enter into government service. They were generally low in character ; they lacked private virtues and behaved with licen- tiousness. His nature did not permit him to act in cooperation with them. In the conflict between the Imperialists and the Bakufu, most Bakufu vassals had made great show of loyalty to the Tokugawa family; but when the Bakufu fell, they at once went over to the new government and hunted for places.
This fact dulled what political ambition he had. Lastly, when the new government was placed on a firm basis, every man, whether scholar or soldier, peasant or merchant, was anxious to get a position in it. Government service became the centre of ambition, and very few persons had the slightest idea of in- dependence and individuality. This was an unavoid- able result of the Confucian system of education. Fukuzawa perceived the vital necessity of inculcating in the masses of the people the essential principle that the independence of a nation consists in the in- dependent spirit of the individuals composing it.
This is what so remarkably distinguished him from his contemporaries. At this point, it is appropriate to refer to the great personal danger to which Mr. Fukuzawa was long and constantly exposed. It has already been stated that ignorant and conservative people wanted to close Japan against foreigners who were regarded as unclean barbarians. They not only hated foreigners, but they also extreme- ly hated scholars of progressive ideas, especially persons versed in Western learning, whom they called " traitors. Among those persons who had acquired a knowledge of Western conditions and customs, the victims of assassination were specially numerous.
During the years 74, such persons were at the constant risk of assassination. Some intimate friends of Mr. Fukuzawa had been attacked by ignorant ronins, and he himself who was also regarded as a traitor was always in the dread of assassination. So during these years, he managed to avoid going out at night ; and whenever he was obliged to travel, he assumed a false name in order to conceal his identity. On his return voyage, a storm arose and the ship in which he sailed was obliged to stop at a harbor.
Imagine his surprise to find that the harbor was Murotsu in Choshu, which was so notorious for its anti-foreign sentiment! The ship stayed there a few days. One day he went ashore and visited a barber's shop. The barber spoke zealously about the necessity of overthrowing the Bakufu and expelling foreigners from the country. Children playing thereabout were loudly singing a song in which similar sentiments were expressed.
Soldiers, variously clad and with guns on their shoulders, deported themselves very haughtily in the streets. If his identity had been betrayed, he might have been killed by them on the spot. But his assumption of a false name saved him from such an unhappy fate. In the third year of Meiji , Mr. Fukuzawa again visited Nakatsu for the purpose of bringing to Tokyo his aged mother and his young niece. The residents of Nakatsu, who were of anti-foreign prejudices, entertained extreme hatred towards him, and some of them even awaited a convenient oppor- But he had at the time no knowledge of their intention ; so he stayed there for some time.
A cousin of his by the name of Sotaro Masuda was among those who cherished designs against his life. Fukuzawa and Masuda had during their boyhood been intimate playmates ; but the latter had since become a very conservative patriot. He afterwards joined General Saigo in his so-called " rebellion " and fell at Kagoshima. Masuda had determined to assassinate Mr. In order to execute his purpose, he one night proceeded with a sword to Mr. As he secretly watched through a window, he observed Mr.
Fukuzawa, quite ignorant of danger, pleasantly- talking over sake with a certain Hattori. The would-be assassin waited and waited for the departure of the visitor ; but they both drank and talked until the small hours. Masuda at length tired of waiting, abandoned his purpose and departed. The night before embarkment, Mr. Fukuzawa with his mother and niece lodged at an inn at Unoshima Harbor, three miles west of Nakatsu. The innkeeper, who shared the views of Masuda, also desired the death of Mr.
At a signal given by the inn- keeper, these young men came, sword in hand, and surrounded the inn. Fukuzawa was indeed at the " Jaws of Death," though he knew not of it. But curiously enough, as the assassins were about to enter the house, they had a difference as to who should strike the first blow. Each contended for the bloody honor and a stormy dispute ensued. While they were quarreling, day broke ; so they gave up their murderous intention and went away.
Fukuzawa was so much at the risk of as- sassination, that in his residence at Mita a special place of concealment was provided. Part of the floor was built higher than was usual and underneath it was a hiding-place, wherein he intended in case of danger to conceal himself. IT has already been narrated how Mr. Fukuzawa began, in the winter of the first year of Ansei. In , on his return from America, he gave up teaching Dutch and began instead to teach English.
At this time, excitement was running high throughout the Empire over the fanatic proposal to expel foreigners ; and advocates of Western learning were in consequence at the constant risk of assassination. Fuku- zawa continued to teach with calmness. The Bakufu university " Shoheiko " and every other school, government or private, had gone out of existence with the single exception of his school. In Decem- ber, , Teppozu was made a foreign settlement: During his second visit to the United States, Mr. Fukuzawa had bought as many English books as his allowance from the Bakufu permitted, these being many dictionaries of different kinds and a large number of works on geography, history, law, political economy, mathematics, and other branches of learning.
The students each enjoyed the privilege of borrowing these books which were the very first copies imported to Japan. Owing to these circumstances, the students steadily increased in number. Fukuzawa, who traveled to America in as part of the first Japanese Embassy and then toured numerous European countries in as a translator on the first Japanese Embassy to Europe, diligently noted every aspect of Western commerce, industry, society and politics he thought might be of use to Japan.
Steeped in feudalism, this view taught that every person has a fixed, defined role in a hierarchical society: Neo-Confucianism held that there was once a golden age of the sages from which society had fallen and to which it should aspire to return. Fukuzawa overthrew all of this with a revolutionary, skeptical style of inquiry that assumed no pre-ordained systems, only an ongoing dynamic of societal evolution to which the Japanese had woefully closed their eyes while the Western world progressed.
One of the greatest flowerings of this revolution in thought happened in the field of literature. Yet there was to be a sting in the tail. From the s, Fukuzawa grew increasingly fearful of the imperialistic designs of Western nations and began to prioritize the strengthening of the nation state over individual liberty as a necessary expedient of the age. The surge in nationalism in the late 19th century led more conservative thinkers to seize the moment by penning in the Imperial Rescript on Education, a document that called for Japanese students to abide by just the Confucian virtues of loyalty and blind obedience that Fukuzawa had spent his life denouncing.
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