The first four registers r0-r3 a1-a4 are used to pass argument values into a subroutine and to return a result value from a function. They may also be used to hold intermediate values within a routine but, in general, only between subroutine calls. A subroutine must preserve the contents of registers r4-r8, r10, r11 and the SP.
Assembly Language Programming : ARM Cortex-M3 - Catalog - UW-Madison Libraries
This can be done on the stack with push and pop operations. Keep in mind that there is additional overhead to call, pass arguments, and return from a function as opposed to inline code. Short function calls may not make sense once you consider this additional overhead. The classical argument for assembly language programming is that will produce more efficient code. In most cases, more speedup will typically be obtained by concentrating the development effort on improving the algorithms used in an application.
Its use continues to decline every year as compilers improve and processors become faster and cheaper, at the same time as labor costs for software development increase. While it is possible to try ARM assembly language programming on the mbed module, it is not the ideal environment to learn assembly language. A debugger that allows single stepping of instructions, breakpoints, and that can display register contents is really needed for anyone new to assembly language.
A software emulator that simulates the execution of assembly language programs on a desktop computer is really the ideal environment for students learning assembly language. There are some free ARM emulators available, but they do not directly support the mbed LPC hardware configuration. To debug a complex assembly language program, download the free demo version of the Keil Tools ARM emulator.
It is limited to 32K code size, but that should not be a issue. It is seen single stepping through the code. Note the register values on the left and the highlighting of the current instruction in the code window. Here are the basic steps to get started using the Keil uVision tools to debug an assembly language program. Then click yes to include startup code.
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Expand Target in the upper left and right click Source Group 1. Warnings are OK, but fix any errors and rebuild. Then experiment with breakpoints, single step, and watch the code and register display. Click Help for online manuals to explore the more advanced features. After debugging your code, remove the added test code, and move it back to the mbed compiler to try it on real hardware. The free demo version is limited to 32K code size. Mbed applications with networking will be near the max code size supported in the demo version.
One work around would be to debug the application without the networking features first and then move back to the online compiler for networking. Printf also requires quite a bit of code. In addition to the application note, be sure to download the example code project setup files provided with the application note for mbed.
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These files will be needed to setup an initial project. Recent changes to the compiler make it a lot easier to setup these project files by just using the compiler's export for Keil uVision feature. You can compile code offline, but the real advantage is the ability to use the emulator to debug complex mbed projects with mbed's API libraries.
The xPSR register; Chapter 3. The Proper Use of Assembly Directives 3. The concept of the directive3. Typographic conventions and use of symbols; 3. Structure of a program; 3. The AREA sections; 3. A section of code; 3. The data section; 3. Reservation with initialization; 3. Memory management directives; 3. Project management directives; 3. Various and varied directives; Chapter 4.
Operands of Instructions; 4. The constant and renaming 4. Operands for common instructions4. Use of registers; 4. The immediate operand; 4. The pointer concept; 4. Addressing modes; Chapter 5. List of possible "condition" suffixes; 5. Logical and bit manipulation instructions; 5. Internal transfer instructions; 5. Access to the system stack 5. Algorithmic and Data Structures; 6.
Flowchart versus algorithm; 6. Simple or shortened alternative; 6. Special case of the alternative; 6. Alternative with AND; 6. Iteration with AND; 6. Alternative with OR; 6. Iteration with OR; 6.
ARM Cortex M3 Assembly Language Example
Table in one dimension 6. Tables in multiple dimensions6. Non-dimensional table, character string; 6. Detailing the concept of procedure; 7.