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Book , Online - Google Books. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a revolution. March 11 to 13, US forces landed to protect American lives and interests during political disturbances. Commodore Matthew Perry and his expedition made a display of force leading to the " opening of Japan ". Commodore Matthew Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa ; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for commerce.
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April 4 to June 17, American and English ships landed forces to protect American interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife. On May 19—21, U. From September 12 to November 4, an American naval force landed to seek reparations for attacks on American residents and seamen. On November 25—29, United States and European naval forces landed to protect American interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.
Panama, Republic of New Grenada: On September 19—22, U. From October 22 to December 6, U. The Mormons and Washington each sought control over the government of the territory, with the national government victorious. The confrontation between the Mormon militia and the U. Army involved some destruction of property, but no actual battles between the contending military forces. April to May, November to December.
In May, Commander Charles Henry Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker , self-proclaimed president of Nicaragua , who was losing control of the country to forces financed by his former business partner, Cornelius Vanderbilt , and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker.
Commodore Hiram Paulding 's act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass , and Paulding was forced into retirement. From January 2 to 27, forces from two United States warships landed to protect American property during a revolution in Montevideo. The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere "to remind the authorities of the Ottoman Empire of the power of the United States.
Apologies were made after a large display of force. From July 31 to August 2, a naval force landed to protect American interests in Shanghai. Angola , Portuguese West Africa: On March 1, American residents at Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives. Colombia, Bay of Panama: From September 27 to October 8, naval forces landed to protect American interests during a revolution. A major war between the United States the Union and eleven Southern states which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America.
July 16, Naval battle of Shimonoseki: From July 14 to August 3, naval forces protected the United States Minister to Japan when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American claims against Japan, and to make his negotiations easier by impressing the Japanese with American power. From September 4 to 14, naval forces of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands compelled Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.
On March 9 and 10, US forces protected the lives and property of American residents during a revolution. The South is divided into five Union occupation districts under the Reconstruction Act. To protect American residents, General Sedgwick and men in November obtained surrender of Matamoros , on the border state of Tamaulipas. After three days he was ordered by US Government to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President. Formosa island of Taiwan: On June 13, a naval force landed and burned a number of huts to punish the murder of the crew of a wrecked American vessel.
February 4 to 8, April 4 to May 12, June 12 and On February 7—8, and 19—26, US forces protected foreign residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo. In April, US forces protected passengers and treasure in transit at Aspinwall during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the President of Colombia. Battle of Boca Teacapan: On June 17 and 18, US forces destroyed the pirate ship Forward , which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Teacapan Estuary in Mexico.
Shinmiyangyo — June 10 to 12, A US naval force attacked and captured five forts to force stalled negotiations on trade agreements and to punish natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for executing the crew of the General Sherman and burning the schooner which in turn happened because the crew had stolen food and kidnapped a Korean official , and for later firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee River. Colombia Bay of Panama: May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9. United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of cattle thieves and other brigands.
From February 12 to 20, detachments from American vessels were landed to protect the interests of Americans living in the Hawaiian Kingdom during the coronation of a new king. On May 18, an American force was landed to police the town of Matamoros , Mexico, temporarily while it was without other government. Lincoln County, New Mexico: July 14 to 18, American forces landed to protect American interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.
January 18 and 19, US forces were used to guard the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during revolutionary activity. June, A naval force was sent ashore to protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected. December 20, A display of force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.
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November 14, to March 20, , US forces were landed to protect American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war. July 30 and 31, US forces at Honolulu protected the interests of Americans living in Hawaii during an American led revolution. A naval party landed to protect US consulate and legation in Buenos Aires. US forces sought to protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.
Bering Sea Anti-Poaching Operations: July 2 to October 5, Naval forces sought to stop seal poaching. US and European naval forces intercepted and detained a shipment of arms sent to the Congressionalist forces in the Chilean Civil War. On July 6, striking miners attacked Pinkerton National Detective Agency agents attempting to break the strike by bringing non-union workers to the mine. Johnson County War April 11 to 13, U. Cavalry sent to break up a gun battle at the TA Ranch.
Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom: January 16 to April 1, Marines landed in Hawaii , ostensibly to protect American lives and property, but many believed actually to promote a provisional government under Sanford B. This action was disavowed by President Cleveland, and the United States apologized in July 6 to August 7, US forces sought to protect American interests at Bluefields following a revolution. Marines were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking for protection purposes during the First Sino-Japanese War.
A naval vessel was beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nationals. July 24, to April 3, , A guard of marines was sent to protect the American legation and American lives and interests at Seoul during and following the Sino-Japanese War. March 8 and 9, US forces protected American interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.
May 2 to 4, US forces protected American interests in Corinto during political unrest. Second Samoan Civil War , a conflict that reached a head in when Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States were locked in dispute over who should have control over the Samoan island chain. November 5, to March 15, , US forces provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son. American and British naval forces were landed to protect national interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the insurrection of Gen.
Philippine—American War , US forces protected American interests following the war with Spain, defeating Filipino revolutionaries seeking immediate national independence. Skirmishes between government troops and armed groups lasted until , and some historians consider these unofficial extensions of the war. From May 24 to September 28, Boxer Rebellion. American troops participated in operations to protect foreign lives during the Boxer uprising, particularly at Peking. For many years after this experience a permanent legation guard was maintained in Peking, and was strengthened at times as trouble threatened.
Colombia State of Panama: From November 20 to December 4. Separation of Panama from Colombia US forces protected American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances. From September 17 to November 18, the United States placed armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.
From March 23 to 30 or 31, US forces protected the American consulate and the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortes during a period of revolutionary activity. From March 30 to April 21, a detachment of marines was landed to protect American interests in the city of Santo Domingo during a revolutionary outbreak. US forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal.
With brief intermissions, United States Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, to January 21, to guard American interests. From January 2 to February 11, American and British naval forces established an area in which no fighting would be allowed and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting. Marines were landed to protect the consul general. From November 17 to 24, U. From September to January 23, , US forces sought to protect interests and re-establish a government after revolutionary activity.
From May 19 to September 4, Occupation of Nicaragua. On January 26, American naval detachments were landed to protect American lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras. As the Tongmenghui -led Xinhai Revolution approached, in October an ensign and 10 men tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being warned away, and a small landing force guarded American private property and consulate at Hankow.
Marines were deployed in November to guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing forces were sent for protection in Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere. A small force landed to prevent seizure by the government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortes. The forces were withdrawn after the United States disapproved the action. Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Panama Canal Zone. From June 5 to August 5, U. From November 18 to December 3, U. From August to November , U.
A small force, serving as a legation guard and seeking to promote peace and stability, remained until August 5, The disorders which began with the overthrow of the dynasty during Kuomintang rebellion in , which were redirected by the invasion of China by Japan, led to demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of U. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained until In , the United States had 5, troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters.
In the United States had 3, armed men ashore. The protective action was generally based on treaties with China concluded from to From September 5 to 7, a few marines landed at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife. January 29 to February 9, February 20 and 21, October In June and July, during a revolutionary movement, United States naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone. Tampico Affair led to Occupation of Veracruz, Mexico.
Also Pancho Villa Expedition — an abortive military operation conducted by the United States Army against the military forces of Francisco "Pancho" Villa from to and included capture of Veracruz. Pershing led an invasion force of 10, men into Mexico to capture Villa. US forces maintained order during a period of chronic political instability.
American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in Nanking. American naval forces maintained order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection. American troops were landed at Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis. Entrance of the United States into the war was precipitated by Germany's submarine warfare against neutral shipping and the Zimmermann Telegram.
Most of the United States armed forces left Cuba by August , but two companies remained at Camaguey until February After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, U. The incident began when German spies plotted an attack with Mexican soldiers on Nogales Arizona. The fighting began when a Mexican officer shot and killed a U. A full-scale battle then ensued, ending with a Mexican surrender. Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front.
A joint proclamation of emergency government and neutrality was issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders in July. In August 7, men were landed in Vladivostok and remained until January , as part of an allied occupation force. In September , 5, American troops joined the allied intervention force at the city of Arkhangelsk and remained until June These operations were in response to the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky elements.
Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople. From September 8 to 12, a landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution. On March 14, a landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang. From April 9 to 27, U. Panama and Costa Rica: American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.
From April to November , Marines were landed five times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.
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Different breeds were used for different things, but always met the demands of the handlers. Many roles for dogs in war are obsolete and no longer practiced, but the concept of the war dog still remains alive and well in modern warfare. In ancient times, dogs, often large mastiff- or molosser-type breeds, would be strapped with armor or spiked collars and sent into battle to attack the enemy. This strategy was used by various civilizations, such as the Romans and the Greeks. While not as common as in previous centuries, modern militaries continue to employ dogs in an attack role.
SOCOM forces of the US military still use dogs in raids for apprehending fleeing enemies or prisoners, or for searching areas too difficult or dangerous for human soldiers such as crawl spaces. Prestre proposed using large dogs to kill Japanese soldiers. He convinced the military to lease an entire island in the Mississippi to house the training facilities.
There the army hoped to train as many as two million dogs. The idea was to begin island invasions with landing craft releasing thousands of dogs against the Japanese defenders, then followed up by troops as the Japanese defenders scattered in confusion. One of the biggest problems encountered was getting Japanese soldiers to train the dogs with, because few Japanese soldiers were being captured. Eventually, Japanese-American soldiers volunteered for the training. Another large problem was with the dogs; either they were too docile, did not properly respond to their beach crossing training, or were terrified by shellfire.
After millions of dollars were spent with inconclusive results, the program was abandoned. The Soviet Union used dogs for anti-tank purposes beginning in the s. Earlier anti-tank dogs were fitted with tilt-rod mines and trained to run beneath enemy tanks, which would detonate the mines automatically. However, the dogs were trained with stationary Russian tanks and very seldom ran under the moving tanks, instead they were shot as they ran beside the moving tanks.
When both Russian and German tanks were present, the dogs would preferentially run towards the familiar Russian tanks.
About the time World War I broke out, many European communities used dogs to pull small carts for milk deliveries and similar purposes. The French had dogs at the start of World War I. The Dutch army copied the idea and had hundreds of dogs trained and ready by the end of World War I the Netherlands remained neutral.
Dogs were often used to carry messages in battle. They would be turned loose to move silently to a second handler. This required a dog that was very loyal to two masters, otherwise the dog would not deliver the message on time or at all. Some messenger dogs also performed other communication jobs, such as pulling telephone lines from one location to another. Dogs were often used as unit mascots for military units. The dog in question might be an officer's dog, an animal that the unit chose to adopt, or one of their canines employed in another role as a working dog.
Some naval dogs such as Sinbad and Judy were themselves enlisted service members. Some units also chose to employ a particular breed of dog as their standard mascot, with new dogs replacing the old when it died or was retired. The presence of a mascot was designed to uplift morale , and many were used to this effect in the trenches of World War I. An example of this would be Sgt. Stubby for the US Army. In World War II, dogs took on a new role in medical experimentation, as the primary animals chosen for medical research. The United States' government responded by proclaiming these dogs as heroes.
The Cold War sparked a heated debate over the ethics of animal experimentation in the U. Many dogs were used to locate mines. They did not prove to be very effective under combat conditions. Marine mine detecting dogs were trained using bare electric wires beneath the ground surface. Once the dog's focus was properly directed, dummy mines were planted and the dogs were trained to signal their presence. While the dogs effectively found the mines, the task proved so stressful for the dogs they were only able to work between 20 and 30 minutes at a time.
The mine detecting war dogs anticipated random shocks from the heretofore friendly earth, making them extremely nervous. Experiments with lab rats show that this trend can be very extreme, in some tests rats even huddled in the corner to the point of starvation to avoid electric shock. Dogs have historically also been used in many cases to track fugitives and enemy troops, overlapping partly into the duties of a scout dog, but use their olfactory skill in tracking a scent, rather than warning a handler at the initial presentation of a scent.
Some dogs are trained to silently locate booby traps and concealed enemies such as snipers. The dog's keen senses of smell and hearing would make them far more effective at detecting these dangers than humans. The best scout dogs are described as having a disposition intermediate to docile tracking dogs and aggressive attack dogs.
This method of scouting is more efficient compared to human senses. Scout dogs were used in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam by the United States to detect ambushes, weapon caches, or enemy fighters hiding underwater, with only reed breathing straws showing above the waterline. The US operated a number of scout dog platoons assigned on a handler-and-dog team basis to individual patrols and had a dedicated dog training school in Fort Benning , Georgia. One of the earliest military-related uses, sentry dogs were used to defend camps or other priority areas at night and sometimes during the day.
They would bark or growl to alert guards of a stranger's presence. During the Cold War , the American military used sentry dog teams outside of nuclear weapons storage areas.
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A test program was conducted in Vietnam to test sentry dogs, launched two days after a successful Vietcong attack on Da Nang Air Base July 1, The detection of intruders resulted in a rapid deployment of reinforcements. The test was successful, so the handlers returned to the US while the dogs were reassigned to new handlers. The Air Force immediately started to ship dog teams to all the bases in Vietnam and Thailand.